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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
South Africa Botswana
First posted in April 2002, Last revised on June 8th 2011

History of Namibia : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

until 1884 . 1884-1919 . 1920-1945 . 1945-1990

Precolonial History
The territory the borders of which were drawn by the German colonial power in 1884/1890, which was called Deutsch-Südwestafrika by them, Southwest Africa under South African rule and renamed Namibia then, in a country largely covered by desert, the Namib desert along the Atlantic coast and the Prenamib further inland, which blends into the Kalahari desert of Botswana.
The earliest known inhabitants were the Khoisan, of which the Nama still settle there. Two Bantu tribes immigrated relatively recently, the Herero in the 16th century, the Ovambo around 1800. On early maps, the region is referred to as the Kingdom of Mataman.
The Portuguese explored the coastline in the late 15th century. They left their mark by naming some places, but showed little interest in the inhospitable region. >BR> In 1793, Cape Dutch claimed Walvisbaai, a claim which was ceded to the British two years later. However, the British Colonial Office, at that time, regarded this outpost not worth the expense. English and German missionaries took up their activities in the 1830es respectively 1840es. The British declared Walvis Bay a British possession in 1878, administrated from the Cape Colony.

German Southwest Africa, 1884-1919
German missionaries first became active in the area in the 1840es. In 1883, German businessman A.E. Lüderitz acquired a land concession at Angra Pequena. In 1884 the German government declared a protectorate, which at the Berlin Conference of 1885 was extended to cover the core of what is Namibia today, leaving out the exclave of Walvisbaai on which Britain produced an older claim. The protectorate/colony was called Deutsch-Südwestafrika (German South West Africa), with the capital at Otjimbingwe (1885), since 1891 at Windhuk (founded 1890). The sparsely populated colony attracted German settlers, 3,700 by 1903, 13,000 by 1910.
In 1890, German minister of foreign affairs Caprivi acquired (from Britain) a stretch of land along the Angolan-Bechuana border, the Caprivi strip, to give German South West Africa access to the Zambezi river. The fact is that the German stretch of Zambezi bank is far upstream, above the Victoria falls, at a river stretch which is not navigable.
In 1903, the Nama (also referred to as Hottentots) rose in revolt, under their leader Hendrik Witbooi. In 1904 the Herero Revolt broke out. The German military crushed it mercilessly, driving the Herero into the Kalahari desert (i.e. across the border into British Bechuanaland), where ca. 80% of them perished. Military operations continued until 1907. Diamonds were found in 1908. World War I broke out in 1914; in 1915 German South West Africa was occupied by South African forces.

Mandate of Southwest Africa, 1920-1945
In 1915, German South West Africa was occupied by South African Forces. The League of nations in 1920 officially granted the Union of South Africa a Mandate to administrate the former German colony. In 1919 the Caprivi Strip was integrated into British Bechuanaland. In 1926 a Legislative Assembly was established.
During the mandate period, Afrikaans became the lingua franca of Southwest Africa, today spoken by c.70 % of the population. The spelling of capital Windhuk was adopted to Afrikaans pronunciation, to Windhoek.
With South African rule came immigration from South Africa. The German community stayed in the country; the Afrikaners, new white immigrants and Germans seem to have got along well. Settler mentality favoured racial segregation, as in South Africa. Adolf Hitler found supporters in South West Africa; a square in Windhoek was named Adolf-Hitler-Platz, a curiosity, as it is one of the few places named after him which kept the name after World War II ended.

Mandate of Southwest Africa/Namibia, 1945-1990
World War II had limited impact on South West Africa. In 1946 the League of Nations was dissolved, the United Nations were established as her successor; the U.N. was now responsible for the mandates. The Union of South Africa applied for the mandated territory of Southwest Africa to be incorporated in her territory; the United Nations denied the request.
When South Africa found itself internationally isolated because of it's Apartheid policy, the same also applied for South West Africa. In 1966 the United Nations decided to revoke the UN mandate and in 1968 to adopt the name 'Namibia'. South Africa, meanwhile, chose to ignore UN decisions on South West Africa. In 1966, SWAPO (South West African People's Organization) was founded.
South Africa was not interested in extending the franchise to the non-white population - as the United Nations was pressing for in the mandated territories - and neither interested in releasing the country into independence. South African apartheid policy was also adapted in South West Africa, Homelands were created.
