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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Zimbabwe Namibia
First posted in April 2002, Last revised on November 30th 2012

History of South Africa : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

For the country's earlier history, see History of the Cape Colony, History of Natal, History of the Oranje Vrijstaat, History of the Zuidafrikaansche Republiek (= Transvaal)
1910-1948 . 1948-1961 . 1961-1994 . Since 1994

Pre-Apartheid Union of South Africa, 1910-1948
In 1910, the Cape Colony, Natal, the Orange River Colony and Transvaal joined to form the Union of South Africa, which had the status of a Dominion within the British Empire - only a small step from full independence. Both Cape Town and Pretoria were to be capitals.
The Boer population of the Transvaal and the Free State had been maltreated during the Boer War (1899-1902) when many Boer women and children died in British concentration camps. In order to appease them, the British had reintroduced political representation (parliament) and self-government, and in 1910 granted full independence to the Union of South Africa, within the framework of the British Commonwealth.
The first government was headed by Prime Minister Louis Botha, head of the South African Party. In 1912, J.B.M. Hertzog founded the National Party, which became the political organization for conservative Afrikaners intent to preserve racial segregation and white domination.
In 1914, World War I broke out; the Botha administration led South Africa into the war on the side of the British. Adjacent German South-West Africa was enemy territory and quickly occupied by South African forces (1915); it was to be administrated by the South Africans until Namibia became independent in 1990.
When World War I broke out in 1914, sentiment among the Afrikaner population was still largely anti-British. When General J. Smuts was cabled to bring his forces over to the East African war theatre, he replied : "Order received. Whom do we fight ? The Germans or the British ?" In South Africa in 1914, an estimated 11,000 Afrikaners, led by Boer War veteran officers, rose in revolt; the revolt was suppressed.
Britain called on South African troops to serve on another front, against German East Africa. In 1916, British and South African troops, under the command of General J. Smuts, penetrated into German East Africa. German commander Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck switched to a guerilla tactic, tying up South African forces until the end of the war.
Prime Minister LOUIS BOTHA died in 1919. was succeeded by J. Smuts. Labour unrest, caused by inflation, was repeatedly suppressed by force. In 1924, Smuts was succeeded by J.B.M. Hertzog, the leader of the National Party. Under him, legislation enforcing racial segregation was intensified. In 1930 Womanhood Suffrage was introduced.
The Statute of Westminster (1931) even further reduced the dependency of the Dominion of South Africa from Britain. South Africa, like other countries, was affected by the Great Depression. In 1933, Hertzog and Smuts formed a coalition cabinet, in 1934 they merged their parties to form the United Party. Its policy was to promote the interest of their voters, that is South Africa's white population - often enough at the expense of the non-whites.
Since 1933/1934 the coalition of Hertzog and Smuts and their United Party had been in government. When World War II broke out in 1939, Hertzog advocated a policy of strict neutrality, Smuts alliance with the British. The coalition broke apart of the issue; Smuts succeeded Hertzog as Prime Minister.
South African troops were shipped to the East African front, where they occupied Italian East Africa in 1941, then proceeding to the Egyptian front, where they participated in the British victory at El Alamein etc.
The downfall of the Hertzog government had created a split in the United Party, as many conservative Afrikaners still resented the British and regarded neutrality the better policy. Radicals even wanted to support Nazi Germany.
The Purified National Party, founded by Daniel F. Malan in 1934 as he did not want to accept the merger of National and South African Party, gained membership and support among those who were disappointed about Hertzog's failure and downfall. In 1948, the election was won by Malan's National Party.

Apartheid Union of South Africa, 1948-1961
In 1948, Daniel F. Malan, leader of the National Party, was Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa; under him the APARTHEID REGIME began. Every segment of society was segregated, from education down to public rest rooms.
In the post-war years, South Africa saw an increase in European immigration. Economically, the country developed from the post-war boom. Internationally, South Africa was respected by the west for it's staunch anti-communist stand.
In the late 1950es, when public attention focussed on decolonization, the South African Apartheid system came under criticism.
In 1961, South Africa proclaimed the Republic.

Apartheid Republic of South Africa, 1961-1994
From 1961 onward, the Republic of South Africa found itself increasingly internationally isolated. Its Commonwealth membership was suspended, the newly independent countries of Africa organized a boycott of South Africa; the African National Congress found sympathy for their cause abroad.
