Spain - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries

Brockhaus 1809-1811, Brockhaus 1837-1841, Anskjaer 1858-1863, Meyer 1885-1892

Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811

Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Spanien (2)
[History] ....
After the death of Carlos II. - he died, despite having been married twice, without male descendants - two pretenders to the crown stood up : Philipp, Duke of Anjou, second grandson of King Louis XIV. of France, and Archduke Charles of Austria, second son of Emperor Leopold I. Both achieved being proclaimed king by the Spanish nation, the former under the name Philipp V., the second as Carlos III. The latter had a better claim as the former, but the weapons of the grandfather made up for what the grandson lacked in claims. This caused the so-called War of Spanish Succession (see separate article), which in 1713 against expectations ended in Philipp's advantage. Philipp V. would certainly have restored the badly declined country if he had taken control of government himself and not listened to his ambitious minister Cardinal Alberoni, an Italian by birth. This one declared the recovery of the lost Italian possessions, Milan, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, as easy to achieve, and convinced the king to secretly order an expedition (1717), and gave Admiral Marquis de Lele a written order only to be opened at sea, in which he was ordered to conquer first Sardinia, then Naples and finally Sicily. While de Lele took the capital Cagliari, because the attack came so unexpected, England immediately took care of Sardinia, Admiral Pink defeated the Spaniards, also the Austrians moved into Italy. Philipp V. was defeated, and now formally had to cede the lands lost in the Treaty of Utrecht; on the other side, Emperor Charles VI. had to promise Philipp's eldest son Don Carlos the duchies of Tuscany and Parma as imperial fiefs, and, what had not happened before, renounce his claims on the Spanish crown. But Don Carlos only in 1729 was granted eventual enfiefment, and 1731 the possession.
Completely unexpected, in 1724 Philipp V. abdicated in favour of his older son from his forst marriage, Ludovico, a prince of excellent talents and skills, who knew how to gain the sympathies of the Spaniards, but who unfortunately died early. Now Philipp V. unwillingly resumed government. His second wife Elizabeth persuaded him to wage war in 1732 through his general, the Duke of Montemar, against the Algerians, and in the following year again against Emperor Charles VI., and while both wars contributed to raising Spain's international reputation, by regaining the two Spanish fortresses of Oran and Masalquivir, which had been lost in 1708, and by acquiring the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily for Don Carlos, against the cession of the Duchy of Parma to Austria and Tuscany to the House of Lorraine. Naples and Sicily were combined to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Again persuaded by Elizabeth, in 1740 Spain entered the War of Austrian Succession, in which the Duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were acquired for Don Philipp, his youngest prince, which Maria Theresia found herself compelled to cede.
Philipp V. (he died in 1746) was succeeded by the second son of his first marriage, Ferdinand VI., a brave prince and good regent, who did not permit his stepmother the slightest influence in politics, rather in 1748 concluded an advantageous peace with Britain and Austria, and then governed his kingdom in peace, so that he left his kingdom, which he only ruled for 13 years, in flourishing condition. His death was caused by the sorrow and then fury over the loss of his wife, Maria Barbara, a Portuguse princess in 1759.
His stepbrother Carlos, hitherto King of both Sicilies, followed both according to the law of succession and to Ferdinand's testament, under the name of Carlos III. In order to preserve the Kingdom of Two Sicilies for his descendants - the kingdoms were not to be united in personal union with Spain, and according to the preliminary agreement of Vienna 1735 and the Treaty of Aachen 1748 they were to fall to his brother Don Philipp, hitherto Duke of Parma - before traveling to Spain he declared his second son Carlos to be Prince of Asturia, i.e. crown prince and future king of Spain, and his third son Ferdinand, only 8 years old, King of the Two Sicilies; the eldest son Philipp, an imbecil incapable of governing, was given a pension. Carlos III. (the wife of whom was Maria Amalia, daughter of Friedrich August III., King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, but she died already in 1760), after in 1775 he waged an unsuccessful war against Algiers, in 1779 was drawn into the War of American Independence against Britain, as, in cooperation with the French he supported the Americans. Also he, his son Ferdinand King of the Two Sicilies, and King Louis XV. of France caused the Jesuit Order to be dissolved by Pope Clement XIV. (Ganganelli), which resulted in the increase of his revenues by the confiscation of the possessions of the Jesuits. He also somewhat limited the rights of the inquisition, which hitherto had acted without restriction, to the shame of reason. His death in 1788 followed after 55 years in government, during which the prosperity of the country had considerably increased. Also his son, he present king Carlos IV. does not love war, if he would not be forced into it because of Britain's self-interest, and it is certain that under more fortunate circumstances he would have contributed not insignificantly to the promotion of the fortune of his kingdom.
[Geography] Although since Philipp IV. much has gradually been torn away from the Spanish monarchy, it still ranks today among the largest kingdoms. By area in Europe alone it covers almost 9,000 square miles and forms a peninsula. Toward morning it borders on France, by which it is separated through the Pyrenees Mountains, toward the north on the Atlantic Ocean or the Bay of Biscay, toward the evening on the Ocean and on Portugal, toward noon on the Mediterranean Sea, which is connected with the Ocean by a strait. Despite the large area, Spain hithrto is insufficiently populated; compared to the size and population of France, it could contain twice more tha number of people who live there today. The population, by most statisticians estimated around 8 million, is certainly too low, as in 1757 1,987,800 families were counted. If one assumes every family to consist of 5 persons, already a figure of almost 10 million is calculated. Also the census was then not undertaken with precision, as the entire clergy, the number of which in Spain is legion, was exempted; therefore the population may be estimated, without exaggeration, at 10 million. The causes for the relatively low population of Spain are to be sought in part in the excesses of the young folk under the hot climate, in part in the persecutions of Muslims and Moors implemented under King Ferdinand the Catholic, and later the persecutions of the Moriscos and Marranos, also in the inquisition which scared off many foreigners, especially Protestants, from taking up residence here, but also in the too large number of the clergy which does not marry, and finally in the lack of government support for manufactures and factories, as well as the taxes and tariffs on everything, which are much too high, especially as the owners of secular property exceed he free clergy, and as entrepreneurs have to pay exorbitant tariffs when hey want to export their products.
The Spaniards, who see very much to outward glory - this is characteristic for them - and regard ceremonies high, also who often look down upon other nations, are courageous, love duels very much, also enjoy bullfights, which does not give the best impression of the sensitivity of their character, but still they are most galant to the more beautiful gender, but at the same time so jealous that the husband only rarely permits his wife to go out, at least not unaccompanied.