In the 1970es, the SWAPO liberation movement undertook guerilla actions, operating from bases in southern Angola. South Africa retaliated by raiding Southern Angola from South West Africa, and by supporting the UNITA in Angola's civil war.
In the 1980es it became evident that apartheid could not be upheld and the economic sanctions on South Africa had an impact. South West Africa was renamed into Namibia, universal adult suffrage and multiparty democracy were introduced, elections held in 1989 (won by SWAPO) and in 1990 Namibia was released into independence. The Caprivi Strip (1890-1919 part of Deutsch-Südwestafrika, since then technically part of Bechuanaland/Botswana) was reintegrated into Namibia.

Historical Atlas, Namibia Page

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia; from ISS Article : Namibia, from Wikipedia
Background Notes : Namibia, from U.S. State Department
Vantaa City Museum, Namibia www-Exhibition
Historical Comite de l'Afrique française, Les Colonies allemandes d'Afrique d'après les rapports consulaires anglais 1916, Gallica
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; Category : Namibia, from Wikipedia
South Africa Page, from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Namibia, from Wikipedia
German Colonial History, from Economy-Point (articles in weird English; seemingly translated from German by translation engine; a good number on Namibian history)
Organizations National Heritage Council of Namibia
Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
SWAPO Archive and Research Centre
Ovaherero Genocide Association, U.S.A.
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
Historical Dictionaries P.E. Raper, Dictionary of Southern African Placenames n.d.
Timelines from BBC News; from timelines.ws; from Embassy of Namibia in Sweden
Klaus Dierks, Chronology of Namibian History (2005)
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Namibia, from Kirken i Norge
Namibia : Corruption Timeline, from Global Integrity
Chronology of Major Events, from Home of the Southern African San
History of Namibia, from IIASA Population Project
German South West Africa Timeline 1844-1920, from The World at War
Accounts of History Modern History of Namibia, from Wikipedia; from History World; Namibian History (anonymous)
G. Loxton, Africa on a Global Stage : Namibia
Specific Periods EISA : Stone Age to Early Iron Age (160,000 BP to 1400 CE) (2009)
EISA : Late Iron Age (c.1400-1800 CE) (2009)
EISA : Migrations, Missionaries and Traders (1800-1884) (2009)
EISA : German Annexation and African Resistance (1884-1915) (2009)
EISA : South African Mandate (1915-1945) (2009)
EISA : Apartheid, resistance and repression (1945-1966) (2009)
EISA : South African Occupation and the Struggle for Liberation (1966-1977) (2009)
EISA : The Long Road to Independence (1977-1990) (2009)
EISA : President Nujoma's first two Terms (1990-1999) (2009)
EISA : President Nujoma's third Term (1999-2004) (2009)
Presidency of Hifikepunye Pohamba (2004-2009) (2009)
Politics Politics of Namibia, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Namibia; Governments on the WWW : Namibia
Category : Elections in Namibia, from Wikipedia
Entry Namibia, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
P. Conway, Truth and Reconciliation - the Road not Taken in Namibia
DADM : South Africa/Namibia 1920-1990, Namibia/Caprivi Strip 1994-present
H.G. Geingob, State Formation in Namibia: Promoting Democracy and Good Governance, thesis Leeds 2004
  L. Dobell, The Ulenga Moment : SWAPO and Dissent, Southern Africa Report Archive 14/1 1998
H. Hendrix, Namibia and the Netherlands. 350 years of relations 1999
H. Masemola, An Analysis and Appraisal of Restructuring in SADCC/SADC since 1990, thesis Univ. of South Africa 2005
Military Article : Namibian War of Independence, from Wikipedia
Wars of Namibia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Namibia, from ODM
Category : Military History of Namibia, from Wikipedia
Edwin Herbert, The Attack on Namutoni Fort, (SWA 1904), posted by Victorian Military Society
R.C. Owen, Counterrevolution in Namibia (1987-1988)
G. Dzinesa and M. Rupiya, Promoting national reconciliation and regional integration: The Namibian Defence Force from 1990-2005 , ch.8, in M. Rupiya (ed.), Evolutions and Revolutions, A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ISS 2005
J. Bridgman, The Revolt of the Hereros, 1981, GB
C.J. Nöthling, Military Chronicle of South-West Africa (1915-1988)
Die grossen Aufstaende in Deutsch-Suedwestafrika und Deutsch-Ostafrika 1904-1907, by Hauke Haien (in German, scholarly essay)
War and Rebellion in Southern Angola, 1914-1916, from Colonial Warfare in Portuguese Africa, 1846-1918 by Nuno B. Pereira
The Colonial Wars of Imperial Germany, by Paul Beck, from Savage and Soldier Online
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Herero War, 1904-1907, Namibia 1966-1990
