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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Cape Colony Oranje Vrijstaat
First posted July 1st 2005, last revised on January 30th 2009

History of the Zuidafrikaansche Republiek (Transvaal) : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

1835-1900 . 1900-1910 . 1910-1994 . since 1994
For the country's history since 1910, see also History of South Africa

In the 1830es, Boers had migrated from the Cape Colony into the interior to escape the hated British rule, and settled the area beyond the Vaal river. Having defeated the Zulu and Matabele, in 1839, they proclaimed the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, and the republics of Lydenburg and Zoutpansberg. The British recognized the Zuidafrikaanse Republiek in 1852. The three republics merged into a unified Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek in 1857. The capital was established at Pretoria (founded 1855). The parliament, called Volksraad (people's council) had 24 members.
In 1877, the republic, practically bankrupt, was annexed by Britain. In 1880, the Boers revolted, again proclaiming their independence. Invading British forces were defeated by the Boers in 1881 in the Battle of Majuba Hill.
In 1886 gold was found at Witwatersrand near Johannesburg; it proved to be the world's richest gold deposit. Johannesburg boomed, attracting mostly English-speaking immigrants who were denied citizenship and treated as "uitlanders".
In 1890, the tiny Boer republic of Klein Vrijstaat was incorporated into the Z.A.R.; in 1894 Swaziland was declared a protectorate of the Zuid-Afrikaanse Republiek. The Z.A.R. was allied with the Orange Free State, another Boer Republic.
The Boers strictly separated the white Boer settlers from both the native African population and the miners and fortune hunters at Johannesburg, whom they regarded foreigners, denying both political participation.
Cecil Rhodes, entrepreneur, prime minister of the Cape and colonial politician, provoked the (2nd) Boer War (1899-1902) which resulted in the annexion of what the British called Transvaal by Britain in 1902.

In 1900, the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek was occupied by British troops. Stiffnecked Boer resistance ended in 1902; the republic, as Transvaal, was now annexed by Britain.
Self-government was introduced in 1907. In 1910, Transvaal, together with the Orange Free State, Natal and the Cape, joined to form the Union of South Africa.

Transvall was one of the 4 constituent provinces forming the Union of South Africa in 1910. The Union of South Africa took on the name (in English translation) the Transvaal had used until 1900. One of its capitals was Pretoria. From 1948 to 1994 Apartheid laws were in place. In 1961 the Union of South Africa unilaterally proclaimed independence and became the Republic of South Africa.

Since 1994
In 1994 Apartheid was abolished. Transvaal Province was divided into Northern Transvaal, Eastern Transvaal, Western Transvaal and Southern Transvaal. Since, these provinces have been renamed and rearranged into Gauteng, Limpopo, Mmpumalanga and North West Province.

Students' Papers : Kim, Hong, The Boer War as Portrayed in Punch 1898-1900 (2008)