Yet the South African government was determined to continue their Apartheid policy. For decades the economy did relatively well, despite international boycott, thanks to South African gold and diamond production. In continuation of Apartheid policy, certain stretches of land were set aside for the native population, the so-called Homelands (Bantustans), several of which were granted nominal independence : Transkei, Ciskei, Bophuthatswana, Venda. These states often consisted of several unconnected plots of land (of little economic value) and lacked basic infrastructure, having 'capitals' of a few thousand inhabitants. They were economically dependent on South Africa. Both the ANC and the international community regarded the 'homelands' as a trick to deprive the black population of South Africa of their South African citizenship.
Attempts by the ANC to destabilize the government by armed struggle, organized from military bases in neighbouring countries, backfired; the actions brought bad press, and the South Africans were far more successfull in destabilizing the regimes of Mocambique and Angola, both countries were paralyzed by civil war.
TV was introduced in South Africa as late as 1979.
After the demise of communism it became apparent that South Africa could not continue on that path, and Nelson Mandela, a leading ANC politician who had spent 27 years in jail as a political prisoner, and Prime Minister Frederik Willem de Klerk began negotiations about the transition to a multiethnic multiparty democracy. A coalition government was formed in which Nelson Mandela served. Apartheid was abolished and multiparty elections were held in 1994. The homelands were reintegrated into South Africa. Both Mandela and de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

Post-Apartheid Republic of South Africa, since 1994
The introduction of the suffrage for the non-white populace resulted in the dominance of the National Party being replaced by the dominance of the African National Congress (ANC). A Truth and Reconciliation Commission was to work up conflicts of the past. South Africa did experience problems, such as a partial exodus of white citizens and a rise in the crime rate. South Africa is still the most developed economy of the continent. Following the end of Apartheid, the country was again accepterd as a full member of the international community and in 2010 hosted the Soccer World Cup.
In an administrative form, the Bantustans (never internationally recognized) were reintegrated, the Cape Province and Transvaal broken up, provinces renamed.

Historical Atlas, South Africa Page

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
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Country Profiles Current from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia; from ISS
Article : South Africa, from Wikipedia
Library of Congress, Country Studies : South Africa
Historical Africa Today Pamphlets : South African Crisis and United States Policy 1962
Links General from BUBL; Category : South Africa, from Wikipedia
South Africa Page, from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
The Republic of South Africa, from Post-Colonial Web
on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Labour History; Category : History of South Africa, from Wikipedia
Portals South African History Online
Organizations Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
South African Military History Society
Historical Association of South Africa
Historical Dictionaries P.E. Raper, Dictionary of Southern African Placenames n.d.
Timelines from BBC News; from timelines.ws; from Wikipedia; from South African History Online; by Anne Lehmkuhl (until 1999); from Global Integrity (since 1990)
Apartheid Timeline, from United Nations Cyber Schoolbus
South Africa Language Timeline, by Jako Olivier
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : South Africa, from Kirken i Norge
Accounts of History Modern
Historical G. McCall Theal, A Short History of South Africa, 1486-1826, 1890, IA
W.D. MacKenzie et al., South Africa, its history, heroes and wars, 1899, IA
W.B. Worsfold, A History of South Africa 1900, IA
G. Wintle, A Short History of South Africa 1900, IA
A. Wilmot, A History of South Africa 1901, IA
D. Fairbridge, A History of South Africa 1918, IA
Specific Periods from South African Government Information
Template : History of South Africa, from Wikipedia
South African History Online
G. McCall Theal, History of South Africa 1486-1691 1888 1691-1795 1888, 1795-1834 1891, IA
EISA : South Africa: From the beginning to 200 CE, 2011
EISA : South Africa: The Iron Age (200-1652 CE), 2011
EISA : South Africa: Dutch colonialism, the destruction of the Khoekhoe and the rise of Chiefdoms (1652-1795) 2011
EISA : South Africa: Africans, Boers and Brits (1795-1880), 2011
EISA : South Africa: White domination and Black resistance (1881-1948) 2011
EISA : South Africa: Apartheid and its opponents (1948-1975) 2011
EISA : South Africa: Revolt, reform and repression (1976-1994) 2011
EISA : South Africa: The presidency of Nelson Mandela (1994-1999) 2011
EISA : South Africa: The presidency of Thabo Mbeki (1999-2008) 2011
EISA : South Africa: Postcript (October 2008 to June 2009) 2009
H.M. Friede et al., Notes on Iron Age copper-smelting technology in the Transvaal, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 1975 pp.221-231
Historiography P. Steyn, The Greening of our Past? An Assessment of South African Environmental Historiography
R.E. Chernis, The past in service of the present : a study of South African school history syllabuses and textbooks 1839-1990 thesis Univ. of Pretoria 1990
I.R. Smith, The Revolution in South African Historiography , History Today Volume: 38 Issue: 2 1988