Economy & Finances Global History of Currencies : Namibia; Tables of Modern Monetary History : Africa, from www.dollarization.org, scroll down for Namibia
Category : Economy of Namibia, from Wikipedia
Diamond Mines of the World : Namibia, has chapter on history; History of Mining on the Namibian Coast, from Diamond Fields; Brief History of Marine Mining on the South African West Coast, from Pandamarine
History, of Chamber of Mines in Namibia
History of the Namibian Stock Exchange
List : Important Companies in the History of Namibia, by Klaus Dierks
Global Integrity : Namibia 2004, Namibia 2007
Ovambo Smelting Video (1937), from UKC Student Project
Social History South Africa, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
J. Nyambe, J. Griffiths, Deconstructing educational dependency : Insights from a Namibian college of teacher education, 2010
History of NAFWU, Namibian Farm Workers Union
F.J.T. Lee, Apartheid in South West Africa, International Socialist Review 1965
A. Botes, The History of Labour Hire in Namibia : A Lesson for South Africa 2013
Overseas Advising and Admissions - Credential Evaluation Liaison Link Project, Information on Education Systems Around the World Namibian Educational Profile
Ethnography General Languages of Namibia (29), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Namibia, from Wikipedia
Namibia : Basters, East Caprivians, Europeans, San Bushmen, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Namibia
from IIASA Population Project
Racism in Southern Africa : South Africa and Namibia, UNESCO 1974
Neueste Deutsche Forschungen in Süd-Africa, von Karl Mauch, Hugo Hahn und Richard Brenner 1866 und 1867, pp.281-311 in Mittheilungen aus Justus Perthes' geographischer Anstalt, 1867, in German, GB
Die Völkerstämme in Südafrika, pp.78-234 in G.E. Burkhart, Kleine Missions-Bibliothek: Amerika, Afrika, 1868, in German, GB
C.A. Williams, Exile History : An Ethnography of the Swapo Camps and the Namibian Nation, thesis Univ. of Michigan 2009
Institutionalized Ethnicity : Namibia
Rehoboth Basters The Rehoboth Basters : a History, from Namibia 1on1; from Namibia Travel Net Nation- and Image Building by the Rehoboth Basters, by Jeroen Zandberg (2005)
Damara, Namaqua Th. Hahn, Die Buschmänner, pp.65-68 in vol.18 of Globus, 1870, in German, GB
Die Hottentotten, pp.317-346 in vol.2 of T. Waitz, Anthropologie der Naturvölker, 1860, in German, GB
J. Hahn, Gegenwärtiges Verhältnis der Namaqua zu den Herero, pp.468-470 in Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1870, in German, GB
H. Tindall, A grammar and vocabulary of the Namaqua-Hottentot language, 1858, GB
Damaraland, Great Namaqualand, p.668 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Herero World Culture Encyclopedia : Herero
Article Herero and Namaqua Genocide, from Wikipedia
J. Silvester, W. Hillebrecht, C. Erichsen, The Herero Holocaust - The Disputed History of the 1904 Genocide, posted on Namib Web
Heynes McFadden, Herero History
L. Förster, Land and landscape in Herero oral culture: Cultural and social aspects of the land question in Namibia 2005
Die Herero in Süd-Afrika und ihre Nachbarvölker, pp.349-352 in vol.4 of Petermann's Geographische Mitteilungen, 1859, in German, GB
J. Hahn, Gegenwärtiges Verhältnis der Namaqua zu den Herero, pp.468-470 in Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1870, in German, GB
Ovambo Gwyneth Davies, The Medical Culture of the Ovambo of Southern Angola and Northern Namibia (1994)
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Namibia, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Namibia, from Jewish Virtual Library
Category : Religion in Namibia, from Wikipedia
W. Beyschlag, Ein Lebensbild aus der Missionsgeschichte. Die Rheinische Mission in Süd-Afrika in ihrer Entwicklung dargestellt, final part, pp.332-350 in vol.5 of Protestantische Monatsblätter für innere Zeitgeschichte 1855, in German, GB
Namibia, from International Jewish Cemetery Project
K.C. Arnold, The Transformation of the Lutheran Church in Namibia. How the Church Evolved into a 'Voice for the Voiceless', thesis William and Mary 2009
Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
History of Regions Article Regions of Namibia, from Wikipedia
Category : Regions of Namibia, from Wikipedia
Regions of Namibia, from www.statoids.com
Caprivi Strip : a Short History, from The Online Guide to Namibia
Berit Kostka, Namaqualand - a Short History of nearly Everything
A.A. d'Amato, The Bantustan proposals for South-West Africa, Journal of Modern African Studies 4 2 1966 pp.177-192
H. Tindall, Two lectures on Great Namaqualand and its inhabitants, 1856, GB
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Kronkolonie von Deutsch-Südwestafrika 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, Protectorate of South West Africa in Military Occupation of the Union Forces 1918-07-08, South African administered League of Nations Mandate of South West Africa 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, Territory of South West Africa : Rejected United Nations Trusteeship of South West Africa 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, South African Authority of South West Africa 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, Republic of Namibia 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History List of Cities in Namibia, from Wikipedia
