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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Zambia South Africa
First posted in April 2002, last revised on November 25th 2013







History of Moçambique : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
1505-1752 . 1752-1880 . 1880-1975 . Since 1975



1505-1752
At the time of Vasco da Gama's exploration of East Africa's coast, the ports of Sofala, Quelimane and Moçambique were thriving; Sofala was the outlet of the Mwanamutapa Kingdom in the interior (in modern Zimbabwe) which exported gold.
In 1505 the Portuguese occupied the city of Moçambique and established a factory in Sofala. In order to exclude Swahili traders from the Mwanamutapa gold trade, the Portuguese established trading posts at Sena and Tete on the Zambezi river (1531) and in Quelimane (1544). Several attempts to conquer Mwanamutapa (1569-1572, 1574) failed; in the early 17th century the Portuguese managed to gain imnfluence at the court of Mwanamutapa.
Portugal's interest in the East African coast lay in the domination of Mwanamutapa's foreign trade. Portugal's trading posts in East Africa were administrated from Goa (India) until 1752.

1752-1880
In 1752, Portugal's possessions on East Africa's coast were separated from Portuguese India and placed under a Captain General, residing in the city of Mo&cecedil;ambique (which in time gave it's name to the country). The Portuguese began to trade slaves (mainly destined to the French Mascarene islands, Mauritius and Reunion). The Portuguese also introduced corn and the cashew nut, both from the Americas, to Mocambique.
With the loss of Brazil in 1822 and slave trade being outlawed, Portugal's politicians focussed more on their African possessions. The concept of a Portuguese Empire in Africa was formulated in the 1830es and some steps were undertaken to penetrate the country, but the Portuguese hold was not felt much beyond the coast and along the banks of the lower Zambezi river.

1880-1975
During the Scramble for Africa in the 1880es, Portugal had to cede much of the territory it claimed in East Africa to Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company respectively British East Africa Company. But Portugal's claim over Moçambique, at least for the time being, was internationally recognized by the Berlin Conference of 1885.
Moçambique's infrastructure was developed, much with British assistance, for British Central Africa/Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia both depended on railroads and roads connecting these areas with the ports of Beira and Mocambique.
The colony of Moçambique was not yet centralized, communication between the various Portuguese outposts difficult. The individual provinces (Inhambane 1895-1914, Lourenço Marques 1895-1920, Quelimane 1914-1922, Tete (1913-1914), Zambezia (1894-1917) issued their own stamps, as did the Moçambique Company (1892-1942) and the Nyassa Company (1897-1929).
In 1907, the capital was moved from Moçambique to Louren&ccdedil;o Marques (modern Maputo) on the Delagoa Bay. In 1912 slave trade, for long Moçambique's most important trade, was outlawed.
During the prewar years, Germany was interested in extending it's colonial possessions. In 1898 Britain and Germany signed a first agreement concerning Portugal's colonies in Africa. The idea was to partition it into British and German spheres of influence. In 1911 negotiations on the partition were renewed, and concluded in 1913. As the British side insisted on the agreement to be published, and the Germans refused to do so, the agreement was never implemented. The Licango River would have formed the border between both spheres of interest.
In 1914 World War I broke out. Portugal remained neutral. When German East Africa became untenable in 1916, German commander Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck switched to a guerilla strategy. Disregarding Portuguese neutrality, his Askari troops at times took up positions in Northern Moçambique. Portugal found itself at war with Germany. In the peace treaty of Versailles, the small border town of Kionga, formerly German East Africa, was awarded to the Portuguese and incorporated into Moçambique.
After World War I, the administration of the Colony of Moçambique was centralized. Under the Salazar regime, immigration from Portugal increased, plantations established, the infrastructure improved.
Laurenço Marques traditionally had great importance for Transvaal's im- and exports, facilitated by the Pretoria-Lourenço Marques railroad. In 1928 the Moçambique Convention of 1909, regulating these economic ties as well as labour migration from Moçambique to South Africa, was renewed. In 1926 a total of 126,000 Moçambicans worked in South Africa, 96,266 of them in the gold mines.
In 1929, the Portuguese Government assumed the administration of the territories north of the Lurio River, hitherto administrated by the Companha do Nyassa.
In 1941 the charter of the Moçambique Company expired and was not renewed, the Portuguese government taking over the administration of the company's territories. From January 1st 1943, Mocambique was divided in 4 provinces - Sul do Save (Lourenço Marques and Inhambane), Manica and Sofala (ex-Moçambique Co. territory), Zambezia (Quelimane, Tete), Niassa. In 1940 the native population numbered 5,030,179; the 'coloured' non-native population (1945) 60,115, and 31,221 Europeans lived in the colony. In the 1940es, principal export products included timber, sugar, copra, cashew nuts and cotton. Local industries included sugar refining, cotton ginneries, soap and furniture production. During these years, the colony had a balanced budget.
World War II had limited impact on Moçambique, as Portugal stayed neutral and no Axis-held territory was close.
While Britain undertook steps to prepare its colonies for independence, such as granting African representation in parliament and universal adult suffrage, Portugal, continuously under the rightist Salazar regime, had no intention to grant independence to its colonies. Formally, Moçambique had been proclaimed an Overseas Province in 1951.
By 1964, Madagascar (1960), Tanzania (1961/64), Malawi and Zambia (1964) had declared independence and achieved black majority rule. The country's neighbours to the southwest and south, Rhodesia and South Africa, had white minority regimes which excluded the black majority from political participation and which supported Portuguese colonial rule.
The FRELIMO was founded, an organization of independence fighters with a socialist agenda. It was supported by the Soviet Union and its eastern European allies. The Frelimo began a guerilla war which lasted for decades.
In 1972, Moçambique was declared a Self-Governing Province. In 1974 Portugal's aging rightist government was toppled by the Velvet Revolution; in Moçambique, a cease-fire was arranged and preparations were made to release the country into independence.