[Economy]. Spain is located under a hot strech of sky, therefore litle is known of the winter; it is not uncommon in some vregions such as Castile, Valenia and Murcia, to see fields grow green in the middle of the winter months. Instead as unbearable is the temperature during the day in the middle of the summer months, as cold are the nights. It belongs to the most blessed countries in Europe; this is already shown by the description of the Roman poet Claudian : dives equis, frugum facilis, pretiosa metallis. It has plenty of almost all nature can provide. Tree fruits of all kinds, lemons, pomegranates, corinthes, olives, almonds, chestnuts etc. every year bring large sums into the country. Also the cultivation of grain would thrive well if it were conducted more efficiently; only the Spaniard in working his field is to lazy; he does not cultivate more than what suits his needs. Rich in forest, it grows the timber for shipbuilding in the high mountains, what is required elsewhere grows everywhere in quantity. Because of the thriving mulberry tree, sericulture is of great importance, especially in Castile, Andalucia, Granada, Murcia and Valencia, and every year a large quantity of Spanish raw silk is exported, as the Spanish silk factories are of no importance. In the same areas the best fruit is produced in large quantity. Livestock keeping only stands out when it comes to horses and sheep. Andalucia and Asturias produce excellent and tenacious horses, which are exported for good prices, mainly to Britain and France. Sheepbreeding flourished here more than in any other country of Europe. The largest part of the fortune of the nobles and of other important private persons consists of flocks of sheep, and not rarely a nobleman keeps 40,000 sheep or more on his estate, as the numbr of sheep in Spain overall is estimated at over 5 million. These flock of sheep, once only held by the crown, are out in the open all year, which is good for their wool. And while the wool of all Spanish sheep is good, that gained from sheep from the center of the country, for instance from Castile and Andalucia, is of the finest quality, most appreciated on foreign markets. The export of wool to Britain, France, Germany and Switzerland annually bring 8 million Thaler into Spain, of which the crown collects 2 million Thaler, and this product would be even more profitable, if it were processed in Spain itself, which because of the small number of manufactures and factories is not the case, as easy as it were, if the government would take the decision to support enterprises in the field, and especially to attract foreign producers by favorable conditions. Because of the warm stretch of sky Spain is under, here also the most and best wines are produced, especially in Castile, Valencia, Aragon and Navarra. Most Spanish wines are sweet, but since Emperor Charles V. had German grape varieties brought into the country, also wines with a sourly flavour are cultivated. The wine for export is transported through Spanish territory in hoses, which as often as necessary are laid in rivers in order to keep it fresh. Also seasalt exported in quantity is an important export article. Of great importance are the country's mines, which among all European countries here are the most productive. Yes, it is certain that prior to the discovery of America this Empire supplied almost all of Europe with the necessary gold and silver. But since, while preserving their own mines, have imported all gold and silver from Chili, Mexico and Peru (one calculates 9,000 million Piaster which Spain acquired from there until 1740; still today he production of the mines over there shall be 5 million annually); so Spain therefore could compensate for an eventual loss of her American colonies. But the present demand for iron is permanent and great.
[Constitution]. Spain is a hereditary kingdom. Until Philipp V. princes and princesses succeeded depending on the proximity of their relation to the deceased; but under Philipp V. it was decided that prior to a princess inheriting, the princes of all other male lines had to have died, and even that among them the first born would have the first claim. Thus, primogeniture was introduced. The kings of all the smaller kingdoms, of which Spain was formed, in their rights to govern had been rather limited by the estates. They were first weakened by Ferdinand the Catholic, and their freedoms were completely destroyed by Philipp II. Spain still has estates, but their reputation is of no importance, and the king not tied by their decisions. Omnipotent Justiza until Philipp II. used to be powerful, taking second place in rank only after the king, but being more powerful than the king himself. He represented the estates in front of the king, when the Cortes did not meet, could examine all royal and state collegia, could implement changes in these as he felt like, could appoint or dismiss members, was not responsible for his actions to the king, but to the estates, and only in front of them as a jury could the king raise accusations against him. Ferdinand the Catholic began to limit his authority, Philip II. abolished he office.
In Spain there is a higher and a lower nobility. Higher nobility, to which the princes of the ruling house belong, is divided in three classes : dukes, marquesses and counts. All persons belonging to high nobility are called titulados, those belonging to lower nobility cavalleros or hidalgos. The former, the titulados, have a high rank inside and outside of the kingdom, but the grandes are of even higher rank, but for the position of grande not even nobility is required. The dignity of a grande (grandeza) is granted by the king at will, in most cases it is hereditary for male and female descendants, and with this Spanish grandeza come many privileges, which all concern honour and outward appearance, for instance that a grande, when addressed by the king, may cover his head, that he may employ a runner next to his coach, that he may have his coach pulled through Madrid by four donkeys, that he only may be ccused in front of the king, that he may maintain a throne with a canopy in his house etc. In addition, the king, when he writes letters to them, calles them 'fathers'. Every high nobleman has the right to have 'Don' added to his name, which even the king and his princes do.
The King of Spain is called 'His Catholic Majesty', every prince of the house 'infant', the crown prince also, since John II., Prince of Asturias, but he first has to be proclaimed as such by the estates, and to be confirmed by the king. So this title is not hereditary, but the right to succession is, as primogeniture is law. The majority of the crown prince and the determination of the age when he reaches it depends solely of the will of the king, which he may express in his testament or in any other public document. If this did not happen, the young king may declare himself as being of age, as he pleases. In general, the authority of the kings of Spain is rather wide; they are not responsible to anyone.
The annual revenues of the kings of Spain are calculated at 46 million Piaster (in our currency about the same figure in Reichsthaler), which come from a variety of sources, but would be even higher, if the government would encourage her subjects to be productive, and would have the country's products processed in the country. As high these revenues are, year for year they are consumed and nothing is paid into the treasury, for a long ime, whenever Spain is involved in a war, it has been forced to sign loans abroad. Also it causes astonishment that Spain, which among all European powers has the most productive gold and silver mines, delivers goild and silver in bars to foreigners, while it uses a copper currency at home. Certainly not a praiseworthy state economy ! Also one wonders why Spain does not export her colonial products to other countries, but instead permits that these fetch them by themselves, and even import them to Spain, as her navy still is important enough to transport these goods respectively escort these transports by herself.
The most prominent collegia are (1) the council of state, which consists of 6 or more ministers, corresponding to our cabinet for exernal affairs, (2) the supreme royal council, for the kingdom's domestic affairs; but the matters concerning Castile are dealt with by the (3) chamber of Castile, (4) the chamber of the Alcaldes, responsible for the court personnel, (5) the council of war, (6) the royal council of the Indies, responsible for all matters concerning the colonies, and (7) the council of finances responsible for royal revenues.
Militant orders ....
[Religion, Education] The only legal religion in Spain is the Roman Catholic one; every other is not permitted to practice, at best devotion in the home. The inquisition except for the main tribunal in Madrid has 14 subordinate courts of inquisition, and the clergy is here most numerous. According to a calculation by Count Aranda Spain has 157,805 clergymen of all kind ! There is an enormous number of monasteries for monks and nuns, many archconvents and convents etc. There are 8 archdioceses and 44 dioceses. Given the large number of universities (there are 23, the most famous being that of Salamanca, in Leon) and the even larger number of schools in monasteries, the state of sciences and enlightenment in Spain is not the best; unfortunately a little theology and Aristotelic philosophy fills the entire curriculum of the Spaniards, and canonic law is the only branch of science which has seen not unimportant contributions by Spaniards. If one looks at the many inquisition tribunals, the unrestricted censorship of books, which restrict oral and written discourses, one will be less surprised, and it is almost impossible for Spaniards to achieve fame for scholarship, no matter how talented and inclined they may be. The distance of present-day Spain to Spain of Antiquity, in which Quintilian, both Senecas, Florus, Columella, Silius Italicus, Martialis and others lived, is all the more conspicuous. While the inquisition tribunals have been restricted, there are still many innocent victims who are sacrificed to their hatred and revenge. Given such obstacles to the enlightenment, in Spain, among those of high and low standing alike, much superstition prevails, for which much evidence is frequently observed.
[Laws] As far as laws are concerned, at first Visigothic traditional law was applied. Alfonso X. had it published, and Ferdinand the Catholic had the hitherto enacted constitutions incorporated in this collection of laws, and the combination of both published in 1505. These laws are still valid in Spain, but they are supported by German, Roman and canonic law.
[Military] In times of peace the Spanish army has a strength of about 100,000 men, mostly infantry; in times of war it is increased. The Spanish soldier is brave, courageous and moderate; only his leadership in the last 200 years was not always a good one; also the soldiers were neither properly paid nor respected. However, all of this should change presently, as the French military system has been introduced in Spain. The navy, which under Carlos I. and Philipp II. used to be the first in the world, began to decline under the latter, but their general improvement is to be expected, as the country is so well-suited for sea trade, all the more as Spain has many suitable ports and the products needed to build ships. All of Europe would benefit if Spain's marine and trade were improved and raised, so that the entire continent would not have to pay its money to over-powerful and over-confident Britain.