Articles : Windhoek : History, Swakopmund : History, Walvis Bay : History, from Wikipedia
P.H. van Rooyen, P. Reiner, History of Gobabis
Klaus Dierks, History of Walvis Bay
Klaus Dierks, Warmbad
Institutions Namibia, South West Africa, from Airline History
Article Namibian Broadcasting Corporation, from Wikipedia
Article University of Namibia, from Wikipedia
Article Rail Transport in Namibia, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Namibia; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Namibia
Klaus Dirks, Namibian Roads in History, from the 13th Century till today, 1992
Klaus Dierks, Namibia's Railway System
S. Mitrofanov, First Railway Lines in Namibia
Cultural History Articles Namibia at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
M.L.E. Kirkwood, Postcolonial Architecture Through North Korean Modes: Namibian Commissions of the Mansudae Overseas Project thesis Kansas Univ. 2011
Biographies Klaus Dierks, Database of Namibian Biographies
List of Namibians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
R. Reinsperger, Diether Lauenstein und die Apartheid, 2008
Nakambale Martti Rautanen, Kuku Selma Rainio, from Vantaa City Museum's Namibia www Exhibition
J. Campbell, The life of Africaner: a Namacqua chief, of South Africa, 1827, GB
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History : Namibia, from Relief Web
Others International Boundary Studies, search for South West Africa
Search Political Apologies and Reparations, for Herero, Namibia
J. Dugard, The South West Africa/Namibia Dispute: Documents and Scholarly Writings, 1971, GB
E.R. Adigbuo, Nigeria's national role conceptions: the case of Namibia, 1975-1990 , thesis 2005

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of High Commissioners from the Unitred Kingdom to Namibia, from Wikipedia
Chinese Ambassadors to Namibia, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops of Windhoek, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Central Bureau of Statistics, Namibia
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Historical Abortion Statistics : Namibia, from Internet Archive
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile, Namibia
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1990
Inflation Rates Historical Inflation Rates, from Index Mundi, 1999-2011
Trading Economics, Namibia Inflation Rate 1973-
Unemployment Rate Index Mundi, Namibia Unemployment Rate 1997-2008
Election Results from Psephos (since 1994); from IFES Election Guide
EISA : Namibia Elections Archive
African Elections Database : Elections in Namibia
Search IPU Parline for "Namibia"
Documents Historical Newspapers History of Namibia, from World History Archives
Deutsches Kolonialblatt 1890, 1891, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, IA; 1918, Univ. Frankfurt
Modern Newspapers Windhoek Observer
Allgemeine Zeitung
Newspapers and News Media : Namibia, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Historical Magazines Search Time Magazine for South-West Africa
Search Life Magazine (1936-1972, GB) for South-West Africa
Online Yearbooks - Namibia Entries Statesman's Year-Book, German South-West Africa 1890, p.555, IA, 1891, p.559, IA, 1892, p.568, IA, 1894, p.568, IA, 1895, pp.569-570, IA, 1896, pp.569-570, IA, 1898, p.568, IA, 1899, pp.612-613, IA, 1903, pp.683-684, IA, 1913, pp.892-893, IA, Germany, Former Colonies and Dependencies : Protectorate of South West Africa 1919, pp.914-916, IA, Union of South Africa : South West Africa 1921, pp.239-242, IA
UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
Question of South West Africa 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, The Situation in Namibia; The Question of Namibia 1968, The Quesion of Namibia 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, Namibia 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
Staatskalender Deutscher Kolonialatlas mit Jahrbuch 1905 pp.11-14, German or. and English trsl., 1906 pp.12-15, German or. and English trsl., 1907 pp.13-16, German or. and English trsl., 1908 pp.12-15, German or. and English trsl., 1909 pp.17-21, German or. and English trsl., 1910 pp.18-21, German or. and English trsl., 1911 pp.22-24, German or., 1912 pp.25-27, German or., 1913 pp.23-26, German or. and English trsl., 1914 pp.25-29, German or. and English trsl., 1918 pp.16-10, German or. and English trsl., psm-data
Audio Collections Audio Collection, Digital Namibian Archive
Newsreels Search C-Span Video Library for Namibia
Films on History/Society
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Klaus Dierks, Namibia Photo Library
Search Eines Tages for Herero, Nama, Südwestafrika etc.