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Article : Transvaal, Transvaal Province, South African Republic from Wikipedia
Article : Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek from Wikipedia Afrikaans edition
Historical G. McCall Theal, South Africa (the Cape Colony, Natal, Orange Free State, South African Republic, and all other territories south of the Zambesi) 1894, IA
J.A.J. de Villiers, The Transvaal (1896), IA
J.P. Fitzpatrick, The Transvaal from Within: A Private Record of Public Affairs, 1899, IA
J. Martineau, The Transvaal trouble; how it arose, being an extract from the biography of the late Sir Bartle Frere 1899, IA
H. Meysey Thompson, The Transvaal Crisis, IA 1899
J.H. Hammond, The Transvaal trouble, IA 1900
A. Seidel, Transvaal, die südafrikanische Republik, 1900, IA
J.N. van Hesteren, Het land van Kruger en Steijn, Transvaal en Oranje-Vrijstaat 1901, IA
L. Phillips, Transvaal Problems: Some Notes on Current Politics, IA 1905
C. Jeppe, The Kaleidoscopic Transvaal 1906, IA
M.C. Bruce, The New Transvaal, IA 1908
Links General Category : South African Republic, from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, from Wikipedia Afrikaans edition
on History
Organizations Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
South African Military History Society
Anglo-Boer War Philatelic Society
Historical Dictionary Miliestronk, Die ensiklopediese webwerf met baie pit; in Afrikaans
P.E. Raper, Dictionary of Southern African Placenames n.d.
Accounts of History Current Article : South African Republic : History, from Wikipedia
Historical M.J. Boon, The immortal history of South Africa: the only truthful, political, colonial, local, domestic, agricultural, theological, national, legal, financial and intelligent historty of man, women, manners and facts of the Cape Colony, Natal, the Orange Free State, Transvaal, and South Africa vol.1 1885, IA
J. Nixon, The complete story of the Transvaal from the "Great trek" to the convention of London. With appendix comprising ministerial declarations of policy and official documents 1885, IA
W.E.G. Fisher, The Transvaal and the Boers: A Brief History (1896), IA
T.J. Wilway, American history of Transvaal Boers 1899, IA
H.R. Haggard, A history of the Transvaal (1900), IA
L.V. Praagh, The Transvaal and its mines : the encyclopedic history of the Transvaal 1906, IA
Specific Periods G. McCall Theal, History of South Africa: The Republics and Native Territories from 1854 to 1872 (1889), posted on Internet Archive
F.W. Reitz, A Century of Wrong, 1900, chapter The South African Republic, The Conventions of 1881 and 1884, Capitalistic Jingoism - First Period, Capitalistic Jingoism - Second Period, Wikisource
G. McCall Theal, History of South Africa from 1795 to 1872, vol.1 1915, vol.2 1915, vol.3 1915, vol.4 1915, vol.5 1915, IA
G. McCall Theal, Boers and Bantu : a history of the wanderings and wars of the emigrant farmers from their leaving the Cape Colony to the overthrow of Dingan 1886, IA
G. McCall Theal, History of the emigrant Boers in South Africa, or, The wanderings and wars of the emigrant farmers from their leaving the Cape colony [microform] : to the acknowledgement of their independence by Great Britain 1888, IA
W.J. Leyds, De eerste annexatie van de Transvaal n.d., IA; The first annexation of the Transvaal 1906, IA
W.J. Leyds, The Transvaal surrounded, a continuation of "The first annexation of the Transvaal,", 1919, IA
P.E. Aston, The raid on the Transvaal by Dr. Jameson 1897, IA
Historiography R.E. Chernis, The past in service of the present : a study of South African school history syllabuses and textbooks 1839-1990 thesis Univ. of Pretoria 1990
M. Hamer, The Five Nations. A note on the background, 2007
F. Pretorius, The white concentration camps of the Anglo-Boer War: a debate without end, Historia vol.55 no.2 Durban Nov. 2010
B.J. Phiri, British imperialism in South Africa : An historiographical study of the Transvaal, 1886-1910, thesis Univ. of Zambia 2011
Politics O.F. Brothers, The First Transvaal Parliament: The Story of the Constitution; the History of the First Election etc. 1907, IA
A.E. Heyer, A brief history of the Transvaal secret service system : from its inception to the present time, its objects, its agents, the disposal of its funds, and the result as seen to-day -- war against Great Britain 1900, IA
C.A. Robinson, The power behind the press : English newspapers in the Transvaal, 1870-1899 thesis Univ. of British Columbia 1989
Military Wars of the Boers 1800-1999, from ACED
The First War of Independence (1880-1881), from battlefields.co.za
Article Witwatersrand Rifles Regiment, from Wikipedia
Anglo-Boer War Philatelic Society
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902
J.L. Scott, British Concentration Camps of the Second South African War (The Transvaal, 1900-1902), thesis Florida State 2007
B. Bellairs, The Transvaal War, 1880-81 (1885), IA
E.T. Cook, Rights and Wrongs of the Transvaal War (1902), IA
L. Creswicke, South Africa and the Transvaal War, vol.1 (1900), vol.2 (1900), vol.3 (1900), vol.4 (1900), vol.5 (1900), vol.6 (1900), vol.7 (1900), vol.8 (1900), IA
A.G. Hales, Campaign Pictures of the War in South Africa (1899-1900) (1901), Gutenberg Library Online
Handbook of the Boer War (1910), Gutenberg Library Online
G. Lynch, Impressions of a War Correspondent (n.d., c.1900, a.o. on the Boer War), Gutenberg Library Online
L.S. Kruger, Die Makgoba-(Magoeba) oorlog : 1894-1895, thesis Pretoria 1955
W.J. Pretorius, Die Britse owerheid en die burgerlike bevolking van Heidelberg, Transvaal, gedurende die Anglo-Boereoorlog thesis Pretoria 2008
A. Stickney, The Transvaal Outlook 1900, IA
R.R. Duval, Au Transvaal et dans le Sud-Africain avec les attaches militaires 1902, IA
Economy & Finances Entry South Africa, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