[Rivers] Among the many and large rivers of Spain the most excellent are (1) the Minho which has its spring in the mountains between Galicia and Asturias, and which feeds into the Atlantic on the border to Portugal, (2) the Tajo (Tejo), Spain's largest river, which has its spring in New Castile, (3) the Douro (Douero) which has its spring in Old Castile; both flow through Portugal into the Atlantic, (4) the Guadiana (Lat.: Anas), (5) the Guadalquivir (Lat. Baetis), a very large river the sediment of which contains gold, it has its spring on the border of Murcia and Andalucia, and also flows into the Atlantic. (6) the Ebro (Lat.: Iberus), the spring of which is between Asturias and Old Castile, feeds into the Mediterranean below Tortosa; after it all of Spain is called Iberia. Given so beautiful and excellent rivers, blessed Spain is also rich in fish, and given so many forests there are plenty of fowl and venison, and therefore this kingdom, if the inhabitants were more industrious and the government would take more action, given these natural richesses, could be among the foremost in the world - a perspective which the present condition seems to favour, as France, presently allied with Spain, points the latter more and more at her advantages.
(References, Footnotes) ...

source in German, posted by Zeno

Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Spanien (1)
Here in involuntary interruption of the alphabetical order we include a report on the events which happened in this country in consequence of the unfortunate catastrophe mentioned in part VI on page 22 at the end. Unfortunately, Spain found itself coerced into participating in the renewed war between France and Britain, as the latter no longer regarded it in her interest to further permit the neutral status of Spain. While the country remained untouched in the earlier part of the war, and the responsibilities Spain had taken upon herself in the Treaty of San Ildefonso (August 19th 1796), to provide the latter with 15 ships of the line and 24,000 army troops, were modified repeatedly because of the changed interests of both powers, so that Spain hoped to avoid immediate participation in the war. Finally, after lengthy negotiations on October 30th 1803 France and Spain signed a convention at Madrid which freed Spain of the aforelisted contributions in exchange for an annual subsidy in monthly payments of 4 million Lior, for the duration of the war. But as this convention had not been published authentically, Britain at first seemed to be willing to respect Spain's neutrality, but alert and suspicious, it demanded explanation from the Spanish government. Being given unsatisfactory and evasive answers it only became more suspicious, the British government protested against the convention as a breach of neutrality; it declared the former as a justification for war, as long as this obligation would last. In subsequent negotiations the British emissary declared that in the case of continued payment of subsidies war would be unavoidable. The Spanish court, expressing that this subsidy was only paid for the moment, expressed that it seriously intended to remain at peace with Britain, and so the first half of 1804 passed, until finally in July, caused by news of the armament of ships in Spanish ports, Britain insisted on the termination of these moves and again demanded to be provided further details in regard to the convention, and as it did not receive a satisfactory response, the order was sent to all fleet admirals and captains of navy vessels to take all Spanish vessels laden with treasure. This order, which already was implemented by Captain Moore against a Spanish fleet coming from La Plata on October 5th, resulted in a skirmish in which the latter had to surrender to the British, and the latter confiscated 4 million Thalers. In the meantime he British emissary, as he did not receive any satisfactory answer, has demanded his passport for the purpose of departure, and on November 14th departed from Madrid. Now both sides published war manifestos in which either side, as usual, tried to justify their action. On the other hand, because of this breach France got an ally, which considerably increased her force vis-a-vis Britain. Subsequently Spanish troops were even stationed in Germany, in order to form, jointly with French and Dutch troops, an observation corps on the Elbe river.
But one of the most remarkable changes still was to come in this first decade of the 19th century so laden with extraordinary events. On October 30th 1807 King Carlos IV. notified his colleagues of a coup attempt undertaken by his son and successor, Prince Ferdinand of Asturia, against his person and throne, and also informed them that his son had been arrested as were the fellow conspirators. Soon after, on November 5th, the king made known that he had forgiven his son, because the later had given the names of the coup's ringleaders and had shown remorse, also several grandes and state servants had been arrested and expelled, and the matter seemed to be buried in silence, when in March 1808 a new, much more terrible rebellion broke out, the real cause of which so-far remains in the dark, but the results of which were the following : On March 16th in Aranjuez, where the king resided, a most terrible tumult broke out, seemingly directed against the prince of peace (1). His palace was stormed, everything smashed to pieces, the prince himself who at first had hidden, severely abused, and with a number of wounds, could just barely be brought to safety. On March 18th the King, notified of the coming march of French troops through Madrid to Cadiz, issued a proclamation in which he declared that the French troops were to be given a hospitable reception and that the Prince of Peace was dismissed from all his offices, and that the King himself wanted to take over the supreme command over all his forces. Already on March 19th, with unrest continuing to increase, the King issued another proclamation, in which it was announced that the king because of continuing weakness abdicated the crown in favour of his son, the Prince of Asturia, that he wanted the latter now to be recognized as king and master of all of Spain, and the new king Ferdinand VII. immediately assumed government. Already on March 24th the Grand Duke of Berg, who previously had been in Burgos, entered Madrid at the head of a French army, which remained here, because only 2 days after the last insurrection (March 21st) the previous king Carlos IV. sent a letter to French Emperor Napoleon, in which he declared, that he had abdicated only under force, to save his life and that of the queen, that he protested against this treatment, that he threw his fate into he hands of Napoleon and would leave the decision over it to the later. Napoleon received this letter at Bayonne, where he had arrived on April 15th, and soon here arrived not only the pretender king Ferdinand VII., but also the old king Carlos IV. with his wife and the Prince of Peace. The former, the Prince of Asturia - because he was recognised here as such - from the reception he was given could sense his fate, despite him having expressed his disapproval of he insurrection. When now, while all these persons were presen in Bayonne, on May 2nd a rebellion against the French broke out in Madrid, which was suppressed on the same day by the Grand Duke of Berg, with considerable bloodshed, on May 6th when news of the rebellion arrived in Bayonne, the Prince resigned his crown which he had worn for hardly 6 weeks, and which rarely has been worn more shamefully than by him. The king, to whom he returned his crown, immediately appointed the Grand Duke of Berg to the position of general lieutenant of the kingdom and issued respective orders to the governing junta, the Council of Castile and to the Council of War; only the resumed rule of the old king lasted not more than two days, because already on May 8th in a notification to public institutions he made known that he had ceded all his rights on the Spanish kingdom to his ally and friend, the Emperor of France. Also the princes of the king, in a proclamation of May 12th, joined the declaration of resignation of all rights and claims of the House of Bourbon on the Spanish throne, which already had been declared and signed by their father. In exchange for this treaty of resignation (signed already May 5th 1808) the Emperor offered the king and his family, the Prince of Peace and others refuge in his lands, guaranteed them a civil list of 30 million real from the royal treasury. The queens apanage after the death of her husband was to amount to 2 million. The infants of Spain and their heirs would be paid an annual sum of 400,000 Franks (in the treaty of resignation of the Prince of Asturia he was granted a life-long pay of 600,000 Franks, half of which his widow would receive after his death). The king was given the palace at Chambord with all its belongings to freely dispose of.
