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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Cape Colony Transvaal
First posted July 1st 2005, last revised on November 20th 2013

History of Oranje Vrijstaat : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

until 1854 . 1854-1902 . 1902-1910 . 1910-1994 . Since 1994
For the country's history since 1910, see also History of South Africa

Early History, 1835-1854
In the 1830es, Boers had migrated in the Great Trek from the Cape Colony into the interior to escape the hated British rule, and settled the Orange River valley, without establishing a state authority. In 1848, Sir Harry Smith claimed the region for Britain as the British Orange River Sovereignty.

In 1854, Britain renounced its sovereignty, and the Oranje Vrijstaat (Orange Free State) was proclaimed.
The capital of the free state was at Bloemfontein. It's parliament was called Volksraad (people's council), where only white settlers were represented, it's official language Afrikaans (Cape Dutch).
From 1877 to 1880, Oranje Vrijstaat was British colony again. In 1899, Oranje Vrijstaat joined Transvaal in fighting the British in the Boer War. Occupied in 1900, the Free State was annexed in 1902, now called the Orange River Colony.

British troops occupied the Oranje Vrijstaat in 1900. Britain annexted the state in 1902, rechristening it Orange River Colony. English was introduced as official language next to Afrikaans. The area was under British colonial administration until self-government was restored in 1907.
In 1910, the old name Oranje Vrijstaat (Orange Free State) was adopted again; the Free State joined the Union of South Africa , together with Transvaal, Natal and the Cape Colony.

As Orange Free State Province, part of the Union of South Africa 1910-1961, part of the Republic of South Africa 1961-1994. Apartheid was official law in the Free State.

Since 1994
As the Free State Province, part of the Post-Apartheid Republic of South Africa.

Students' Papers : Kim, Hong, The Boer War as Portrayed in Punch 1898-1900 (2008)