Since 1975
In 1975, Moçambique became independent. A socialist republic was proclaimed, the capital Lourenço Marques renamed Maputo.
Many of the white settlers left the country. Moçambique permitted the ZANU, ZAPU (rhodesian independence fighters) and the ANC (South African independence fighters) to establish bases on it's territory. South Africa retaliated by providing assistance to the RENAMO, a guerilla force fighting the Frelimo government.
The civil war in Moçambique escalated, at times limiting the government influence to the capital city of Maputo. It caused widespread destruction.
In 1984, Moçambique normalized it's relations to South Africa. Many Moçambicans worked in South Africa's gold mines. The country also began to reprivatize many industries which had been nationalized in the 1970es. In 1992, the civil war was ended by an accord betweem Frelimo and Renamo; multiparty democracy was introduced and free elections were held.








WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
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Organizations
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Timelines from BBC News; from timelines.ws; from crawfurd.dk
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Campanha contra o Maguiguana nos territorios de Gaza em 1897 1898, in Portuguese, IA
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P.D. Lavies, The Sao Sebastiao fortress at Mozambique Island: A testimony of the variety in sixteenth century military architecture, thesis Utrecht 2012
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R.N. Lyne, Mozambique; its agricultural development 1913, IA
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Mozambique, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
Heidi Gengenbach, Binding Memories. Women as Makers and Tellers of History in Magude, Mozambique, diss. Columbia UP n.d.
Ethnography Languages of Mozambique, from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Mozambique, Ethnic Groups in Mozambique, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Mozambique
A. Cabral, Raças, usos e costumes dos indigenas da districto de Inhambane, acompanhado de um vocabulario em shitsua, guitonga e shishope, 1910, in Portuguese, IA
W.H.I. Bleek, The languages of Mosambique. Vocabularies of the dialects of Lourenzo Marques, Inhambane, Sofala, Tette, Sena, Quellimane, Mosambique, cape Delgado, Anjoane, the Maravi, Mudsau, &c. 1856, IA
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Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Mozambique, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Mozambique, from Wikipedia
Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
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Provinces of Mozambique, from www.statoids.com; Districts of Mozambique, from www.statoids.com
C. Testa, A politica intercolonial e internacional e o tratado de Lourenço Marques Additamento a influencia europea na Africa, 1881, in Portuguese, IA
A.F. de Andrade, Colonizaçao de Lourenço Marques 1897, in Portuguese, IA
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Portuguese East Africa Colony 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, Portuguese Overseas Province of Moçambique 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, Republic of Moçambique 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History List of Cities in Mozambique, from Wikipedia
Articles : Maputo (Lourenço Marques), Beira, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Mozambique, from Airline History
Category Rail Transport in Mocambique, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Mozambique
Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS
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Culture & Science Articles Mozambique at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
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Dictionary of African Christian Biography
Environmental History Disaster History : Mozambique, from Relief Web
Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
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My Mission to London 1912-1914, by Prince Lichnowsky, from BYU, on Mocambique chapter 'Colonial Treaty', scroll down