Wayne Graham, The Randlord's Bubble 1894-1896. South African Gold Mines and Stock Market Manipulation
D.E. Hutchins, Transvaal Forest Report 1903, IA
W.H. Hutt, The Economics of the Colour Bar. A Study of the Economic Origins and Consequences of Racial Segregation in South Africa, 1964
L. de Launay, Les mines d'or du Transvaal: etude geographique et historique etc. 1896, IA
Social History Labour J.S. Bergh, White farmers and African labourers in the pre-industrial Transvaal, Historia vol.55 no.1 Durban May 2010
A. Laverty, Outcomes of Slavery in Brazil and South Africa 2007; liberal usage of the term "slavery"
P. Bonner, The 1920 black mineworkers strike, Wits History Workshop: The Witwatersrand; Labour, Townships and Patterns of Protest, 1978
A.H. Jeeves, The administration and control of migratory labour on the S.A. gold mines: Capitalism and the state in the era of Kruger and Milner African Studies Seminar series. Paper presented April, 1975
E.B. Rose, White labour in the Transvaal, n.d., IA
E.M. Masina, An analysis of African reluctance to meet the labour demands of the Transvaal colony as expressed in the Labour Commission of 1903 and the South African Native Affairs Commission, 1903-1905, thesis Univ. of South Africa 2002
Class J. Krikler, The Agrarian Class Structure of the Transvaal Colony n.d.
Language S.J. du Toit, Geskidenis fan di Afrikaanse taalbeweging - Uit publike en prifate bronne bewerk deur 'n lid fan di Genootskap fan Regte Afrikaners 1880, North West Univ., Collection Africana
H. Giliomee, The Rise and Possible Demise of Afrikaans as a Public Language 2012
Women M. Grobler, Towards a legal history of white women in the Transvaal, 1877-1899, thesis Univ. of Pretoria 2010
Health E. van Heyningen, A tool for modernisation? The Boer concentration camps of the South African War, 1900-1902, South African Journal of Science May/June 2010
Other M. Horell, A survey of race relations in South Africa: 1954-1955, 1955, DISA
Een en ander over het dorpsleven in Transvaal, De Aarde en haar Volken, 1917, IA
E.A. Cripps, Provisioning Johannesburg 1886-1906, thesis Univ. of South Africa 2012
Ethnography General The Transvaal, pp.678-679 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Indigenous Josephine Elizabeth Grey Butler, Native Races and the War (1900), from Indiana Univ., detailed on Anglo-Boer treaties of 1881 and the reaction of African chiefs.
J.H. Bovill, Natives under the Transvaal flag (1900), IA
account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
R.H. Massie, The Native Tribes of the Transvaal 1905, IA
W.C. Willoughby, Native life on the Transvaal border 1900, IA
A. Kirkaldy et al., Converts and Conservatives. Missionary representations of African rulers in the Northern Transvaal, c.1870-1900 LFM. Social Sciences & Missions, 18, July 2006 pp.109-144
B.K. Mbenga, The Acquisition of Land by Africans in the Western Transvaal : The Case of the Bafokeng of the Rusternburg District, 1902-1931 1997
Asian South African History Online, Anti-Indian Legislation 1800s-1959
Segregation and Apartheid Laws as Applied to Indians 1859-1950
South African History Online, The Transvaal Indian Congress
K.L. Harris, Sugar and Gold: Indentured Indian and Chinese Labour in South Africa J Soc Sci, 25(1-2-3): pp.147-158 (2010)
P.G.L. Richardson, The provision of Chinese indentured labour for the Transvaal gold mines, 1903-8, thesis Univ. of London 1978
White J. Nauright, Cornish Miners and the Witwatersrand Gold Mines in South Africa, c.1890-1904, Cornish History 2005
J. Boje et al., Kent gij dat volk: The Anglo-Boer War and Afrikaner identity in postmodern perspective Historia 56, 2, Nov. 2011, pp.59-72
K.V. Jensen, Under Construction. Afrikaner Identities in Contemporary South Africa Approached through Discourse theory and the discourse-historical approach, thesis Aalborg 2008
Religion Y. Eshak, The First Indian Muslim Institutions in the Transvaal
Article Afrikaner Calvinism, Dirk van der Hoff, from Wikipedia
Geskiednis, from Nederduits Hervormde Kerk van Afrika, in Afrikaans
A.C. van Wyk, Jode in Transvaal tot 1910 - 'n kultuurhistoriese oorsig, thesis Pretoria 2003
J. Campbell, Chiefly Authority and the AME Church, 1896-1910 n.d.
Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
J. Theron et al., The relationship between the state and the church during the early history of Pretoria 2010; covers period 1839-1902
J. du Plessis, The Life of Andrew Murray of South Africa, 1919; on the development of the Reformed Church in Orange Free State and the Transvaal
J.H. Hertz, The Jew as a patriot; a plea for the removal of the civil disabilities of the Jews in the Transvaal 1898, IA
M.W. Leleki, The Methodist Church and society in Transvaal (1948-1976), thesis Pretoria 2004
The Soutpansberg, Mission History
RICSA, The Social History of Christianity in South Africa 1487 to 1994 1995
History of Regions
Local History Pretoria : History; History of Johannesburg, Potchefstroom : History, from Wikipedia
History of Johannesburg, from Femme Fairy's Domain, and from suedafrika.net
History of Pretoria, from suedafrika.net and from Pretoria Online
Institutions History of University of Witwatersrand
Cultural History A.M. Gray, Vocal music of the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) : insights into processes of affect and meaning in music, thesis Univ. of Pretoria 2004
L. Jacobsen et al., Pixe Analysis of Pre-European Pottery from the Northern Transvaal and ItsRelevance to the Distribution of Ceramic Styles, Social Interaction and Change The South African Archaeological Bulletin vol.46 no.153. Jun. 1991, pp.19-24.
Franco Frescura, Preindustrial Architecture in the Transvaal
Biographies South African History Online : Biographies
W.H. Wills et al., The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book 1905, IA
Environmental History