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Articles : Orange Free State, Orange River Colony from Wikipedia
Artricles : Oranje Vrystaat, Oranjerivierkolonie, from Wikipedia Afrikaans edition
Historical J.N. van Hesteren, Het land van Kruger en Steijn, Transvaal en Oranje-Vrijstaat 1901, IA
Links General Category : Free State (South African Province), from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Vrystaat, from Wikipedia Afrikaans edition
on History
Organizations Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
South African Military History Society
Anglo-Boer War Philatelic Society; Orange Free State Study Circle
Historical Dictionary Miliestronk, Die ensiklopediese webwerf met baie pit; in Afrikaans
P.E. Raper, Dictionary of Southern African Placenames n.d.
Accounts of History Current Articles : Orange Free State, Orange River Colony from Wikipedia
Articles : Oranje Vrystaat, Oranjerivierkolonie, from Wikipedia Afrikaans edition
History of the Orange Free State, from the Orange Free State Study Circle, a philatelic group
Historical M.J. Boon, The immortal history of South Africa: the only truthful, political, colonial, local, domestic, agricultural, theological, national, legal, financial and intelligent historty of man, women, manners and facts of the Cape Colony, Natal, the Orange Free State, Transvaal, and South Africa vol.1 1885, IA
M.J. Boon, The history of the Orange Free State (1885), posted on Internet Archive
W.W. Collins, "Free statia", or, Reminiscences of a lifetime : in the orange free state, South Africa, from 1852 to end of 1875, 23 years (1907), posted on Internet Archive
G. McCall Theal, South Africa (the Cape Colony, Natal, Orange Free State, South African Republic, and all other territories south of the Zambesi) 1894, IA
Specific Periods G. McCall Theal, History of South Africa: The Republics and Native Territories from 1854 to 1872 (1889), IA
G. McCall Theal, History of South Africa from 1795 to 1872, vol.1 1915, vol.2 1915, vol.3 1915, vol.4 1915, vol.5 1915, IA
G. McCall Theal, Boers and Bantu : a history of the wanderings and wars of the emigrant farmers from their leaving the Cape Colony to the overthrow of Dingan 1886, IA
G. McCall Theal, History of the emigrant Boers in South Africa, or, The wanderings and wars of the emigrant farmers from their leaving the Cape colony : to the acknowledgement of their independence by Great Britain 1888, IA
South African History Online : Self-Government, the Orange Free State
F.W. Reitz, A Century of Wrong, 1900, chapter The Orange Free State, Wikisource
Historiography R.E. Chernis, The past in service of the present : a study of South African school history syllabuses and textbooks 1839-1990 thesis Univ. of Pretoria 1990
M. Hamer, The Five Nations. A note on the background, 2007
F. Pretorius, The white concentration camps of the Anglo-Boer War: a debate without end, Historia vol.55 no.2 Durban Nov. 2010
Politics Yves Guyot, Boer Politics (1900), Gutenberg Library Online
H. Murray, Free State High Court. A Brief History, 2010
Military Wars of the Boers 1800-1999, Anglo-Boer War 1848, Boer-Basuto War 1858, Basuto-Boer War 1865-1868, Boer War 1899-1902, from ACED
Neville Gomm, The Commando Act of the Orange Free State Republic, from South African Military History Society
Anglo-Boer War Philatelic Society
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902
N. Gomm, The Commando Act of the Orange Free State Republic, Military History Journal Vol 1 No 5 - December 1969
Stevens, The Complete History of the War, n.d. (2nd Anglo-Boer War)
J. de Bruin et al., The Orange Free State's Strategy to Continue the Anglo-Boer War in July 1900: A Lost Opportunity ?
J. Boje et al., Black resistance in the Orange Free State during the Anglo-Boer War, Historia vol.58 no.1 Durban 2013
M.C. Heunis, Oranje Vrijstaat Artillerie Corps, 2006
A.G. Hales, Campaign Pictures of the War in South Africa (1899-1900) (1901), Gutenberg Library Online
Handbook of the Boer War (1910), Gutenberg Library Online
C.L. Norris-Newman, With the Boers in the Transvaal and Orange Free State in 1880-1 1882
J.H. de Bruin, 'n Regshistoriese studie van de finale oorgawe van die Oranje Vrystaat se konvensionele magte gedurende di Anglo-Boereoorlog (1899-1902), thesis Univ. of the Free State 2009
J. de Bruin et al., Militere verhore in die Oranje-Vrystaat tydens die Anglo-Boereoorlog, 1899-1902 Historia 56, 2, Nov. 2011, pp.73-93
Economy & Finances Entry South Africa, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
W.H. Hutt, The Economics of the Colour Bar. A Study of the Economic Origins and Consequences of Racial Segregation in South Africa, 1964
Social History General
Language H. Gunn, The language question in the Orange River Colony, 1902-1910. (Including certain papers and correspondence connected therewith) (1910), posted on Internet Archive
S.J. du Toit, Geskidenis fan di Afrikaanse taalbeweging - Uit publike en prifate bronne bewerk deur 'n lid fan di Genootskap fan Regte Afrikaners 1880, North West Univ., Collection Africana
H. Giliomee, The Rise and Possible Demise of Afrikaans as a Public Language 2012
Migration G.B. Beak, The aftermath of war; an account of the repatriation of Boers and natives in the Orange River colony, 1902-1904 (1906), posted on Internet Archive
Labour A. Laverty, Outcomes of Slavery in Brazil and South Africa 2007; liberal usage of the term "slavery"
Class C. Murray, Land, Power and Class in the Thaba'Nchu District, OFS, Review of African Political Economy Vol.11 No.29 (Summer 1984), pp.30-48
Education University of the Free State, Brief History
Health S.V. Potgieter, The History of Medicine in the Orange Free State 1854-1902, S.A. Mediese Tydskrif 1972
D.P. de Villiers, A History of Medical Services in the Orange Free State, S.A. Tydskrif fir Geneeskunde 1944
E. van Heyningen, A tool for modernisation? The Boer concentration camps of the South African War, 1900-1902, South African Journal of Science May/June 2010