So ended the rule of the Bourbons in Spain, which had rivalled with France for such a long time, with the resignation of the last members of the house. Napoleon on May 25th issued a decree which promised the convocation of a junta - a general assembly of deputees from the provinces and cities - in order to listen to the wishes, demands and complaints of the nation, and which promised a new constitution. Soon a proclamation was made on June 6th, in which he declared his brother Joseph Napoleon (hitherto King of Naples) King of Spain and the Indies, simultaneously guaranteeing the independence and integrity of all his states in Europe as well as in Africa, Asia and America. On June 15th the Junta convened in Bayonne; their main focus was the examination of a draft for a new constitution, which in the 12th and last session on July 7th was solemnly read out loud, unanimously accepted, and sworn on by both sides. After having departed from Bayonne on July 9th, the new king Joseph Napoleon now entered Spain, and on July 25th Madrid. Only in the meantime. already for six weeks, civil war had raged in the country, namely in Spain's easern and southern provinces : Andalucia, Castile, Murcia, Valencia, Catalonia etc., and a large number of Spaniards, engaged in he highest form of insurrection, had committed atrocities of all kinds. The majority of the insurgents, at least their leaders, operated under the assumption that the first abdication of Carlos IV., in favour of his son Ferdinand VII., had been undertaken voluntarily and legally, and that only the second one in favour of Napoleon had been forced. So a Junta assembled in Castile recognized the Prince of Asturia as the legitimate king, who was proclaimed on August 24th, and the people took up arms to defend his rights and those of the nation. The leaders declared this war as one to be fought in part in defense of the rights of king and nation, in part to be fought for religion and church. The king, just having arrived in Madrid, regarded it necessary to leave the city again on August 1st, and under the protection of the French army, to move to Burgos, while the entire army moved into new quarters. While the French generals conducted the war with fortune, namely Marechal Bessieres in the northern provinces of Navarra, Biscaya, Old Castile and Leon, and several provinces were forced into submission and disarmed, only in Andalucia matters developed less favorably : here the insurgents rose anew, strengthened by British aid, cut communications with Madrid, defeated General Dupont who was forced to surrender etc. These circumstances caused Emperor Napoleon to arrive at the decision to conduct his war in a more effective manner, and to decide Spain's fate definitely. For this purpose, according to a decree of September 5th, the recruitment of an army of 160,000 men by the ministers of foreign affairs and of war was ordered, and now strong forces, in October even the Imperial French guard, moved toward Spain. Several major battles near Burgos, Espinosa (Nov. 10th) and Tudela (Nov. 13th) annihilated a large part of the armies of the insurgents, and on December 4th the French armies again entered Madrid. Several decrees declared the leaders of the insurrection as being enemies of France and Spain, the members of the Council of Castile were dismissed, a court of cassation created, the inquisition terminated, the number of monaseries reduced to one third, all feudal rights in Spain lifted etc. A deputation petitioned the Emperor to return to them the presence of their King Joseph, a request, which - here a jump in the chronologic order of events may be permitted - was granted, when the King again on January 22nd 1809 entered Madrid.
The new constitution declares the Catholic religion as the dominant and only one in Spain. The crown is hereditary in the person of Prince Joseph Napoleon. If there are no male heirs (the female line is forever excluded), Nepoleon's heirs inherit, except for those of Prince Louis - Hieronymus; also he Spanish crown shall never be combined with another in personal union. The king is a minor until he reaches the age of 18. The king's revenues shall be 1 million Piaster annually. There are 6 grand officers of the royal house, 9 ministers, the senate consists of the infants and of 24 individuals appointed by the king; the council of state, presided by the king, consists of 30 to 60 members. The Cortes or national assembly consists of 172 members who are divided in 3 chambers, those of the clergy, the nobility and the people. They convene at least once every three years, called upon by the king; their sessions are not public. The Spanish kingdoms in America and Asia have the same right as the motherland. Spaniards and Indios are tried according to one and the same civil code. The judges are appointed by the king. There are justices of peace, tribunals of the first instance, courts of appeal, a court of cassation for the entire kingdom, a royal supreme court. Taxes are the same in the entire kingdom. All privileges are suppressed. The number of universities for all of Spain has been determined at 11; until 1807 Spain had 22. The reduction of the number of monasteries to one third, the abolition of the inquisition and of feudal rights has already been mentioned.

(1) . This favorite of king and queen, with the family name of Godsi, at first only was a bodyguard. He had the good fortune to impress the then Princess of Asturia in part by his beautiful, powerful body stature, in part by his musical talent, and soon rose, especially after the death of King Carlos III., from one position of honour and glory to another, even to the highest, that of one of the Spanish grandes (he had become Duke of Alcuida), and had been showered with riches - a zenith which he had climbed in two years. So he simultaneously achieved important political influence, although being a civilian without the post of minister, even in state matters; he had dominating influence over the queen, the queen over the king, and so everything went through him, and nobody could dare to speak up against him. The king's confidence in him was as complete as that of the queen. In 1795 he was raised to the rank Prince de la Paz, and in 1797 married to a princess of the royal uncle. But as to how this royal favorite attracted envy and hatred of all grandes of Spain, and of all courtiers, does not require any further explanation.

source in German, posted by Zeno

Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841, Article : Spanien
[General Geography] The Kingdom of Spain, together with the Kingdom of Portugal, makes up the Pyrenaic peninsula or the southwestern part of Europe. It contains about 8,500 square miles or about 4/5 of the peninsula. Spain is bordered in the north by the Pyrenees and the Bay of Biscay, in the west by the Atlantic Ocean and by Portugal. Its southern coasts meet the waves of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, which also sends her waves against the eastern coast.
[Physical Geography] The entire peninsula forms a single plateau, a separate mountain unit not connected with any other European mountain range. It has only a few low plains of minor importance. Among the latter the most extensive are the Aragonese plain on the lower Ebro and the Andalucian plain on the lower Guadalquivir. The plateau is traversed by mountain ranges stretching from east to west; they form the northern and southern fringes. The northernmost is the Cantabrian and Asturian mountain range, a continuation of the Pyrenees, which, 5,000 - 7,000 feet high, is located close to the coast and stretches to Cape Finisterre. Also Spain's northernmost tip, Cape Ortegal, belongs to it. The plain bordered by these mountains in the north extends to boh banks of the Duero. Her southern border is formed by the Sierra de Guadarama, up to 7030 feet high, which in Portugal is continued by the Sierra de Estrella, and which ends in Cape Roca. Between these and the mountains of Toledo and those which have no common name and are only 2,000 to 3,000 feet high, extends the second Spanish plateau, that of the Tajo. The third crossed by the Guadiana in the south is bordered by the Sierra Morena, which continues in Portugal as the Sierra de Monchique and ends in Cape Saint Vincent. The fourth is the valley of the Guadalquivir, which in the south is separated from the sea by the Sierra Nevada. This mountain range is 4,000 to 5,000 feet high on average, at several locations 10,000 - 11,000 feet high. In the south it falls off sharply toward the sea, but in the north it descends gradually in many parallel valleys and plains toward the Guadalquivir. The most important promontories formed by it are : Cape Trafalgar, Cape Tarifa, Cape de Gata and Cape de Palos. The Cape de Gata belongs to the eastern part of the Sierra Nevada, called Alpujarras. These mountains and plains descend in westerly direction, as indicated by the direction of the rivers. A mountain range stretching from north to south, which would connect the eastern ends of the other mountain ranges, and which on many maps is indicated as the Iberian mountain range, does not exist and at best is a slightly elevated eastern rim of the plateaus. To the aforementioned rivers flowing from east to west two smaller ones have to be added : the Minho, which in its lower course forms the border between Spain and Portugal, and between Guadiana and Guadalquivir