Bundesarchiv, The Digital Picture Archives, Berlin
Search University of Johannesburg Digispace for Namibia
Namibia-Deutschland, eine geteilte Geschichte, museum exhibition
Der Bildbestand der Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft in der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main
Accidental Collections The Crawfurd Homepage, Photos from Africa 1937
Universal Collections
Items on Namibia
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of Namibia, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Namibia
International Mission Photography Archive : Namibia
Archival Deposits Namibia Collections Anti-Apartheid Movement Archives, South Africa/Namibia Association (SANAM)
S.S. Wilcox, The South West Africa People's Organisation 1961-1991 : a guide to archival resources and special collections in the Western Cape, South Africa
Namibia Collection, National Library of Finland
Cambridge University Libraries : Royal Commonwealth Society Collections : Photographs of the German South-West Africa [i.e. Namibia] Campaign, 1915
Archives holding docs. on N. Bundesarchiv, Germany
National Archives and Records Service, South Africa
National Archives, UK
International Court of Justice
Search Peace Corps Digital Library
National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Register to the Papers of Gordon D. Gibson, 2009
Methodist Church of South Africa Archives
Laws Constitution
South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Namibia etc.)
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Namibia, from ILO, 10 docs. since 1978
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections
Document Surveys British Library, Namibia Official Publications
Document Collections Category : Namibia, from Wikisource
Digital Namibian Archive
psm-data : Imperialism
J. Dugard, The South West Africa/Namibia Dispute: Documents and Scholarly Writings, 1971, GB
International Court of Justice, search for "Namibia"
Individual Documents Pre-Colonial, -1884
Colonial, 1884-1920 J.B. Gewald, The Great General of the Kaiser (on a Herero language document pertaining to the Vernichtungsbefehl)
Der Krieg gegen die Herero von 1904, from Bundesarchiv
Gustav Freensen, In the German South African Army, 1903/1904, from Modern History Sourcebook
Agreement over Protection and Friendship, signed Sept. 15th 1894 between Maj. Leutwein and Hendrik Witbooi, from Hendrick Witbooi Page; Amendment of Nov. 16th 1895, from ditto, Letter from Samuel Maherero, ca. 1904, from ditto, The Hottentot War (Official history of the war, compiled by the German General Staff in 1907), from ditto
Ed. Morel, The Story of German South West Africa, from Black Man's Burden (1920) posted by boondocksnet
Deutsches Kolonial Lexikon 1920, click Recherche, S, Südwestafrika; has numerous other articles on the colony; site in German
Mandate Era, 1920-1971 UN General Assembly 1946 Resolution No.65, Future Status of South West Africa
International Court of Justice, International Status of South West Africa, 1950; Communique 1971; Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South-West Africa) Notwithstanding Security Council Resolution 276 (1970), 1971
UNHCR : South-West Africa Cases Advisory Opinion Concerning the Voting Procedure on Questions Relating to Reports and Petitions, 1955, Ethiopia v. South Africa; Liberia v. South Africa ; Second Phase, Judgment of 1966
African Union, Resolution on South West Africans on Trial in South Africa 1967
UN Security Council Resolution 264 1969; from Wikisource
The Martin Luther King Jr. Papers Project : Introduction to Southwest Africa : The UNs Stepchild, 1959
Struggle for Independence, 1971-1990
Namibia Independent, 1990-
Historical Maps responsible institutions Directorate of Surveys and Mapping, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Namibia Namibia Maps, from David Rumsey Map Collection
Namibia Maps, from PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Namibia, from Wikimedia Commons
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Namibia, Modern Map : SWA 1964 - suggested Bantustans, from Wikipedia
Namibia, contemporary precolonial era Map of 1635 by Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Aethiopia inferioris, from Yale Univ. Library, shows Namibia's physical features
Illustrations : Le Royaume de Mataman, from Les Globes de Coronelli (offered to Louis XIV.)