A. Grundlingh, Social History and Afrikaner Historiography in a Changing South Africa : Problems and Potential. n.d.
C. Saunders, The Making of South Africa's Past, ch.16, ch.17, marxists.org
W. Visser, Trends in South African Historiography and the Present State of Historical Research, 2004
J. Soske, Why does South African history continue to be written primarily by white scholars?, South African History Online 2012
A. Engelbrecht, Textbooks in South Africa from Apartheid to Post-Apartheid : Ideological Change Revealed by Racial Stereotyping, n.d.
P. da Cruz, From Narrative to Severed Heads: The Form and Location of White Supremacist History in Textbooks of the Apartheid and Post-Apartheid Eras. A Case Study, thesis Univ. of Cape Town 2005
Georg Eckert Institut für internationale Schulbuchforschung, Curriculum of Reconciliation ? New History for South African Schools
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : South Africa; Governments on the WWW : South Africa
Category : Elections in South Africa, from Wikipedia
General Politics of South Africa, from Wikipedia; Entry South Africa, in EISA Web Encyclopedia
South Africa Profile, from International Crisis Group
Political History DADM : South Africa, 1910-present, South Africa/Namibia 1920-1990
P.F.G. Mtimkulu, The Key to One-Party Dominance : A Comparative Analysis of Selected States (Botswana, India, Israel, Italy, Sweden, South Africa), thesis Johannesburg 2006
Regional Organizations H. Masemola, An Analysis and Appraisal of Restructuring in SADCC/SADC since 1990, thesis Univ. of South Africa 2005
Political Institutions South African History Online : Tricameral Parliament
Constitutional Court of South Africa : The History of the Constitution
Political Parties Articles : United Party (South Afica), National Party (South Africa), African National Congress, Wikipedia
Foreign Relations S. Orakçi, A Historical Analysis of the Emerging Links between the Ottoman Empire and South Africa, 1863-1923, thesis Univ. of Johannesburg 2007
Article : Parliament of South Africa, History, Wikipedia
South African History Online : South Africa's Foreign Relations during Apartheid, 1948
University of Pretoria, Gordon Institute of Business Science, History of Japanese - South Africa relations, timeline
Ministry of Economic Affairs, India, India-South Africa Relations
South African Foreign Policy Initiative, China-South Africa diplomatic relations at 15 years: Pretoria's view 2013
Department of Foreign Affairs, South Africa, United States of America (USA) (relations with)
Secret Service S. Africa, 2009, 'The South African Intelligence Services: A Historical Perspective', in Changing Intelligence Dynamics in Africa, eds. S. Africa and J. Kwadjo, Global Facilitation Network for Security Sector Reform (GFN-SSR) / African Security Sector Network (ASSN), Birmingham, UK, pp. 61-94
Propaganda R. Leonard, Apartheid Whitewash - South Africa Propaganda in the United States 1989, IA
Military Wars of South Africa, 1800-1999, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals of South Africa, from ODM
South African War Virtual Library
Article Military History of South Africa, from Wikipedia
The South African Military History Society
Rhodesia and South Africa : Military History
South African National Museum of Military History
L. le Roux, The post-apartheid South African military: Transforming with the nation, ch.9, in M. Rupiya (ed.), Evolutions and Revolutions, A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ISS 2005
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Second World War : South African losses, 1940-1945, South Africa : Apartheid Regime, 1948-1993, Namibia 1966-1990, Angolan Civil War, 1975-2002
Economy & Finances Tables of Modern Monetary History : Africa, from www.dollarization.org, scroll down for South Africa
Global History of Currencies : South Africa
Category : Economy of South Africa, Article : Johannesburg Securities Exchange : History, from Wikipedia
Economic History of South Africa, from Wikipedia
Company Histories : South African Brewers Limited, Gold Fields Ltd., Barlow Rand Ltd., De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., Transnet Ltd., Sasol Ltd., Highvels Steel and Vanadium Corporation Ltd., Harmony Gold Mining Company Ltd., Iscor Ltd., Naspers Ltd., SAA Pty. Ltd., Sanlam Ltd., from Funding Universe
History of Citrus in South Africa, from docstoc
History of Oudtshoorn and Ostriches South Africa, from Vuvuzela
Global Integrity : South Africa 2004, South Africa 2006
Jones, Stuart. From Building Society to Bank: The Allied of South Africa, 1970-1988. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 20 (1991): 152-61.