the Tinto (i.e. the colored river), with yellowish water containing copper; it it no fish live. All these rivers have only tributaries of minor importance, and in general a low amount of water, the reasons for which are the short duration of snow cover in the mountains and the lack of forests and swamps. But at all times they may rise sharply. The Duero, which is 100 miles long, takes in the Pisuerga and Esla from the north and the Adaja and Tormes from the south. The Tajo, 120 miles long, takes in from the north the Xarama with the Manzanares and the Henares, the Alberche and the Tietar, from the south the Salor. The Guadiana, 105 mils long, has its spring in a swampy lake in La Mancha and takes in on the right the Giguela, on the left the Jabalon. The Guadalquivir, which as a stream is 70 miles long, takes in the Guadelimar on the right and the Xenil on the left. Except for the Guadalquivir, all these rivers are not navigable, because of rapids and waterfalls. The Duero and Tajo become navigable only just before their mouths, thus outside of Spain, but at the mouth they are deep enough for seagoing ships. The Guadiana, among all rivers in Spain, provides the least favorable conditions for navigation. It declines very slowly, in its upper course the water stagnates often and turns the banks into swamps, in its middle course there are rapids and cataracts, and in its lower course it silts up more and more. The Guadalquivir shows most advantages in this respect. It has a larger and more regular water level as he other rivers, and seagoing ships were able o sail up to Sevilla until its bed was raised by deposits of mud and sand. Now seagoing ships only can sail until Cantillana. There is only one major river feeding into the Mediterranean, the Ebro, 80 miles long, because only in the northeastern part of Spain, which belongs o the southern slope of the Pyrenees and not to the aforementioned mountains and plateaus, between the eastern rim of the plateau and the sea there is sufficient space for the development of an important river. The Ebro has its spring in the Cantabrian mountains, it takes in from the left, i.e. from the Pyrenees, the Aragon, the Gallego and the Segre, from the right the Xalon. From Zaragoza on it can be navigated by small barches, but only with difficulty if the water level is high. Upward from Zaragoza until Tudela instead the Aragonese or Emperor's canal, constructed under Emperor Charles V., running parallel to he river, is used for navigation, which also serves the irrigation of the adjacent area. It is most impressive where a 4230 feet long pipe crosses the river Xalon. Unfortunately the continuation of the canal below Zaragoza has not been executed. Another canal avoids the silted-up mouth of the river. Except for the Ebro, on the eastern slope of the peninsula the Guadalaviar, the Xucar and the Segura are to be listed. Lakes of importance lack on the entire peninsula, the larges is the Lake of Albufera, close to the eastern coast. By climate and products, Spain is divided in three zones. The northern one, well-watered, rich in trees and mild, contains the Ebro valley, the northern coastal stretch and Galicia. The central one, containing the first three plateaus mentioned, is treeless and arid, usually for two months without rain, sometimes for half a year, and for these parts the judgment is valid which is often given as Spain's dominant character, that, the river valleys and the coastal stretches disregarded, lacks vegetation. The summer is sultrily hot, the winter, given the altitude of the country (Madrid has an altitude of 1842 feet above the sea) often very cold. The lack of timber resuls in his being felt even more. The southern zone, to which belong the valley of the Guadalquivir and the southern coastal areas, has the warmest climae of all of Europe, and also her products are of tropical character. As all southern countries have their feared winds, Spain has the Gallego, an cold to icy wind, and the Solano, a slackening hot wind. Spain also suffers from earthquakes, but not as frequently as Italy does.
[Economy] Spain is not rich in natural resources. But if cultivation were improved it could produce more products of any kind, which is also been shown by the era in which the industrious Moors ruled the country. But the present inhabitants of Spain, partially because of their disregard for business, in part by internal unrest are prevented from actively making use of the soil. Best cultivated are Valencia and Catalonia, then a few southern coastal stretches, such as near Cadiz and the province of Granada, which among all the provinces of Spain displays the strongest traces of Moorish industriousness. Good cultivation we also find in the northwest, in the province of Galicia. The products of Spain consist of the grains and fruits common to all of Europe, to which since a number of decades the earlier here not cultivated potatos have to be added. Also maize, and in the south, rice. The very useful cork oak and the evergreen oak with edible fruits thrive even in the north. Also the olive tree and wine are spread all over Spain, but in the south they thrive better, as it produces Spain's most famus wines, the Alicante, Malaga and Sherry. Proper southrn vegetation begins in the southern of the three zones, in a way notably distinguishing it from the remainder of the country. Here one finds the noblest of citrus fruit, also dates and other palm trees, pisang, the carob bean tree, omegranade trees, cacti, melons of excellent quality etc. All gardens are delimited by fences of Aloe and the Indian fig. Sugar cane grows in the province of Granada almost as well as in the West Indies. Also cotton, if cultivated with more effort, would deliver good profits. Among the animals characteristic for Spain, the horse and the sheep have to be mentioned. The Andalucian horse once was a race of wide fame; it combined beautiful stature and fire with a rather docile temper. But the late wars have destroyed this fine race. In general, mules and donkeys are used more than horses. The indigenous sheep is known under the name Mrino, producing fine wool, which was imported into Germany and other European countries for the amelioration of sheep breeding. In Spain, sheep breedng has deteriorated so much, that a number of years ago Merinos from Saxony were imported to ameliorate the Spanish ones. Also, sheep breeding is a great burden for the country. Because they are held in a way that they are never driven into stables. In the summer they graze in the mountains, in the winter they are driven back into the plains. Even more, the owners of these herds, which almost exclusively belong to nobility and clergy, exercise oppressive privileges. The streets along which the herds are driven have to be left pen at a width of 240 feet, for the purpose of grazing, and for the pastures where they spend he winter they only have to pay a low fee for herding. The province Estremadura suffers most under these conditions, where agriculture is non-existent. The export of wool does also not bring money into the country, because the wool, given the lack of factories, which only produce 1/20 of he Spanish demand [in woolwares], is only xported as raw wool, and woollen products ae purchased back for high prices. In regard to fauna it has to be noted, that near Gibraltar monkeys live, near Cadiz the chameleon, both species not found anywhere else in Europe. Spain is rich in minerals, but the mining industry has not yet risen from the neglect it fell into in the 16th century when the mines of the Americas were found. Silver is only produced in small quantity in the Sierra Morena, where also copper is produced. Very producive and famous since antiquity are the mercury mines of Almaden. Lead is produced in great quantity in the Alpujarras Mountains, iron mainly in the Basque provinces and in Aragon. Coal is produced in Asturias and in the lands on the Guadalquivir. Salt, mineral salt as well as saline salt and seasalt, is an important article for export. The factoris of Spain, compared to those of other countries of Europe, are far behind. None of the important branches of indusry are completely lacking, but none satisfies domestic demand, and so the gain from products which are exported in raw instead of processed condition, is lost again. What has been stated above about wool counts even more for silk. Many provinces produce silk of excellent quality, but silk textiles are almost only produced in New Castile and Valencia. Because of the many excellent ports, Spain's sea trade is important, especially as the many impendimentary regulations have been abolished since 1822. Cdiz and Barcelona are the most important ports, then follow Alicante, Valencia and Malaga. Land trade can not progress because of pressing tariffs and the lack of good roads. Mostly one encounters roads only suitable for mules. And because not many travel in Spain, one misses the comforts to which travellers are accustomed in the enlightened countries of Europe, for example in the inns. Except for the largest cities, these are so badly equipped that one has to shop for the most essential necessities in the neighbourhood. All his used to be different, and cities such as Burgos, Alcala, Toledo, Sevilla, Cordoba, Granada, Munviedro (the Saguntum of old), which now have only 1/4 to 1/5 of their former population, are witness to the decline of Spain's greatness.