South African National Burden of Disease Study, Mortality Estimates for Free State Province, 2000
Poverty N. Schuermans et al., On Poor Whites in Post-Apartheid Cities: The Case of Bloemfontein, Urban Forum, vol.16 no.4 2005, pp.259-294
Women South African History Online : The 1913 Women's anti-pass campaign in the Orange Free State
Global Nonviolent Action Database : South African Bantu women win anti-pass campaign in Orange Free State, 1912-1918
Settlement J.C. Moll, Dorpstigting in die Oranje-Vrystaat: 1854-1864, thesis Northweest Univ. 1977
C.J.P. le Roux, Grondtoekenning en landlike vestiging in die Oranjerivierkolonie/Oranje-Vrystaat, 1900-1912 thesis Northwest Univ. 1990
Housing J.L. du Preez, The Historical Development of Farmstead Architecture in the Brandwater Basin of the Eastern Free State up to the Union, thesis Univ. of the Free State 2012
Race Discrimination M. Horell, A survey of race relations in South Africa: 1954-1955, 1955, DISA
Ethnography Orange River Free State, pp.681-682 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
M.T. Pitso, Stories of Origin of the Sotho people of QwaQwa: The construction and maintenance of society through narratives, thesis Univ. of Tromsø 2009
South African History Online, Anti-Indian Legislation 1800s-1959
Segregation and Apartheid Laws as Applied to Indians 1859-1950
H.J. Erasmus, Title to Land and Loss of Land in the Griqua Captaincy of Philippopolis, 1826-1861, Funda vol.16
P. Erasmus, The 'Lost' South African tribe - Rebirth of the Koranna in the Free State 2005
J. Boje et al., Kent gij dat volk: The Anglo-Boer War and Afrikaner identity in postmodern perspective Historia 56, 2, Nov. 2011, pp.59-72
K.V. Jensen, Under Construction. Afrikaner Identities in Contemporary South Africa Approached through Discourse theory and the discourse-historical approach, thesis Aalborg 2008
Religion Article Afrikaner Calvinism, from Wikipedia
Anglican Diocese of the Free State, History
D. Britz, The life and times of Christoph Sandrock, missionary of the Berlin Mission Society during the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) at Springfontein, South Africa n.d.
Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
J. du Plessis, The Life of Andrew Murray of South Africa, 1919; on the development of the Reformed Church in Orange Free State and the Transvaal
RICSA, The Social History of Christianity in South Africa 1487 to 1994 1995
History of Regions C.C. Eloff, Die sogenaamde verowerde gebied: omstrede grensstreek tussen die Oranje-Vrystaat en Lesotho (Basoetoland)., thesis North-West Univ. 1978
Local History Bloemfontein : History from Wikipedia
Winburg, Orange Free State, South Africa
G. Hoogendoorn, Critical Perspectives on the (Re-)Development of Westdene, Bloemfontein, thesis Univ. of the Free State 2006
Institutions History, from University of the Free State (of 1904)
Cultural History C. Bolsmann, The 1899 Orange Free State football team tour of Europe : 'race', imperial loyalty and sporting contest, International journal of the history of sport, 28 (1) 2011, pp. 81-97
D.M.M. Riep, Art on the Margins. A Reintroduction of the Art History of the Sotho of Southern Africa, thesis Univ. of Kentucky 2005
A.M. Gray, Vocal music of the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) : insights into processes of affect and meaning in music, thesis Univ. of Pretoria 2004
Biographies South African History Online : Biographies
W.H. Wills et al., The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book 1905, IA
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from Orange Free State by Ben Cahoon
Regnal Chronologies : Southern Africa, scroll down for Minor Boer States (the chieftaincies listed there, in fact, were no Boer states, but Griqua etc. polities); scroll sown for Xhosa, kwaZulu
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : South Africa, Consuls, see : Bloemfontein
Lists of Bishops Diocese of Bloemfontein, List of Bishops (Anglican), Wikipedia
GCatholic, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Bloemfontein, has list of Archbishops
Statistical Data Responsible Institution
Population Figures
Documents Document Surveys
Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes
Collections of Newspaper Articles The Spectator, 2 March 1872 : Involuntary Annexations. tion between Britain and the Orange Free State, Spectator Archive
Specific Newspapers Seventhy Day Adventist Church, The South African Missionary 1903-1921, The African Division Outlook 1921-1931, The Southern African Division Outlook 1931-1964, The Trans Africa Division Outlook 1964-1974
Online Yearbooks -
Orange Free State Entries
Statesman's Year-Book, Orange Free State 1886, pp.745-748, IA, 1887, pp.771-774, IA, 1888, pp.775-778, IA, 1889, pp.785-788, IA, 1890, pp.787-791, IA, 1891, pp.791-795, IA, 1892, pp.801-805, IA, 1894, pp.801-805, IA, 1895, pp.801-805, IA, 1896, pp.801-805, IA, 1898, pp.801-805, IA, 1899, pp.848-852, IA, Orange River Colony 1903, pp.227-230, IA, Union of South Africa, Orange Free State 1913, pp.221-225, IA, 1919, pp.230-234, IA, 1921, pp.236-239, IA
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections Magnum, Orange Free State
Universal Collections
Items on the Orange Free State
Old Photographs : Bloemfontein (commercial site)
Archival Deposits British Provenience
Search National Archives, UK for Orange Free State, Orange River Colony
Bodleian Library, Oxford, Collection Level Description: Winburg Concentration Camp
Transvaal Provenience
University of Johannesburg, South African Law Reports listed according to Shelf (Subject) Code in the Law Library, scroll down for Orange Free State
University of Witwatersrand, Historical Papers, CPSA Diocese of Bloemfontein Records 1848-1967
National Archives of South Africa, Directory Entries of Archival Repositories 1999 page 1 : Archives of the Afrikaanse Protestantse Kerk, Pretoria (Transvaal), page 3 : Archives Repository of the Dutch Reformed Church of Africa, Pretoria (Transvaal), page 6 : National Archives Repository, Pretoria, Archives of the Reformed Church of South Africa, Potchefstroom (Transvaal)