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : South Africa
R. Grynberg et al., SACU Revenue Sharing Formula: The History of An Equation n.d.
A. Marquard, The Origins and Development of South African Energy Policy, thesis Univ. of Cape Town 2006
W.H. Hutt, The Economics of the Colour Bar. A Study of the Economic Origins and Consequences of Racial Segregation in South Africa, 1964
R.C. Moncure, South Africa's agricultural economy in brief 1964, IA
R.E. Kampe, The Republic of South Africa's agricultural trade : projections to 1970 and 1975 1968, IA
R.W. Johnson, Tobacco production and trade in southern Africa, 1975, IA on Rhodesia, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, The Malagasy Republic, Zaire, The Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, Angola
A.B. Davis, Tobacco production and trade : selected African countries 1971, IA Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Republic of South Africa
J.W. Root, The trade relations of the British empire 1903, IA; chapter : South Africa before and after the war, pp.101-152
Social History General
Racial Discrimination Wikipedia : Apartheid in South Africa, Wikipedia
M. Horell, A survey of race relations in South Africa: 1954-1955, 1955, DISA
K. Tankard, Proto-Apartheid at an Eastern Cape Town (= East London), n.d., ch.1, ch.2, ch.3, ch.4, ch.5, ch.6, ch.7, ch.8, ch.9, ch.10, ch.11
C.D. Carter, Computers and the Apartheid Regime in South Africa 1995
C. Bell, Apartheid's roots: The Natives Land Act 2013
South African History Online, From Segregation to Apartheid
Postcolonial Studies at Emory : Apartheid
Labour South African History Online : History of Labour Movements in South Africa
E.A. Mantzaris, Labour Struggles in South Africa, The Forgotten Pages, 1903-1921 n.d., South African History Online
South African Labour History Project
National Labour Law Profile : South Africa, from ILO
A. Laverty, Outcomes of Slavery in Brazil and South Africa 2007; liberal usage of the term "slavery"
Civil Unrest Helena Pohlandt-McCormick, "I Saw a Nightmare ..." Doing Violence to Memory : The Soweto Uprising, June 16, 1976, diss. Columbia UP n.d.
Health South Africa, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Women South African History Online : History of Women's struggle in South Africa
Crime, Punishment South Africa, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
Poverty A.B. Teppo, The Making of a Good White. A Historical Ethnography of the Rehabilitation of Poor Whites in a Suburb of Cape Town, thesis Helsinki 2004
D. Mitlin et al., Social Movements and Poverty Reduction in South Africa 2009
Language S.J. du Toit, Geskidenis fan di Afrikaanse taalbeweging - Uit publike en prifate bronne bewerk deur 'n lid fan di Genootskap fan Regte Afrikaners 1880, North West Univ., Collection Africana
H. Giliomee, The Rise and Possible Demise of Afrikaans as a Public Language 2012
Ethnography Languages of South Africa (25), from Ethnologue
Art and Life in Africa : South Africa
Category Languages of South Africa, from Wikipedia
South Africa : Asians, Coloreds, Europeans, Xhosa, Zulus, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : South Africa
Migration Information Source : South Africa
J. Boje et al., Kent gij dat volk: The Anglo-Boer War and Afrikaner identity in postmodern perspective Historia 56, 2, Nov. 2011, pp.59-72
M. Naidoo, Indian South African History from 1906
K.V. Jensen, Under Construction. Afrikaner Identities in Contemporary South Africa Approached through Discourse theory and the discourse-historical approach, thesis Aalborg 2008
Institutionalized Ethnicity : South Africa
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : South Africa, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : South Africa, from Jewish Virtual Library
South Africa, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in South Africa, from Wikipedia
Article Afrikaner Calvinism, Dirk van der Hoff, from Wikipedia
Geskiednis, from Nederduits Hervormde Kerk van Afrika, in Afrikaans
Hindu Temples in South Africa, from Shaivam
G.S. Baai, The Religious Identity of the Church and its Social and Political Mission in South Africa 1948-1984: A Historical and Theological Analysis, thesis Durham 1984
R. Vosloo, The Dutch Reformed Church, Beyers Naudé and the ghost of Cottesloe 2010 (on the Cottesloe Church Consultation, Dec. 1960)
H.H. Williams, J.A. Heyns en die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk en Apartheid, thesis Univ. of the Free State 2006
R.H.A.R. Hassan, Identity construction in post-apartheid South Africa: the case of the Muslim community, thesis Edinburgh 2011
RICSA, The Social History of Christianity in South Africa 1487 to 1994 1995
M. Clasquin, Buddhism in South Africa, in Baumann, M & Prebish, C 2002. Westward dharma: Buddhism beyond Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp.152-162.