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Lists of Ambassadors
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Institute of Statistics, Moçambique
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile, Mozambique
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1975
Inflation Rate Index Mundi, Mozambique Inflation Rate 1999-2011
Trading Economics, Mozambique Inflation Rate 2009-
Election Results from Psephos (since 2000); from IFES Election Guide
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Documents Historical Newspapers
Historical Newspaper Articles Time Trail Mocambique, series of historical articles from Time Magazine posted on the web by Time Magazine, articles 1964-
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Mozambique, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Online Yearbooks - Moçambique Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Portugal : Colonies 1890, pp.826-828, IA, 1891, pp.830-832, IA, 1892, pp.840-842, IA, 1894, pp.841-843, IA, Dependencies 1895, pp.841-843, IA, 1896, pp.841-843, IA, 1898, pp.839-842, IA, 1899, pp.890-893, IA, 1903, pp.976-980, IA, 1913, pp.1156-1160, IA, 1919, pp.1163-1167, IA, 1921, pp.1201-1206, IA
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Distrito do Inhambane, Relatorio do Governador, 1906-1907, IA
Newsreels
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections The Crawfurd Homepage, Photos from Africa 1937
Universal Collections
Items on Moçambique
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Mozambique
Video Documentaries
Radio Clips
Archival Deposits
Laws Boletim do Conselho Ultramarino: legislaçao novissima vol.1 1867, vol.4 1869, GB
South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Mozambique etc.)
Reorganizacao dos servicos administrativos da provincia de Mocambique 1907, IA
Treaty Collections Pertaining to Mozambique
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Historiography
Document Collections Bullarium patronatus Portugalliae regum in ecclesiis Africae, Asiae atque Oceaniae vol.1 : 1171-1600 1868, vol.2 : 1601-1700 1870, GB
G. McCall Theal (ed.), Records of South-Eastern Africa: Collected in Various Libraries and Archive Departments in Europe vol.1 1898, vol.2 1898, vol.5 1901, vol.6 1900, vol.7 1901, vol.8 1902, vol.9 1903, IA
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Individual Documents
Historical Maps responsible institutions National Directorate for Mapping and Cadastre (DINAGECA) National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Moçambique Mozambique Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Mozambique, Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection : Mozambique
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
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Africa 1909, World Maps Online
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Africa 1913, Zonu
Moçambique, Modern
Moçambique, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 45. Livingstonia 1885, 45. Livingstonia 1888, 45. Livingstonia 1893, 46. Kiloua 1885, 46. Kiloua 1889 46. Kiloua 1893, 50. Tete 1884, 50. Tete 1890, 50. Tete 1893, 51. Quilimane 1884, 51. Quilimane 1889, 51. Quilimane 1892, 55. Pretoria 1882, 55. Pretoria 1896, 55. Pretoria 1899, Gallica
U.S. Army Map Service, East Africa 1:250,000, 1958-; series SD, SE, SF cover the northern parts of Moçambique. Only a part of the maps are accessible online.
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheet 28 Dar es Salaam (1969), sheet 31 Salisbury (1970), sheet 33 Windhoek (1969), sheet 34 Johannesburg (1970), PCL, UTexas
Portuguese East Africa 1906, 1922, Mozambique 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Portuguese East Africa, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Religious Article : Portuguese East Africa, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Economic Portuguese East Africa pp.338-339 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Geographical
Ethnographical E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Delagoa Bay pp.216-221, Portuguese Possessions North of the Limpopo pp.221-235; Mozambique - Portuguese Possessions North of the Zambezi pp.281-301
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Historical
Tour Guides J.F. Ingram, The land of gold, diamonds and ivory; being a comprehensive handbook and guide to the colonies, states and republics of South and East Africa 1889, IA, A peep at East Africa, Delagoa Bay pp.175-181
Travelogues
Residence Memoirs
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Institutions Archives Historical Archives of Mozambique, from ArchivesWiki
Musea
Monuments
Libraries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms (Emblem), from Wikipedia
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Coin Catalog of Mozambique, from Numismaticon; Mozambique Coins, from World Coin Gallery; Search Coin Archives for Portuguese East Africa, Mozambique
Stamps