National Archives of South Africa, Free State Archives Repository
Cape Province(s) Provenience
UNISA Library, United Party Archives, Orange Free State Provincial Offices, Councils and Constituencies : Inventory (1987) 2012
Dutch Provenience
Nationaal Archief, Consulaat Bloemfontein 1940-1947 (1952)
Constitutions Constitution of the Orange Free State, from Williams, Causes of the War, 1900, Anglo Boer War Website
N. Gomm, The Military Provisions of the Constitution of The Orange Free State Republic, Military History Journal vol.1 no.4 June 1969
Laws South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Free State)
Treaties South African Treaties, Conventions, Agreements and State Papers (1898), IA
Dual alliance of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State (1899), from Williams, Causes of the War, 1900, Anglo Boer War Website
Orange Free State, pp.610-618 in vol.10 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1972, GB
Consular Reports
Historiography S.J. du Toit et al., Di geskidenis van ons land in di taal van ons volk 1895, North-West University, Africana Collection
Document Collections The Official correspondence between the governments of Great Britain, the South African Republic, and the Orange Free State which preceded the war in South Africa (1900), IA
British rule in South Africa : a collection of official documents and other correspondence suggesting the adoption of a policy which shall ensure the peace and progress of the Orange Free State and Transvaal Republic (1868), IA
Family Search, South Africa, Dutch Reformed Church Records, South Africa, Dutch Reformed Church Registers 1660-1970
H. Williams (ed.), Selected Official Documents of the South African Republic and Great Britain. A documentary perspective of the causes of the war in South Africa, 1900, Anglo-Boer War Website
G.W. Eybers, Select constitutional documents illustrating South African history, 1795-1910, 1918, IA
Individual Documents Truth and Reconciliation Commission, TRC Reports vol.3 : Chapter 4: Regional Profile Orange Free State
A Boer Girl's Memories of the War : Hester Johanna Maria Uys, Interviews with Errol Lincoln Uys, 1970
Great Britain. Concentration Camps Commission, Report on the Concentration Camps in South Africa, by the Committee of Ladies Appointed by the Secretaty of State for War: Containing Reports on the Camps in Natal, the Orange River Colony, and the Transvaal, 1902, IA
Historical Maps collections
Orange Free State, Modern Southern Africa 1894, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Orange Free State, contemporary 1885 South Africa Map featuring a divided Zululand; britishempire.co.uk
Map of South Africa 1896, from Probert Encyclopedia
Kaart van de Spoorwegen in Transvaal en Oranje-Vrijstaat , Univ. of Illinois
R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 55. Pretoria 1882, 55. Pretoria 1896, 55. Pretoria 1899, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1881, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1883, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1897, Gallica
Map of Orange Free State 1922, 1932, 1933, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Orange Free State, EB 1911, Wikisource
Article Bloemfontein, EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Articles Oranjefluss-Republik, Bloemfontein, Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, Retrobibliothek
Religious Cape Colony, from New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
Articles Kimberley in Orange, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Geographical W.H.P. Greswell, Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi 1892, IA; The Dutch Republics : The Transvaal, or South African Republic, the Orange Free State pp.269-285
C.P. Lucas, Geography of South and East Africa 1904, IA; Orange River Colony pp.81-85
G.T. Warner, A Geography of British South Africa< 1904, IA; Orange River Colony pp.106-110
Ethnological E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : The Orange and Limpopo Basins pp.78-118, The Orange River Colony pp.196-201
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; The Orange and Limpopo Basins pp.78-118, The Orange River Colony pp.196-201
Historical W. Douglas MacKenzie, South Africa, its History, its Heroes and Wars 1900, IA; Orange Free State pp.48-70
Parliamentary Debates Search Hansard (UK) for Orange Free State, Orange River Colony
Parliament of the Republic of South Africa Hansard 1999-
Resident Memoirs
Travelogues J. Sanderson, Memoranda of a Trading Trip into the Orange River (Sovereignty) Free State, and the Country of the Transvaal Boers, 1851-52, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 1860, IA
Tourist Guides J.F. Ingram, The land of gold, diamonds and ivory; being a comprehensive handbook and guide to the colonies, states and republics of South and East Africa 1889, IA, Orange River Free State and Basutoland pp.79-84
Exhibition Catalogues
Institutions Archives National Archives and Records Service of South Africa, Offices which form part of the National Archives and Records Service of South Africa, scroll down for Free State Provincial Archives
M. Doortmond, The Collection Dr. Hendrik Muller in the Provincial Archives of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, Acquisitions No.160, A Reconstructed Catalogue and Research Guide, 2008
National Archives of South Africa, Directory Entries of Archival Repositories 1999 page 2 : Archive for Contemporary Affairs, Bloemfontein
Musea War Museum of the Boer Republics, Bloemfontein
National Museum, Bloemfontein
Monuments List of Heritage Sites in Free State, Wikipedia
De Erfenis Stigting : Doornbult (historical concentration camp; page in English)
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Arms; from Armoria Patriae
Volkslied van de Oranje Vrijstaat, Wikisource
Coins, Banknotes Search Coin Archives for Orange Free State
Stamps Orange Free State Study Circle