History of Regions see Cape Colony, Natal, Oranje Vrijstaat (Orange Free State), Zuidafrikaansche Republiek (Transvaal)
Article Provinces of South Africa, from Wikipedia
Category : Provinces of South Africa, from Wikipedia
Provinces of South Africa, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Union of South Africa 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, Republic of South Africa 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08,
Local History List of Cities in South Africa, from Wikipedia
Articles : History of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth : History, East London : History, Durban : History, Pietermaritzburg : History, Bloemfontein : History, History of Johannesburg, Pretoria : History, Soweto : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions South Africa, from Airline History
History of Broadcasting in South Africa, from The Broadcast Archive
Article Witwatersrand University : History, University of Cape Town : History, University of the Free State : History from Wikipedia
Article Rail Transport in South Africa, from Wikipedia
Structurae : South Africa; Search Lighthouse Explorer for South Africa
Cultural History Articles South Africa at the Olympics, Sport in South Africa, Cricket in South Africa, Rugby Union in South frica, from Wikipedia
D. Allen, Studying South African Sports History: A Current Perspective, Impumelelo 6 2010
Biographies South African History Online : Biographies
List of South Africans, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
Environmental History P. Steyn, The Greening of our Past? An Assessment of South African Environmental Historiography
B.M. Bennett, Locality and Empire: Networks of Forestry in Australia, India, and South Africa, 1843-1948, thesis Univ. of Texas 2010
T.C. Stehle, The Occurrence of Indigenous Forests in South Africa : Historical and Current, n.d.
Others International Boundary Studies, search for South Africa
Disaster History : South Africa, from Relief Web
German P.O.W.s held in South Africa, from Kriegsgefangen.de, text in German

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Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Former Ambassadors to South Africa, from Ambafrance; Chinese Ambassadors to South Africa, from PRC MOFA; Embajadores de Mexico en Sudafrica, from Arcervo Historico Diplomatico
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : South Africa, Consuls
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Statistics South Africa
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Historical Abortion Statistics : South Africa, from Internet Archive
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile South Africa
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1953
Federal Reserve (U.S.) : Foreign Exchange Rates, Historic
Inflation Rates Index Mundi, South Africa Inflation Rate 1999-2011
Trading Economics, South Africa Inflation Rate 1968-
Unemployment Rate Index Mundi, South Africa Unemployment Rate 1999-2011
Election Results from Psephos (since 1994); from IFES Election Guide
EISA : South Africa Election Archive
African Elections Database : Elections in South Africa
Search IPU Parline for "South Africa"
Documents Historical Newspapers The London Gazette Archive
History of South Africa, from World History Archives
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : South Africa, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Historical Magazines Search Time Magazine
Search Life Magazine (1936-1972, GB)
Online Yearbooks - South Africa Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Union of South Africa 1913, pp.200-225, IA, 1919, pp.207-234, IA, 1921, pp.210-242, IA
UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
The Question of Race Conflict in the Union of South Africa, Treatment of People of Indian Origin in the Union of South Africa, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, Situation Arising out of the Killing of Demonstrators against Racial Discrimination and Segregation in the Union of South Africa, The Question of Race Conflict in the Union of South Africa, Treatment of People of Indian and Indo-Pakistan Origin in the Union of South Africa, 1960, Questions Concerning South Africa's Apartheid Policies 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, Matters Concerning South Africa's Apartheid Policies 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, South Africa and Apartheid; Other Matters Involving South Africa 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, South Africa and the End of Apartheid 1994
Audio Collections
Films on History/Society Colonial Film : South Africa
Villon Films, South African Propaganda Films Collection (list of available tapes; commercial site)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
University of Johannesburg Digispace
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on South Africa
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of South Africa, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : South Africa
Search Scripophily for South Africa
Archival Deposits South Africa Collections Anti-Apartheid Movement Archives, South Africa/Namibia Association (SANAM)
International Institute of Social History (IISH, Amsterdam, NL) : Collection Posters Nelson Mandela, Anti-Apartheid Posters, Anti-Apartheid and Southern Africa Collection Guide