[Population] The inhabitants, despite being a mixed race composed of original Celts, of Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths and Moors, show a marked national character. This is overall not unadvantageous. By outer appearance the Spaniard is strong and healthy, which is to be credited to he fresh air on the plateaus and in the mountains, he is of tall and slim stature, while the Portuguese is shorter and more stout. He has expressive facial features, firy, serious eyes, white teeth and black hair, which at to the attractiveness of his stature. The Spanish women are characterized by beautiful stature and by proud attitude. The national dress, he main features of which are the light coat and the wide girdle, in the main cities has been replaced by the more gentle by the French fashion. But even more steadfastly the Spaniard holds on to old traditions, opinions and prejudices, and the rejection of anything foreign, a consequence of peculiar Spanish pride, forms a main treat of the Spanish national character. In regard of customs and moral characteristics, this seclusion has only been beneficial. All the worse was [the impact of the seclusion] on education; the Spaniards still have almost all virtues of a nation litle spoiled by the contact with other nations. Unjustly they had been regarded as lazy, ignorant, superstitious and cruel, until they were became to be known better early in this century. It is less lethargy than frugality and the love of cosiness, which prevent them to spend effort beyond the easily learnt profession. Cruelty only becomes apparent if they are in the state of being provoked and their passion is aroused, as in the present civil war. In general the Spaniard is open, honest, faithful and familial. These characterstics provide him with a from his perspective sufficient degree of happiness, and we should not believe this happiness to have completely disappeared, and the condition of the people to be mourned, just because the state apparatus is ruined, all conditions in chaos, many regions devastated by war. A certain freedom in action is common to all classes; also in their language the nobleman and the commoner do not show the sharp distance observed in other countries. Theft and burglary occur rarely, because the thief is generally despised, less the robber, whi indeed in Spain displays traces of chivalry and of gallantry. Much more unfavourable is the education of the Spaniard; here he is far behind most of the other peoples of Europe, as he stubbornly held on to the old ways for centuries, and he lacks the freedom of spirits. His natural reason and his vitality prevent him from descending into dullness, but do not enable him to break his fetters, which prevent any rise. So the Catholic Religion, which once was served by the inquisition, still exercises her unweakened control of this people. But they are not sunken into such a dark superstition as it is found in Italy, the religious services with all their ceremonies have a cheeriness as created by the heat of southern phantasy, and prevailed. Spain is thus completely inaccessible for the Protestant element. The universities, of which there are now 13, are not in a condition suited to serve the needs of the intellectuals. As the other institutions of education they are in the hands of the clergy and do not properly serve science. It can not be denied that the people in his respect head toward a crisis. After during trhe period of French rule among the upper classes a more liberal education spread, in the present war of succesion between Christina and Don Carlos the people is split into two opposite parties, one of which supports liberal ideas in state and church, the other absolute power of the king and of the church.
Nobility and clergy form a numerous part of the population of Spain. The clergy is headed by the Archbishop of Toledo, who is the primate of the kingdom. Besides him there are 7 archbishops, 362 bishops etc. The revenues of the clergy, although repeatedly reduced in recent times, are still of immense size, and they top the other state revenues by 20 %. Among the people the clergy are revered almost god-like. The number of monks and nuns presently can not be precisely given, as the monasteries and convents lately have been dissolved. Until recently, 62,000 monks and 24,000 nuns were counted.
The life of the Spaniards has many peculiarities. Songs and music do not flourish among them as much as they do in Italy. An important element of social entertainment is the dance. The two Spanish national dances are he Bolero and the Fandango. The former is danced in the theatre, the latter in the open and in families. They are only danced by one pair each, and they differ from our dances and ballets in containing more mimic presentations, and in stressing not only the skills of the feet, but a spirited, rather sensual movement of the entire body. A peculiar entertainment which the Spaniard enjoys, but which goes against our taste, is the bullfight.
The number of inhabitants is 12 million, a figure not impressive regarded the size of the country, as only 1400 inhabitants come per square mile. Most densely populated are Galicia and the Basque Provinces, least densely populated is Estremadura. The number of provinces according to the division of 1833 is 43 (it used to be 49). hese coinclde with territories which reflect the differences of the inhabitants and are based in history. .. They are the following : Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias with its capital Oviedo (7,000 inh.), the Basque Provinces, Old and New Castile, Catalonia, Estremadura with capital Badajoz (15,000 inh.) and which is an important border fortress opposite Portugal, Galicia, which except for capital Santiago de la Compostela has the cities Coruna (15,000 inh.), Ferrol (20,000 inh.) and a fortified naval port; Granada, with the capital by that name and the cities Malaga, Velez Malaga (16,000 inh.), Almeria (7,000 inh. and rich saline), Ronda with two asbestos rocks and 12,000 inh., Leon, Murcia, Navarra, Valencia and the Balearic Islands. At the had of every province there is a delegado, who may be compared with the prefect of a French departement. The highest officials in the urban magistrates are called alcalde; the alcalde is assisted by the municipality or ayuntamiento. Independen of the provincial organisation is the division in 11 military governments, each of which is under a captain general. he navy is organised in three departments, Ferrol, Cartagena and Cadiz. These are the country's largest naval ports.
[Constitution] Spain is a constitutional monarchy. The king beatrs the title "the Cathiolic", the crown prince that of Prince of Asturias, the other siblings, as well as uncles and aunts of king and queen, are called "infants". Spain's orders are ...
Spain's possessions outside of Europe in Africa are the Presidios in the Kingdom of Fez (see under Ceuta), the Canary Islands (see there) and the island Annobon (next to the unoccupied island of Fernando Poo and Principe) in he Gulf of Guinea, in Asia the Philippins, the Bashi Islands and the Babuyan group, in America Cuba and Puerto Rico, which belong to the Greater Antilles, the remainder of the Spanish possessions in this part of the world, which once exceeded Europe in size; in Oceania the Marianas or Ladrones which some geographers allocate to Asia. All these colonies combined have an area of 5,000 squae miles and a population of 3,700,000 inhabitants.