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Orange Free State survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Catalogue of books and pamphlets relating to Africa south of the Zambesi, in the English, Dutch, French, and Portuguese languages, in the collection of George McCall Theal ... to which have been added several hundred titles of volumes in those languages and in German in the library of the British Museum, London, the South African Public Library, Capetown, and a few others. With notes upon those published before 1872 ... and upon several of a more recent date 1912, IA
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
general bibliographies
Orange Free State entries
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica; Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
International Boundary Studies
on Orange Free State Anglo-Boer War Society : Books
Thesis Server IR Space, Search South African & African research repositories
University of the Free State, Electronic Theses and Dissertations Database
Registry of Open Access Repositories : South Africa
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
South African Military History Society, Military History Journal 1967-; all but the last few issues freely accessible online
Historical Association of South Africa, Historia
Review of African Political Economy 1974-
General Accounts on South Africa Robert Ross, A Concise History of South Africa, Cambridge Concise Histories, 1999, 219 pp.
Charles H. Feinstein, An Economic History of South Africa, Cambridge : UP 2005
Readers Digest Illustrated History of South Africa, Pleasantville NY : Readers Digest, 1988 [G]
Christopher Saunders and Iain R. Smith, Southern Africa 1795-1910, pp.597-623 in : Andrew Porter (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.III : The Nineteenth Century, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3
On Orange Free State
Specific Topics Ravinder K. Thiara, Indian indentured workers in Mauritius, Natal and Fiji, pp.63-68 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year
Statesman's Yearbook Orange Free State, 1895 pp.801-804, 1898 pp.801-805 [G]
Orange River Colony, 1901 pp.214-21, 1905 pp.232-236 [G]
Americana Annual
Other Article : Orange Free State, in : International Year Book 1898 p.585, 1899 pp.610-611 [G]
Article : Orange River Colony, in : International Year Book 1900 pp.684-685 [G]
Article : Orange River Colony, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.587-588, 1908, p.525, 1909 pp.543-544 [G]
Article : Orange Free State, in : New International Year Book 1910 p.545 [G]

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