Bodleian Library, Catalogue of the archive of the Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1956-98, Catalogue by L. McCann 2002
Archives holding docs. on N. Bundesarchiv, Germany
National Archives, UK
International Court of Justice
Search Peace Corps Digital Library
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by South Africa, from ILO, 21 docs. since 1919
South African Legal Information Institute, Databases
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections
Consular Reports Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, British South Africa, Jan. 18 1915, IA; June 25 1915, IA; Aug. 5 1915, IA; Oct. 8 1915, IA; Oct. 16 1915, IA; Oct. 24 1916, IA; Aug. 22 1917, IA; Dec. 6 1917, IA; Durban, July 2 1918, IA; Johannesburg, Dec. 18 1918, IA; Feb. 28 1919, IA; Oct. 27 1919, IA; Durban, Dec. 31 1920, IA
Historiography E.C.G. Molsbergen, A History of South Africa for Use in Schools 1910, IA
Document Surveys British Library, South Africa Official Publications
Document Collections Across the Periods
South Africa Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
DISA, Digital Innovation South Africa; online Archive
Great Britain. Dominions Royal Commission, Minutes of evidence taken in the Union of South Africa in 1914 pts.1,2 1914, IA
G.W. Eybers, Select constitutional documents illustrating South African history, 1795-1910, 1918, IA
Truth Commissions : South Africa, from United States Institute of Peace
Since 1994
Information by Country : South Africa, from U.S. Committee for Refugees, 4 reports 1991-2000
ANC Historical Documents Archive
Marxists.org, ComIntern Documents : South Africa's Communist Party
Marxists.org, ANC Documents
South African History Online, Documents and articles relating to African National Congress
South African Communist Party : Historical Documents
Wilson Center Digital Archive : South African Nuclear History
BBC Archive : Apartheid in South Africa Collection
Individual Documents Southern African Customs Union, 1910 Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Agreement
UN General Assembly 1946 Resolution No.44, Treatment of Indians in South Africa
Umkhonto we Sizwe, We are at War, 1967, from Modern History Sourcebook
UN Resolution 1598 : On Race Conflict in South Africa, 1961, from Modern History Sourcebook
Historical Maps responsible institutions Department of Land Affairs , National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : South Africa South Africa Maps, from David Rumsey Map Collection
South Africa Maps, from PCL, UTexas
Category : Old maps of South Africa, Maps of the history of South Africa, Wikimedia Commons
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
South Africa, Modern South Africa 1842, 1847, 1858, 1884, 1894, 1961, 1979, 2003, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
South Africa, contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 53. Barmen 1883, 53. Windhoek 1898, 54. Kourouman 1882, 54. Kourouman 1883, 54. Vryburg 1897, 55. Pretoria 1882, 55. Pretoria 1896, 55. Pretoria 1899, 58. Port Nolloh 1881, 58. Port Nolloh 1883, 58. Port Nolloh 1898, 59. Ville du Cap 1881, 59. Ville du Cap 1884, 59. Ville du Cap 1899, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1881, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1883, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1897, Gallica
South Africa 1:250,000 (U.S. Army, Map Service, 1954-) numerous sheets, part of them posted, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheets 34 Johannesburg (1970), sheet 35 Cape of Good Hope (1958), sheet 36 Durban (1969), PCL, UTexas
South Africa 1898, 1899, 1911, 1938, 1950, South African Railways 1906, Probert Encyclopedia
Detail, modern
Detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles South Africa, Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal, Zululand, Kaffraria, Griqualand East, Transkei, Cape Colony, Cape Town, Graham's Town, Kimberley, Port Elizabeth, Pietermaritzburg, Durban, Ulundi, Bloemfontein, Potchefstroom, Johannesburg, Pretoria, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Transvaal, EB 1922, Wikisource
Articles Kapland, Natal, Oranjefluss-Republik, Südafrikanische Republik, Kapstadt, Port Elizabeth, Durban, Bloemfontein, Potschefstroom, Johannesburg, Pretoria, Walfischbai Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, in German, Retrobibliothek
Religious Articles South Africa, Johannesburg, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Articles Western Vicariate of he Cape of Good Hope, Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope, Hottentots, Kafirs, Natal, Orange Free State, Kimberley in Orange, Transvaal, Zululand, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Economic Union of South Africa pp.325-333 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ethnographical South Africa, pp.4673-4712 in vol.7A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Parliamentary Debates Search Hansard (UK) for South Africa
Parliament of the Republic of South Africa Hansard 1999-
Institutions Archives South African History Archive; National Archives of South Africa
Musea Museums Online South Africa
Iziko. Museums of South Africa
Apartheid Museum
Monuments South Africa by Province, from Showcaves
Libraries National Library of South Africa