[History] .... At first Spain participated in the war against France, but already in 1795 it signed the Peace of Basel. On this followed in 1796 the treaty of alliance of San Ildefonso, an accomplishment of the Prince of Peace. Now began the intrigues of Napoleon, to secure Spain more and more, and ultimately to drive it into ruin. Spain, as a French ally, was drawn into a war with Britain, in which it suffered many losses, and in which its navy in 1805 was destroyed near Trafalgar. Napoleon then dragged Spain into a war with Portugal and used the same to have French troops cross Spain and to have several fortresses in he country occupied. His plans were facilitated by an unhappy dispute in the royal house. The Prince of Peace ordered the arrest of crown prince Ferdinand, who foresaw the country's calamity, hated the Prince of Peace and warned the king. The prince was set free, but the people whose discontent with the Prince of Peace had reached a maximum, erupted in open rebellion, in the consequence of which King Carlos IV. on March 19th 1808 abdicated in favour of his son. But already a few days later he declared this abdication to have been involuntary and invalid, hurried to Bayonne to entrust his safety to his protector Napoleon. The latter also lured Ferdinand VII. here, whom the people trid to hold back by force. The French Emperor in the matter made a decision based on his power. He persuaded ex-king Carlos IV. to cede his claim in return for an annuity, then her forced Ferdinand VII. to resign, and finally he named his brother Joseph, hitherto king of Naples, to king of Spain. The royal family remained in France, in semi-imprisonment. Now began the determined resistance of a nation against a rule forced upon them, which never rested until he Emperor had been dethroned, and Joseph never gained the unperturbed control of the country. The people had been wounded were they were most sensitive, in their national pride, to which was added the hatred against France, and both caused her to unfold energies hitherto unknown. On July 20th 1808 Joseph Bonaparte entered Madrid, but soon after the insurrection of the people broke out in the entire country. Dupont had to surrender on the very same day, on July 20th, near Baylen, thev Frebnch had to lift the siege of Zaragoza, an alliance with Britain brought for Spain a British army under Wellesley (see under Wellington), who defeated Junot near Vimeira. Already on July 31st Joseph departed from Madrid and withdrew to Vittoria. Only the Spaniards lacked unity, and they found a better tool of resistance, instead of raising large armies they operated as guerillas (see there) for whom the mountainous terrain is most suitable. Then the fortune of war changed. Lefebvre was victorious at Espinosa, Soult at Gamonal, Lannes near Tudela, Napoleon himself near Somosierra. He entered Madrid on Dec. 4th; the city paid homage to his brother Joseph. Also the other cities fell into he hands of the French, so Zaragoza after the heroic defense from November 1808 to February 1809, with the exception of Cadiz and Gibraltar, but this way they had not gained control of the country; wherever they moved in victoriously, the road behind them closed again. Napoleon left Spain in 1809 to wage war against Austria, and now forever Fortune turned her back to him. Wellington was victorious at Talavera (July 28 and 29 1809); in 1810 he was pushed back into Portugal, but in 1811 he held out in the famous position at Torres Vedras against Massena. On July 22nd he was victorious near Salamanca, and he entered Madrid. Napoleon, who after the unfortunate war in Russia had to fight against half of Europe, was not able to send reinforcements into Spain. Then Wellington decided the Spanish war by a victory near Vittoria (June 21st 1813). Ferdinand VII. entered Madrid on May 14th 1814 (Carlos IV. died only in 1819), rewarded the heroic sacrifice of his people, which is unprecedented in history, with ruthless ingratitude. He reintroduced the inquisition, restored the tax-free status of nobility and clergy, dismissed the men to whom he was indebted for restoring him to the throne, and who therefore seemed to be dangerous to him; he cancelled the constitutiion which had been adopted by the Cortes of Cadiz 1812 and which the regency had sworn upon. Because in Spain under the rule of the House of Bourbon all traces of popular representation had gradually disappeared and the monarchy had become an absolute. This used not to be the case in the past; in order to raise taxes or to undertake anything of importance, the king needed the approval of the estates, being the deputees of clergy, nobility and later also of the cities. This had been specially the case in Aragon, as is proven by the formula in which homage is paid. Later kings succeeded in suppressing the constitution, because the rich American possessions made them independent from monetary concessions by the estates. Charles V. emerged victorious in the struggle with the cities which demanded a freer constitution. The House of Bourbon treated Spain as a conquered country, and in Castile the estates were never recalled after the it of 1713, in Aragon after the diet of 1720. Only Navarra and the Basque Provinces preserved some of their traditional liberties. But now the population regarded the constitution of 1812 an achievement for which they had paid a high price, and dissatisfaction continued to ferment when the king cancelled the constitution. When the Spanish army were to be embarked in Cadiz to be shipped to America, to force the colonists, which since 1806 under Mirando had campaigned for their independence, on January 1st of that year the troops under Riego proclaimed the constitution of 1812. The insurrection spead across the entire country; Navarra was armed by Mina. Everywhere Tragala, the song of liberty (named after its first words) was sung. The king saw it necessary to swear an oath on the constitution (March 7th). On July 7th the first session of the Cortes was opened. But the work destroyed itself. On one side the defenders of the constitution became ever more radical in their demands, and they adopted Jacobin principles, on the other side the supporters of an absolute monarchy increased in strength, and the moderate liberals, placed between anarchism and absolutism, were too weak to steer the rudder of state, The state treasury was exhausted, the reasonable minisry Martinez de la Rosa was not able to provide adequate support, in the northern provinces the so-called army of faith fought, headed by monks, for an unrestricted monarchy, in Madrid after a failed counter-coup of the guard all power fell into the hands of the radicals (exaltatos). This condition was terminated by the French army, which in 1823, after the European powers had consulted with each other at the Congress of Verona, invaded Spain under the Duke of Angouleme. They were joined by the army of faith; everywhere the people had been worked on by the clergy, stirred up against the constitutional government. So the main army which moved on Madrid, and the other corps which marched through Catalonia and Aragon met litle resistance, and the former entered the capital on May 23rd. Everywhere the supporters of the constitution were murdered by the mob and the soldiers of faith. The Cortes fled with the king, first to Sevilla, then to Cadiz. The Duke of Angouleme followed them there, on August 31st he stormed the Trocadero, the fortified isthmus which leads to Cadiz. The city, surrounded from the landside and the seaside, had to surrender; on October 1st the king was given a ceremonial welcome by the Duke of Angouleme. His first act was to rescind all measures taken by the constitutional government between March 7th 1820 and October 1st 1823. And the same king had said in 1820 : "In 1814 I had believed the constitution not to be the will of he people; so I did not accept it. Now I have sworn on the constitution which you wanted, and I will support it steadfastly." The work of the restaquration of absolute monarchy was completed by the cruel persecution of all constitutionalists and by executions (Riego was executed on November 7th). A French force of occupation stayed in the country until 1827, commanded by Bourmont. Outwardly Spain now remained calm, but her inner forces were paralized. Gradually the party dispute began to build up, as the king moved closer to the moderates, and by doing so alienated the Apostolic party. The latter found support in the king's brother Don Carlos. Ferdinand, in order to exclude his brother from succession, even in the case if his fourth wife Christina would give birth to merely a daughter, abolished the Salic Law on March 29th 1830. When Isabella, the present queen, was born on October 10th 1830, a civil war could be predicted, which broke out soon after the king's death (Sept. 29th 1833), and which has lasted on until today. Don Carlos came to Navarra, found supporters here, in the Basque Provinces and everywhere in the country, among the defenders of the church and of absolute monarchy. Here again it became apparent how extraordinarily great the power of the clergy over the people is. On the other hand, Christina granted the country a constitution on April 15th 1834, in form of the Estatuto Real. But all efforts of the Christinos under Valdez, Sarsfield, Cordoba and Espartero, to suppress the Carlists, long were in vain. These, under their leaders Zumalacarreguy (died on Oct. 25th 1835), Gomez, Cabrera, Don Sebastian, the cousin of Don Carlos, and others, defeated the Christino army, and, despite they were only able to control the northern provinces, often moved close to the caoital Madrid, even into La Mancha, Andalucia and Estremadura. The Quadruple Alliance concluded on April 22nd 1834 by Spain, Portugal, Britain and France did not produce any serious relief, although Portugal sent troops, France relocated its foreign legion from Algeria to Spain and the British fleet in December 1836 freed Bilbao which had been besieged by the Carlists. Both the British and the French cut the pretender's supply lines or at least made it more difficult for him to obtain his supplies. The country's finances were exhausted, the army and state officials without pay, state debts constantly increasing. The financial operations of Mendizabal did not bring a solution. The frequent change of ministers (Martinez de la Rosa, Isturiz, Calatrava, Ofalia and others) prevented any unity wihin the administration. In vain were the Jesuits dissolved in 1835, the monasteries and convents, ecclesiastic fraternities, collegia and corporations in 1836, their possessions being confiscated, the churches deprived of their treasures, the national property and those of the infants Don Carlos and Don Sebastian confiscated and sold off. These measures only resulted in enriching individuals. In several provinces federalis juntas were formed, in many cities insurrections broke out, often accompanied by terrible atrocities. The state of siege was repeatedly declared for Madrid. The constitution of 1834 was regarded insufficient, and supporters of the constitution of 1812 increased in number. On August 13th 1836 an army mutiny at La Granja forced the queen to recognize this constitution. But in the debates of the Cortes it was amended in several points, namely the Cortes is to be bicameral, consisting of the chambers of the Proceres and of the Procuradores, while the constitution of 1812 foresaw only one chamber, and in this form the queen on June 18th 1837 swore an oath on it, This is the constitution presently valid in Spain. A fact is that Spain on December 28th 1836 cncluded a treaty with Mexico and recognized he independence of the latter.