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from Transvaal by Ben Cahoon
Regnal Chronologies : Southern Africa, scroll down for Minor Boer States (the chieftaincies listed there, in fact, were no Boer states, but Griqua etc. polities); scroll sown for Xhosa, kwaZulu
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : South Africa, Consuls, see : Johannesburg, Pretoria
Statistical Data Responsible Institution
Population Figures
Documents Document Surveys
Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes
Collections of Newspaper Articles Advocate of Peace October 1 1899, Transvaal Crisis, IA
Advocate of Peace November 1 1899, The Transvaal War, IA
Advocate of Peace January 1 1900, Peace Bureau's Appeal on the Subject of the Transvaal War IA
Advocate of Peace March 1 1901, The Nonconformist Conscience and the Transvaal War, IA
North American Review April 1, 1896 : K. Blind, Problems of the Transvaal, IA
North American Review July 1, 1899 : S. Brooks, England and the Transvaal, IA
North American Review October 1 1899 : F.V. Engelenburg, A Transvaal View of the South African Question, IA
North American Review December 1 1899 : K. Blind, The Transvaal War and European Opinion, IA
North American Review January 1 1900 : The Earl Grey, England and the Transvaal; H. Delbrück, England, the Transvaal and the European Powers, IA
North American Review March 1 1900 : A.T. Mahan, The Merits of the Transvaal Dispute, IA
North American Review July 1 1904 : F.G. Stone, The Transvaal: After the War, IA
Specific Newspapers Seventhy Day Adventist Church, The South African Missionary 1903-1921, The African Division Outlook 1921-1931, The Southern African Division Outlook 1931-1964, The Trans Africa Division Outlook 1964-1974
Online Yearbooks - Transvaal Entries Statesman's Year-Book, South African Republic 1886, pp.748-752, IA, 1887, pp.774-778, IA, 1888, pp.778-782, IA, 1889, pp.788-792, IA, 1890, pp.922-926, IA, 1891, pp.927-932, IA, 1892, pp.938-942, IA, 1894, pp.940-943, IA, 1895, pp.940-943, IA, 1896, pp.940-943, IA, 1898, pp.939-942, IA, 1899, pp.1003-1006, IA, Transvaal Colony 1903, pp.238-243, IA, Union of South Africa - The Transvaal 1913, pp.217-220, IA, 1919, pp.227-230, IA, 1921, pp.232-235, IA
Newsreels British Pathe, Transvaal Troops On The Move 1940
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on the Transvaal
Old Photographs : Johannesburg, Potchefstroom, Pretoria (commercial site)
Search Scripophily for Transvaal
Archival Deposits Search National Archives, UK for Transvaal
National Archives of South Africa, Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities
University of Johannesburg, South African Law Reports listed according to Shelf (Subject) Code in the Law Library, scroll down for Transvaal
University of South Africa, United Party Transvaal Provincial Office, 1905-1987, Inventory
Nationaal Archief, Gezantschap Pretoria 1940-1950, Vice-Consulaat Johannesburg, 1895-1937, Consulaat Johannesburg 1938-1954
Laws The Laws and Regulations, Etc., Etc., Specially Relating to the Native Population of the Transvaal (1907), IA
South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Gauteng etc.)
FAOLex, Transvaal Nature Conservation Ordinance 1983
Cases decided in the high court of the Transvaal province 1885, 1896, IA
Transvaal Law Reports: Reports of Cases Decided in the Supreme Court, 1903, 1905, 1906, IA
Statutary Proclamations of the Transvaal, 1900-1902, 1904, IA
The Company and Commercial Laws of the Transvaal 1905, IA
The Laws and Regulations, Etc., Etc., Specially Relating to the Native Population of the Transvaal 1907, IA
Treaties South African Treaties, Conventions, Agreements and State Papers (1898), IA
Consular Reports
Historiography S.J. du Toit et al., Di geskidenis van ons land in di taal van ons volk 1895, North-West University, Africana Collection
Document Collections Correspondence Respecting the War Between the Transvaal Republic and ... (1877), IA
Transvaal : further correspondence relating to labour in the Transvaal mines : In continuation of [Cd. 2788] January, 1906, in continuation of Cd. 2819 February, 1906, from IA
Family Search, South Africa, Dutch Reformed Church Records, South Africa, Dutch Reformed Church Registers 1660-1970
H. Williams (ed.), Selected Official Documents of the South African Republic and Great Britain. A documentary perspective of the causes of the war in South Africa, 1900, Anglo-Boer War Website
Bafokeng Digital Archive
E.H.K.H. Brabourne, The truth about the Transvaal, pamphlet 1881, IA
A. de Castilho (ed.), A questao do Transvaal: documentos collegidos, tradusidos e communicados 1881, IA
J.G. Kotze (ed.), Documents and correspondence relating to the judicial crisis in the South African Republic (Transvaal) 1898, IA
Great Britain, Colonial Office : Transvaal. Papers relating to legislation affecting natives in the Transvaal. (In continuation of [Cd.714], July, 1901). Presented to both houses of Parliament by command of His Majesty. January, 1902 1902, IA
British rule in South Africa : a collection of official documents and other correspondence suggesting the adoption of a policy which shall ensure the peace and progress of the Orange Free State and Transvaal Republic 1868, IA
G.W. Eybers, Select constitutional documents illustrating South African history, 1795-1910, 1918, IA