Libraries in South Africa, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of South Africa, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coin Catalogue of South Africa, from Numismaticon; South African coins from Collections of Coins, bilingual Russian and English page; South Africa Coins, from World Coin Gallery; Search Coin Archives for South Africa; South Africa, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Griqualand West, Orange Free State, Transvaal, Stellaland, South Africa Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery; Stamps Cape of Good Hope, Griqualand, Orange Free State, Natal, Transvaal, Stellaland, Zululand, South Africa, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on South Africa survey of bibliographies Princeton University Library, Bibliographies on South Africa
bibliographic database South African National Bibliography
AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
Ethno-Net Africa Database : South Africa, Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.197-234 in C. Saunders, Historical Dictionary of South Africa, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1983 [G]
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : South Africa
Bibliography, from South African History Online
N. Musiker, South African History. A Bibliographic Guide with Special Reference to Territorial Expansion and Colonisation, NY : Garland 1984 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies L. and D. Switzer, The Black Press in South Africa and Lesotho. A descriptive bibliographic guide to African, Coloured and Indian newspapers, newsletters and magazines 1836-1976
Bibliography on the Catholic Church in South Africa
Bibliography, Southern Africa Jewish Genealogy SA-SIG
K. Chetty, A Bibliography on Indians in South Africa
Bibliography on Climate Change in Southern Africa
Stories of Struggle. Life Stories from Apartheid South Africa, Bibliography
A Bibliography on Buddhism in South Africa, from Global Buddhism
D.E. Miller, T. Maggs, Precolonial Metalworking in Africa, A Bibliography (1998)
RICSA, Select Bibliography on the Social History of Christianity in South Africa
serial publications List of Publications, from UKZN Press
Queens University, Southern African Research Centre, graduate theses
general bibliographies
South Africa entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
South Africa-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on South Africa Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server IR Space, Search South African & African research repositories
Rhodes Univ., Grahamstown; Stellenbosch University, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, University of South Africa, Cape Town
North-West University, Potchefstroom
University of Pretoria
University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
University of Johannesburg, Theses and Dissertations
University of the Free State, Electronic Theses and Dissertations Database
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Research Space
Registry of Open Access Repositories : South Africa
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals full text online Directory of Open Access Journals
African e-Journals Project, Journal Directory
Historical Association of South Africa, Historia
South African Military History Society, Military History Journal 1967-; all but the last few issues freely accessible online
Historiography Article : South African Historiography, by T.J. Stapleton, pp.852-854, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Readers Digest, Illustrated History of South Africa, Pleasantville, NY : Readers Digest, (1988) 1989 [G]
Jonathan Paton, The Land and People of South Africa, Harper & Row 1990 [G]
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.908-929 Article Southern Africa : South Africa. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
W.J. de Kock, History of South Africa, Dept. of Information, Pretoria 1971 [G]
Specific Topics Charles H. Feinstein, An Economic History of South Africa, Cambridge : UP 2005
K.C. Tessendorf, A Racial History of South Africa, NY : Atheneum 1989 [G]
Jonathan Crush, Cheap Gold : Mine Labour in Southern Africa, pp.172-177; Alan H. Jeeves, Migrant Labour and the State under Apartheid, 1949-1989, pp.178-182 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
M.S. Geen, The Making of the Union of South Africa, a brief history 1487-1939, London : Longmans 1946 [G]
D.W. Krüger, The Age of the Generals, A Short Political History of the Union of South Africa 1910-1948, n.pl. : Dagbreek 1958 [G]
Eric Rosenthal, Die Verbygande Jare. Die verhaal van General Motors in Suid-Afrika 1926-1976, n.pl., n.yr., in Afrikaans [G]
Surendra Bhana, Gandhi's Legacy. The Natal Indian Congress 1894-1994, Pietermaritzburg : UP of Natal 1997 [G]
Vic Alhadeff, A Newspaper History of South Africa, Cape Town : Don Nelson (1976) 3rd ed. 1990 [G]
Chapters 24 : The Union of South Africa : Successors to Malan, pp.449-483; 25 : The Union : Country, Towns, and Issues pp.484-515; 26 : The Union : The Blacks and the Browns, pp.516-544; 27 : The Union : Gold, Diamonds, and South West Africa, pp.545-567 in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
John Gunther, Meet South Africa, NY : Harper & Brothers 1958 [G]
Long Walk to Freedom - the Autobiography of Nelson Mandela, 1995, 625 pp.