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Moçambique survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.219-300 in M. Azevedo, E. Nnadozie, T.M. Joao, Historical Dictionary of Mozambique, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2003 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Bibliografia Tematica sobre Moçambique, from Imigrantes, Portuguese site
serial publications
general bibliographies
Moçambique entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Mocambique-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
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on Mocambique Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Biblioteca Digital, Memorias de Africa e do Oriente
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories : Mozambique
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals full text online Directory of Open Access Journals
Table of Contents
Online
General Accounts
Specific Topics Jonathan Crush, Cheap Gold : Mine Labour in Southern Africa, pp.172-177 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Shubi L. Ishemo, Forced Labour and Migration in Portuguese African Colonies, pp.162-165 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Chapter 29 : Portuguese Africa, pp.585-601, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
The Mozambican Insurgency, 1975-1992, pp.126-151 in : John W. Turner, Continent Ablaze. The Insurgency Wars in Africa, 1960 to the Present, London : Cassell 1998
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Portuguese Dependencies, 1913 pp.1125 [G]
Portuguese Colonial Empire, 1945 pp.560-561, 1946 pp.591-592, 1947 p.614, 1948 p.600, 1949 pp.532-533, 1950 p.558, 1951 p.565 [G]
Portuguese Overseas Territories, 1952 p.567, 1953 p.575, 1954 pp.574-575, 1955 pp.623-624, 1956 pp.561-562, 1957 pp.624-625, 1958 pp.557-559, 1959 pp.556-557, 1960 pp.557-558, 1961 pp.569-570, 1962 pp.558-561, 1963 pp.662-664, 1964 pp.677-678 [G]
Colonies and Other Dependences, 1965 p.255, 1966 pp.205-206, 1967 pp.220-221, 1968 pp.218-219 [G]
Dependent States : Mozambique, 1969 pp.273, 280, 1970 pp.273, 276, 280-281, 1971 pp.263, 266, 270-271, 1972 pp.238, 242, 1973 pp.228-229, 233-234, 1974 pp.244-245, 250 [G]
Dependent States, 1975 pp.228-229 [G]
Mozambique, 1976 pp.530-531, 1977 pp.530-531, 1978 pp.560-561, 1979 pp.549-550, 1980 pp.647-648, 1981 pp.550-551, 1982 p.551, 1983 p.543, 1984 pp.543-544, 1985 pp.470-471, 743, 1986 pp.464, 741, 1988 pp.394, 662, 1989 pp.393-394, 663, 1990 pp.411, 678, 1993 pp.365-366, 675, 1994 pp.364, 676, 1995 pp.447, 675 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Portugal : Dependencies : Moçambique, 1895 pp.841-843, 1898 pp.839-842, 1901 pp.938-942, 1905 pp.1019-1023, 1910 pp.1120-1121 [G]
Mozambique (Portuguese East Africa), 1919 pp.1165-1167, 1924 pp.1222-1224, 1925 pp.1230-1232, 1926 pp.1192-1194, 1928 pp.1226-1228, 1929 pp.1203-1205, 1932 pp.1222-1224, 1937 pp.1254-1256 [G]
Moçambique, 1943 pp.1201-1203 [G]
Portugal : Moçambique, 1970-1971 pp.1261-1262 [G]
Moçambique, 1975-1976 pp.1265-1266 [G]
Mozambique, 1978-1979 pp.864-866, 1980-1981 pp.873-875, 1983-1984 pp.870-872, 1984-1985 pp.869-872, 1985-1986 pp.870-873, 1987-1988 pp.874-877, 1988-1989 pp.876-879, 1989-1990 pp.884-887, 1990-1991 pp.885-888, 1991-1992 pp.887-890, 1992-1993 pp.975-978, 1993-1994 pp.974-977, 1994-1995 pp.973-976, 1995-1996 pp.970-973, 1996-1997 pp.923-926, 1997-1998 pp.930-933, 1998-1999 pp.998-1002, 2000 pp.1135-1139, 2001 pp.1107-1112, 2002 pp.1154-1159, 2003 pp.1154-1159, 2004 pp.1158-1163, 2005 pp.1165-1169 [G]
Americana Annual Mozambique (Portuguese East Africa), 1927 pp.578-579, 1928 p.541, 1930 pp.535-536, 1931 p.512, 1932 p.484, 1933 p.513, 1934 p.390, 1935 p.472, 1936 p.472, 1937 p.467, 1938 p.452, 1939 p.518, 1940 p.521 [G]
Mozambique, 1943 p.501, 1944 p.473 [G]
Portuguese Colonial Empire - Mozambique, 1945 p.591, 1946 pp.613-614 [G]
Portuguese Colonial Empire, 1947 pp.576-577 [G]
Portuguese Territories - Mozambique, 1957 pp.637-638, 1961 pp.604-605 [G]
Portuguese Territories, 1962 pp.610-612, 1963 pp.541-543, 1964 pp.538-539 [G]
Mozambique, 1971 p.484, 1972 p.483, 1973 p.485, 1974 p.78, 1976 pp.69, 401, 1989 p.379, 1990 p.37, 1992 p.377, 1993 p.377, 1994 p.377 [G]
Other Article : Delagoa Bay, in : International Year Book 1898 p.259 [G]
Article : East Africa, Portuguese, in : International Year Book 1898 p.277 [G]
Article : Cape Colony and South Africa - Lourenço Marques, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 p.107 [G]
Article : East Africa - Portuguese East Africa, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 p.248 [G]
South and East African Year Book and Guide, 49th edition, 1949, pp. 857-866 [G]
History of Portuguese East Africa, p.14; Portuguese East Africa - Moçambique pp.114-124, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]