Individual Documents Great Britain. Concentration Camps Commission, Report on the Concentration Camps in South Africa, by the Committee of Ladies Appointed by the Secretaty of State for War: Containing Reports on the Camps in Natal, the Orange River Colony, and the Transvaal, 1902, IA
Truth and Reconciliation Commission, TRC Reports vol.3 : Chapter 6: Regional Profile Transvaal
The American Journal of International Law 3, 1909 : Convention between the Governor of the Transvaal and the Portuguese Province of Mozambique, April 1 1909, IA
L.A.S. Lemmer, Report of the Natives land committee, Western Transvaal, 1918, IA
Minutes of evidence of the Eastern Transvaal Natives land committee 1918, IA
Historical Maps collections Bafokeng Digital Archive, Map Collection
Transvaal, Modern Southern Africa 1894, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Transvaal, contemporary A. Merensky, Original map of the Transvaal or South-African Republic, including the gold and diamondfields 1875, Africana Library at Wits
1885 South Africa Map featuring a divided Zululand; britishempire.co.uk
Kaart van de Spoorwegen in Transvaal en Oranje-Vrijstaat , Univ. of Illinois
R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 55. Pretoria 1882, 55. Pretoria 1896, 55. Pretoria 1899, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1881, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1883, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1897, Gallica
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Transvaal, Pretoria, Johannesburg, EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Transvaal, EB 1922, Wikisource
Articles Südafrikanische Republik, Pretoria, Johannesburg, Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, in German, Retrobibliothek
Religious Articles Transvaal, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Cape Colony, from New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
Economic J.H. Curle, The Gold Mines of the World, 1905, IA; Transvaal pp.54-126
Geographical W.H.P. Greswell, Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi 1892, IA; The Dutch Republics : The Transvaal, or South African Republic, the Orange Free State pp.269-285
C.P. Lucas, Geography of South and East Africa 1904, IA; Transvaal pp.71-81
G.T. Warner, A Geography of British South Africa< 1904, IA; Transvaal pp.110-130
Ethnological E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Transvaal pp.201-221
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; The Orange and Limpopo Basins pp.78-118, Transvaal pp.201-221
Historical W. Douglas MacKenzie, South Africa, its History, its Heroes and Wars 1900, IA; The Transvaal Republic pp.139-199
Parliamentary Debates Search Hansard (UK) for Transvaal
Parliament of the Republic of South Africa Hansard 1999-
Resident Memoirs T.M. Tromp, Herinneringen uit Zuid-Afrika, ten tijde der annexatie van de Transvaal 1879, IA
The memoirs of Paul Kruger, four times President of the South African Republic 1902, IA
Travelogues J. Sanderson, Memoranda of a Trading Trip into the Orange River (Sovereignty) Free State, and the Country of the Transvaal Boers, 1851-52, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 1860, IA
H.A. Roche, On trek in the Transvaal; or, Over berg and veldt in South Africa 1878, IA
A. Bordeaux, Rhodesie et Transvaal: impressions de voyage 1900, IA
H.L. Tangye, In New South Africa: Travels in the Transvaal and Rhodesia 1900, IA
J. Fessler, Unter dem roten Kreuz in Transvaal 1902, IA
R. Huchard, Autour de l'Afrique par le Transvaal 1904, IA
R.J. Berthoud, Du Transvaal a Lourenco Marques 1904, IA
C. Kirkland, Some African highways; a journey of two American women to Uganda and the Transvaal 1908, IA
Tourist Guides C.J. Becker, Guide to the Transvaal 1878
J.F. Ingram, The land of gold, diamonds and ivory; being a comprehensive handbook and guide to the colonies, states and republics of South and East Africa 1889, IA, Transvaal pp.87-90; The Witwatersrand Fields and Johannesburg pp.132-142
A Guide to the Transvaal (1905), IA
Exhibition Catalogues
Institutions Archives National Archives and Record Service of South Africa
National Archives and Records Service of South Africa, Offices which form part of the National Archives and Records Service of South Africa, scroll down for Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northwest Provincial Archives
National Archives of South Africa, Directory Entries of Archival Repositories 1999 page 1 : Archives of the Afrikaanse Protestantse Kerk, Pretoria, page 3 : Archives Repository of the Dutch Reformed Church of Africa, Pretoria, page 6 : National Archives Repository, Pretoria, Archives of the Reformed Church of South Africa, Potchefstroom
Musea Transvaal Museum, Pretoria
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Arms; from Armoria Patriae
Coat of Arms of Pretoria from ibid.
Flag of Klein Vrijstaat from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Coin Catalogue of Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek, from Numismaticon; Search Coin Archives for Transvaal; ZAR coins, from Token Coins; South Africa, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Transvaal Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery;