Map of 1707 by Homann from James Ford Bell Library, has Namibia as COSTA CAFFARES
Map : Southern Africa 1707, from Wikipedia
Map of 1795, from Blondeau from Yale Univ. Library, features Mataman
Map of 1808 by R. Brookes, General Gazetteer, 1808 from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas, has Namibia as 'Mataman'
Map of 1821 by William C. Woodbridge, Africa from Yale Univ. Library, shows Namibia as inhabited by 'Cimberas'
Map of 1824 by Anthony Finley, from Yale Univ. Library, shows Namibia inhabited by Cimbarras and Xamaquas
Map of 1829 by Eustache Herisson, Carte Generale de l'Afrique, 1829, from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas; very detailed, Mataman & Namaquois
Map of 1881 from Richard Andree's Allgemeiner Handatlas, shows Damaraland and Namaqualand, indicates coast as British sphere of influence (atlas printed in Germany)
colonial era R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 48. Mossamedes 1883, 48. Mossamedes 1889, 48. Mossamedes 1894, 49. Linyanti 1883, 49. Linyanti 1889, 49. Linyanti 1894, 53. Barmen 1883, 53. Windhoek 1898, 54. Kourouman 1882, 54. Kourouman 1883, 54. Vryburg 1897, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheets 29 Benguela (1968), sheet 33 Windhoek (1969), sheet 35 Cape of Good Hope (1958), PCL, UTexas
Map : German South-West Africa 1898, from WDL
Map of 1890, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Am. ed. 1890, posted by Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas, features German SWA without Caprivi Strip
Africa map of 1892 from Gardiner's Atlas of English History, 1892 shows German SWA without Caprivi Strip
Map of 1912 from Deutsche Schutzgebiete
Map of 1913 on African Religions, by J.G. Bartholomew : Literary and Historical Atlas of Africa and Australasia, 1913, from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas, shows distribution of mission stations in SWA
mandate era Map of Namibia, from CIA, posted by UPenn, African Studies
Map of Namibia, Homelands 1978, by CIA, from Perry Castaneda Library at UTexas
Detail, modern
Detail, contemporary South Africa 1:250,000 (U.S. Army, Map Service, 1954-) covering Namibia : SH 33.3 Alexander Bay, SH 33.4 Holgat, SH 34.1 Karasburg; PCL, UTexas
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles German South-West Africa, Damaraland, Namaqualand, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Articles Deutsch-Südwestafrika, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Damaraland, Hottentots, Cimbebasia, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Economic German South-West Africa pp.339-340 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, German Southwest Africa p.137
Geographical Die Kafferey oder das Land der Kaffer oder Hottentotten, pp.602-603 on O. Dapper, Umbstaendliche und eigentliche Beschreibung von Africa, 1670, in German, GB
Mataman, pp.116-117 in vol.8 of T.G. Smollett, The present state of all nations, 1769, GB
Mataman, p.105 in vol.2 of T. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde von Afrika : nach Quellen bearbeitet. Süd-Afrika und Afrikanische Inseln, 1810, in German, GB
Gross-Namacqualand, Damara-Land, p.116 in pt.2 of J.G.C. Fick, Geographisch-statistische beschreibung aller staaten und nationen der erde, 1817, in German, GB
Namacqualand, Damaraland, p.804 in J. Morse, The American universal geography, 1817, GB
Mataman, pp.247-248 in B. Hofland, Africa described, in its ancient and present state, 1828, GB
Great Namaqualand pp.60-63, Damara- and Ovampoland, or Otjiherero pp.72-74 in H. Hall, Manual of South African geography, 1859, GB
W.H.P. Greswell, Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi 1892, IA; Native States and Protectorates pp.285-307
Ethnographical Namacqua Girl's Love, pp.453-454 in K. Arvine, Cyclopedia of moral and religious anecdotes, 1848, GB
