Portugal 1910-1918 Portugal 1939-1945

Portugal : the Republic between the Wars, 1918-1939

Politically, Portugal was split in three groups : the Old Republican parties, the Nationalists or New Republicans and the Monarchists. President Paes, a Nationalist, was murdered on Dec. 14th 1918. The Monarchists, in January 1918 launched a Royalist Revolution; the government called upon the citizens of Lisbon to rally to her cause, and the Monachist coup was averted (NIYB 1919).
Portugal gained Kionga (former German East Africa) in the Treaty of Versailles; Kionga was annexed into Moçambique.
Cabinets were short-lived; in 1920 a cabinet was brought down by a railroad worker's strike. Post-war inflation had raised the cost of living, and the issue of reducing the cost of living was high priority on the government's agenda. King Manuel (expelled in 1910) on September 9th 1920 renounced his throne, in favour of his son. On Oct. 20th 1921, PM Antonio Granjo was assassinated; the stage of siege was declared. That year, Portugal already had seen three cabinets come and fall. While the government had to address a severe financial crisis, the peasants and workers suffered from continued high cost of living and a high unemployment rate; support for Bolshevism spread (NIYB 1921).

Library of Congress, Country Studies : Portugal
History of Portugal by Dark Angel
REFERENCE David Birmingham, A Concise History of Portugal, Cambridge Concise Histories, 1993, 210 pp.
Article : Portugal, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1919 pp.1155-1169, 1924 pp.1212-1225, 1925 pp.1220-1227, 1926 pp.1188-1195 [G]
Article : Portugal, in : New International Year Book 1919 pp.538-540, 1920 pp.552-554, 1921 pp.582-583, 1923 pp.615-616, 1925 pp.572-573 [G]

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First posted in 2000, last revised on August 23rd 2007

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