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Transvaal survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Catalogue of books and pamphlets relating to Africa south of the Zambesi, in the English, Dutch, French, and Portuguese languages, in the collection of George McCall Theal ... to which have been added several hundred titles of volumes in those languages and in German in the library of the British Museum, London, the South African Public Library, Capetown, and a few others. With notes upon those published before 1872 ... and upon several of a more recent date 1912, IA
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
general bibliographies
Transvaal entries
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica; Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
International Boundary Studies
on Transvaal Anglo-Boer War Society : Books
Africana Library at Wits
Thesis Server IR Space, Search South African & African research repositories
North-West University, Potchefstroom
University of Pretoria
University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
University of Johannesburg, Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories : South Africa
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
South African Military History Society, Military History Journal 1967-; all but the last few issues freely accessible online
Historical Association of South Africa, Historia
Review of African Political Economy 1974-
General Accounts Robert Ross, A Concise History of South Africa, Cambridge Concise Histories, 1999, 219 pp.
Charles H. Feinstein, An Economic History of South Africa, Cambridge : UP 2005
Readers Digest Illustrated History of South Africa, Pleasantville NY : Readers Digest, 1988 [G]
Christopher Saunders and Iain R. Smith, Southern Africa 1795-1910, pp.597-623 in : Andrew Porter (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.III : The Nineteenth Century, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3
Specific Topics Ravinder K. Thiara, Indian indentured workers in Mauritius, Natal and Fiji, pp.63-68 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year
Statesman's Yearbook South African Republic, 1895 pp.940-944, 1898 pp.939-944 [G]
Transvaal, 1901 pp.224-227, 1905 pp.244-252 [G]
Americana Annual
Other Article : South African Republic, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 pp.103-104 [G]
Article : Transvaal, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.779-783, 1899 pp.775-789, 1900 pp.868-870 [G]
Article : Transvaal, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.772-775, 1908 pp.695-696, 1909 pp.703-704, 1910 p.722 [G]

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