The Hottentot Races, pp.217-241, The Damara Tribe, pp.304-314, The Ovambo or Ovampo Tribe, pp.315-323, in vol.1 of J.G. Wood, Uncivilized races of men in all countries of the world, 1870, GB
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Damara- and Namaqualand pp.60-78
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; German South-West Africa (Damara- and Namaqualand) pp.60-78
Historical Mataman, pp.282-283 in vol.64 of G. Sale, An Universal history, from the earliest account of time, 1765, GB
Mataman, p.2 in vol.14 of W.F. Mavor, Universal history, ancient and modern, 1802, GB
Parliamentary Debates Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reichstags, 1867-1895, 1895-1918, 1918-1942, in German
Search Hansard for South West Africa, Namibia
Travelogues Z. Taurinius, Travels in the interior of Africa: from the Cape of Good Hope to Morocco from the years 1781 to 1797; through Caffraria, the kingdoms of Mataman, Angola, Massi, Mononugi, Muschato, 1801, GB
J. Campbell, Travels in South Africa: undertaken at the request of the Missionary Society, 1815, GB
J.L. Ebner, Reise nach Süd-Africa und Darstellung meiner während acht Jahren daselbst als Missionair unter den Hottentotten gemachten Erfahrungen, 1829, in German, GB
J.E. Alexander, An expedition of discovery into the interior of Africa through the hitherto undescribed countries of the Great Namaquas, Boschmans, and Hill Damaras, vol.1, 1838 vol.2, 1838, GB
Ch.J. Andersson, Lake Ngami: or, Explorations and discoveries during four years' wanderings in the wilds of southwestern Africa, 1857, GB; K.J. Andersson, H. Lotze, Reisen in Südwest-Afrika bis zum See Ngami in den Jahren 1850-1854, 1858, in German, GB
J. Chapman, Travels in the Interior of South Africa, vol.1, 1868, vol.2, 1868, GB
A. Achleitner, J. Biernatzki et al., Deutschland und seine Kolonien ; Wanderungen durch das Reich und seine uüberseeischen Besitzungen, 1902, in German, WDL
Institutions Archives National Archives of Namibia, from ICA
SWAPO Archive and Research Centre
Musea Museums Association of Namibia
Monuments Monuments and Historical Buildings in Windhoek, from Namibweb
Namibia, from Showcaves
Libraries National Library of Namibia
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Flag of German South West Africa, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of South West Africa, of Namibia, from World Currency Museum, of South West Africa, of Namibia, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Namibia Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for South West Africa, Namibia
Stamps Rare SWA Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery; Stamps SWA Stamps 1898-1900, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Namibia survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
Paul Zulu, Namibia National Bibliography : Strides and Challenges, 2000
U. Holtz, Ehemalige deutsche Kolonien. Vom Kolonialstatus zum wirtschaftlichen Partnerland Deutschlands ?, Bibliographie/Webliographie 2003
D. Köster, Bibliographie zur deutschen Kolonialgeschichte, Colonial Voyage
general bibliographies pp.609-724 in J.J. Grotpeter, Historical Dictionary of Namibia, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1994, KMLA Library R 968.8 G591h
Namibia, from The Online Books Page
Bibliography Namibia, anonymous
National Archives of Namibia, Namibian Register of Theses and Dissertations
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Bibliography : Namibia, from Archives of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Bibliography : German Southwest Africa 1904-1908: Genocide of Hereros, from Prevent Genocide International
F.F.O. Kustaa, Sources on German Genocide against the Herero People of Namibia (2005), posted by Association of the Ovaherero Genocide in the U.S.A.