Historical Dictionaries Christopher Saunders, Historical Dictionary of South Africa, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1983 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries South Africa, 1913 pp.702-712 [G]
South Africa, The Union Of, 1944 pp.650-652, 1945 pp.650-651, 1946 pp.688-689, 1947 pp.709-710, 1948 pp.687-688, 1949 pp.594-596 [G]
The Union of South Africa, 1950 pp.636-637, 1951 pp.641-643, 1952 pp.643-645, 1953 pp.652-654, 1954 pp.655-657, 1955 pp.702-704, 1956 pp.640-642, 1957 pp.703-704, 1958 pp.645-646, 1959 pp.637-638, 1960 pp.639-641, 1961 pp.641-643 [G]
South Africa, 1962 pp.632-633, 1963 pp.739-740, 1964 pp.755-757, 1965 pp.744-745, 1966 pp.690-692, 1967 pp.690-692, 1968 pp.699-700, 1969 pp.681-683, 1970 pp.689-691, 1971 pp.673-675, 1972 pp.631-633, 1973 pp.617-619, 1974 pp.620-62, 1975 pp.621-626, 1976 pp.618-620, 1977 pp.617-620, 1978 pp.632-636, 1979 pp.626-629, 1980 pp.621-625, 1981 pp.621-624, 1982 pp.624-628, 1983 pp.617-621, 1984 pp.621-624, 1985 pp.474-476, 780, 1986 pp.468-472, 779, 1988 pp.397-400, 699, 1989 pp.397-400, 699, 1990 pp.414-417, 715, 1993 pp.370-372, 716, 1994 pp.368-371, 716, 1995 pp.471-475, 716 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Union of South Africa, 1910 pp.195-227, 1919 pp.207-234, 1924 pp.216-242, 1925 pp.220-248, 1926 pp.224-248, 1928 pp.222-248, 1929 pp.224-249, 1932 pp.227-251, 1937 pp.247-243, 1943 pp.433-459 [G]
South Africa, 1970-1971 pp.1281-1302, 1975-1976 pp.1289-1309, 1978-1979 pp.1064-1084, 1980-1981 pp.1067-1087, 1983-1984 pp.1070-1090, 1984-1985 pp.1067-1085, 1985-1986 pp.1068-1097, 1987-1988 pp.1073-1091, 1988-1989 pp.1077-1094, 1989-1990 pp.1088-1112, 1990-1991 pp.1088-1112, 1991-1992 pp.1091-1115, 1992-1993 pp.1182-1206, 1993-1994 pp.1184-1208, 1994-1995 pp.1190-1208, 1995-1996 pp.1180-1198, 1996-1997 pp.1156-1175, 1997-1998 pp.1157-1175, 1998-1999 pp.1263-1283, 2000 pp.1416-1444, 2001 pp.1381-1414 , 2002 pp.1437-1468, 2003 pp.1436-1466, 2004 pp.1457-1487, 2005 pp.1467-1494 [G]
Americana Annual South Africa, Union of, 1927 pp.794-798, 1928 pp.726-728, 1930 pp.713-716, 1931 pp.710-711, 1932 pp.663-665, 1933 pp.717-719, 1934 pp.550-552, 1935 pp.662-665, 1936 pp.676-678, 1937 pp.651-652, 1938 pp.644-645, 1939 pp.707-709, 1940 pp.717-719 [G]
Union of South Africa, 1943 pp.669-671, 1944 pp.644-646, 1945 pp.658-660, 1946 pp.680-683, 1947 pp.657-659 [G]
South Africa, Union of, 1957 pp.718-721, 961 pp.683-685 [G]
South Africa, 1962 pp.689-692, 1963 pp.609-611, 1964 pp.597-599, 1965 pp.632-633, 1967 pp.611-613, 1968 pp.604-606, 1969 pp.607-608, 1970 pp.616-617, 1971 pp.605-606, 1972 pp.600-601, 1973 pp.75, 602-603, 1974 pp.521-522, 1976 pp.74, 489-490, 1989 pp.467-469, 1990 pp.462-464, 1992 pp.465-469, 1993 pp.469-471, 1994 pp.478-480 [G]
Other South Africa 1989-1990, Official Yearbook, 15th ed., Pretoria 1990 [G]
South Africa 2000/2001 (Official Yearbook); South Africa Yearbook 2001 [G]

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