Barotseland, Bibliography by Subjects
Some Important Works on Northern Namibia, Short List
serial publications Ch. Links, Schlaglichter der Kolonialgeschichte, Studien zur Kolonialgeschichte
Queens University, Southern African Research Centre, graduate theses
general bibliographies
Namibia entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Namibia-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
booksellers Namibia Buchdepot, from Swakopmund Museum
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Digitale Sammlungen; Staatsbibliothek Berlin, Digitalisierte Sammlungen
Namibia Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek, Sammlungen, click : Kolonialbibliothek
Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories : Namibia
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Namibian Register of Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals full text online Directory of Open Access Journals
African e-Journals Project, Journal Directory
Journal of Namibian Studies
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.902-907 Article Southern Africa : Namibia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Specific Topics Jonathan Crush, Cheap Gold : Mine Labour in Southern Africa, pp.172-177 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Deutsch Südwestafrika, pp.73-86
Historical Dictionaries Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping, Lanman Md. : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Article : German South West Africa, 1913 p.1012 [G]
Article Mandates, 1946 pp.455-456 [G]
Article Trust Territories, 1953 pp.695-696, 1954 pp.697-698, 1955 p.752, 1956 pp.688-689, 1958 pp.691-692, 1959 pp.689-690, 1960 p.690, 1961 pp.688-689, 1962 p.682, 1963 p.798 [G]
Article Protected States, Condominiums and Trust Territories, 1964 pp.697-698, 1965 pp.671-672, 1966 pp.636, 63, 1967 p.65, 1968 pp.650-651 [G]
Article Dependent States : South West Africa, in : 1969 p.281, 1970 p.281, 1971 p.271, 1972 p.243, 1974 pp.250-251, 1976 p.251, 1977 p.251, 1978 p.304, 1979 pp.304-305, 1980 p.303, 1981 p.303, 1982 p.296, 1983 p.297, 1984 p.293, 1985 pp.604, 781, 1988 pp.519, 700, 1990 pp.534, 716 [G]
Article Namibia, 1993 pp.366, 677, 1994 pp.364-365, 678, 1995 pp.448, 677 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Article : German South West Africa : 1895 pp.569-570, 1898 pp.568, 1901 pp.653-654, 1905 pp.724-725, 1910 pp.860-861 [G]
Article : South-West Africa : 1943 pp.460-464 [G]
Article : South Africa : South West Africa, 1970-1971 pp.1303-1306, 1975-1976 pp.1310-1312 [G]
Article : South Africa : South West Africa/Namibia : 1978-1979 pp.1085-1089, 1980-1981 pp.1088-1091, 1983-1984 pp.1090-1093, 1984-1985 pp.1086-1090, 1985-1986 pp.1087-1091, 1987-1988 pp.1091-1094, 1988-1989 pp.1094-1098 [G]
Article : Namibia : 1989-1990 pp.888-891, 1990-1991 pp.889-893, 1991-1992 pp.891-895, 1992-1993 pp.979-983, 1993-1994 pp.978-983, 1994-1995 pp.977-982, 1995-1996 pp.974-978, 1996-1997 pp.927-931, 1997-1998 pp.934-938, 1998-1999 pp.1008-1013, 2000 pp.1146-1151, 2001 pp.1119-1123, 2002 pp.1166-1171, 2003 pp.1166-1171, 2004 pp.1170-1175, 2005 pp.1176-1181 [G]
Other Article : German South West Africa, in : International Year Book 1898 p.352 [G]
Article : Namibia, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 p.104 [G]
Article : South West Africa, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1919 pp.914-916, 1924 pp.261-264, 1925 pp.266-270, 1926 pp.268-271, 1928 pp.268-271, 1929 pp.271-274, 1932 pp.273-277, 1937 pp.296-300 [G]
Article : South West Africa, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.800-801, 1928 pp.730-731, 1930 p.718, 1931 p.713, 1932 pp.666-667, 1933 pp.721-722, 1934 p.554, 1935 p.667, 1936 pp.680-681, 1937 p.654, 1938 pp.647-648, 1939 pp.711-712, 1940 pp.721-722 [G]
The Counterinsurgency War in South-West Africa, 1966-1989, pp.34-56, in : John W. Turner, Continent Ablaze. The Insurgency Wars in Africa, 1960 to the Present, London : Cassell 1998
Article : South West Africa, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 p.97, 2nd ed. 1978 p.97 [G]
Article : Namibia, in : The World in Figures 4th ed. 1984 p.85 [G]
Article : South West Africa, in : Americana Annual 1943 pp.672-673, 1944 p.648, 1945 pp.661-662, 1946 p.684, 1947 p.660, 1957 p.724, 1961 p.689, 1962 pp.695-696, 1963 p.614, 1964 p.602 [G]
Article : South West Africa (Namibia), in : Americana Annual 1973 p.606 [G]
Article : Namibia, in : Americana Annual 1990 pp.382-383 [G]
Entry : Travel Warning - Namibia, pp.557-559, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Entry : Republic of Namibia, Cabinet, p.71; Background Notes : Namibia, pp.933-939, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Entry : Namibia, pp.746-751 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Article : Namibia, in : Americana Annual 1992 pp.385-386 (on events of 1991) [G]

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