At this moment the civil war seems to finally have come to an end. In the camp of Don Carlos the appointment of General Rafael Maroto to commander-in-chief proved fatal. If the latter initially intended to betray the cause of the pretender, is uncertain. But it was treason that he on Februaru 18th 1839 had five high ranking officers shot at Estella, among them three generals. This way he removed those whose resistance he had to fear in the implementation of his plans. Don Carlos now proclaimed him a traitor and removed him from his post, but he cancelled his proclamation only three days later, expressing, that now better informed, he approved of the general's action. Seemingly both had reconciled, but from hat time, and perhaps even further back in time, Maroto was in communication with the Christino commander-in-chief Espartero, and prepared the final bloody catastrophe of thes bloody performance. He used the position of Navarra and the Basque Provinces, which became increasingly difficult, as well as he great financial malaise of Don Carlos, in order do win minds over for giving up the cause. Fortune favoured the Carlist arms less and less, Espartero pushed further and further, especially after victories at Ramales and Guardamino (in May), for which he was elevated to a Grande with the title of Duke de la Vitoria (Duke of Victory). When Maroto finally had prepared everything for a peaceful agreement, and assured himelf of his control of the army, in order to end the dispute, he wanted to hand over the person of Don Carlos to the Christinos. But the attempt failed, as the latter sensed the treasonable intention, and so Maroto with the part of the army informed of his plans switched over to Espartero. On August 31st 1839 both signed a convention at Bergara, which was to terminate hostilities. Maroto explained his actions by his opinion that Don Carlos never could have brought fortune to Spain, and therefore that in agreement with the military leaders of Vizcaya, Guipuzcoa, Castile and several other areas he wanted to give the country the peace long waited for. The remainder of the Carlist forces in Navarra and the Basque Provinces soon was defeated by the force of arms or surrendered, except for the few who fled across the border into France. Don Carlos crossed the French border on September 14th and awaits the issuance of passports in order to go to Austria or Italy. He has protested against the convention, and has accused Maroto of high treason. The war presently is only continued by the fanatic Cabrera in Aragon, with some success. Of the measures since taken by the Spanish government the most important is the one concerning the Fueros or privileges of the Basque Provinces and Navarra. They were confirmed, as promised in he convention, but with the comment that the Cortes soon would propose a law to definitely bring the Fueros in concordance with the monarchy's constitution. So these provinces may hope to see their privileges, for which they had fought so long, to see secured, and one of the main obstacles to a lasting peace thus is removed.

source in German, posted by Zeno

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Spanien
Kingdom in southwestern Europe, occupies the larger eastern and northern part of the Pyrenean peninsula. The mainland is located between 36 degrees 1 minute and 43 degrees 47 minutes northern latitude and 8 degrees 24 minutes and 21 degrees 1 minute eastern longitude, is surrounded by the Bay of Biscay, the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal, the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean and France. Its extreme points are in the north Cape Ortegal, in the south Cape Tarifa, in the east Cape Creus and in the west Cape Finisterre; he distance between these in a straight line is 118 and 140 miles respectively. To European Spain are counted the Balearic and the Pithyusic Islands in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands in the Atlantic. The following table provides an overview over the administrative division of the mainland, their size and population, as well as similar data on the colonies.

Old Division New Division Area (sq m) Population (1857)
New Castile Madrid
La Mancha Ciudad Real 368.4 244,328
Old Castile Burgos
Leon Leon
Asturias Oviedo 192.3 524,529
Galicia Coruna
Estremadura Badajoz
Andalucia Sevilla
Murcia Murcia
Valencia Valencia
Castellon de la Plana
Aragon Zaragoza
Catalonia Barcelona
Bascongadas Navarra
European Mainland 8,980.9 14,957,575
Baleares 82.7 262,893
Canary Islands 151.6 234,046
European Spain 9,215.2 15,454,514

Colonies area (sq. m.) population 1850
A. America
Cuba 2,309 1,443,461
Portorico 189 380,000
Spanish Virgin Islands 7 2,600
San Domingo 810 200,000
total 3,315 2,026,061
B. Asia and Australia
Philippines 2,450 2,674,000
Marianas 57 5,500
total 2,507 2,679,000
C. Africa
Presidios 1.5 11,081
Guinea Islands 23 5,590
Tetuan 43 17,600
total 67.5 34,271
The Colonies together 5,889.5 4,739,832

[Physical Geography] The whole length of Spain's coast, the many small bays not counted, is about 300 miles, of which 170 miles fall in the Mditerranean, 130 miles on the Atlantic. ...
[Climate] The climate in Spain of course depends on the elevation and the direction of the terrain's decline. The plateau in general has a very hot in the summer and a relatively cold winter, in Madrid, at 40 1/2 degree northern latitude, the annual average temperature is about 12 degrees Reaumur, in the summer 20 degrees, in the winter 5 degrees. In the southern coastland, where high mounains cover it against winds from the north, the winter is comparatively mild. The precipitation varies much, on the northern and western coast it makes up over 30 Tomme, while in Madrid it is less than 10 Tomme. The summer rain is negligible, but fall and winter are the proper rainy season. Permanent snow is only found in the Pyrenees and on the Sierra Nevada, but large sections of the interior highland in the winter are covered with snow.
[Vegetation] In regard to he conditions of production a great difference is observed between the coasts of the Mediterranean and the remainder of the country. In the former among the plants a large number of evergreen trees and bushes are found, which require a mild winter, such as the cork oak, stone oak and several other types of oak, the laurel tree, the myrtle, the strawberry tree, the lenticus bush, pines, cypresses and others. Also a large number of vernal plants is found, many beautifully blossoming bulb plants, finally also a few representatives of the hot zone, such as the midget palm tree. The plateau is characterised by the condition of the soil and the low quantity of rain, has a rather dry cover of plants, and furthermore, is rather devoid of forests. The stretches not used for agriculture are mostly covered by heather species, cistus bushes and other bushes, which are similar to our hagwood. Forests of importance are only found in Galicia, in the mountains of Asturias, and in the Sierra Nevada. They mostly are composed of chestnuts and in general of the oak, but at higher altitudes also the beech, spruce, fir, birch and mountain ash.
[Economy] The foremost grain kinds used to feed man are wheat and maize. Rice is especially cultivated in Valencia; rye in some of the northern mountain regions; barley and oats are grown as animal fodder. Viticulture is wide-spread, and Spanish wines are famous for their quality. Oranges are grown everywhere in the coastal regions, also in Galicia, but they lack on the plateau. Figs, almonds, peaches and apricots are grown in great quantity and are excellent. Cotton is grown in the southern provinces, where also sugar cane can be grown, but the latter only is grown a little. The date palm produces fruits, but only rarely these reach full ripeness. The mulberry tree is widely grown and provides the foundation for sericulture. Various beachgrowing plants rich in juices are burnt to produce soda. The most important domesticated animal is the sheep, the fine wool of which provides an important article for export. The large herds of sheep during the summer graze in the mountains and during the winter on the lower stretches of the plateau. The grazing rights which the owners of the sheep hold in the plaibn are a considerable obstacle to the development of agriculture. Good and strong cattle is only found in the higher mountain regions; their number is much lower than in the northern parts of Europe, as is the consumption of milk and butter. The horses are reknown for their beauty and strength, which is especially the case for the Andalucian race; mules and donkeys belong to he best of their kind in Europe. Goats are numerous, namely on the plateau. Poultry is held in large quantity in several species. The livestock count of 1858 counted : 268,248 horses, 415,978 mules, 491,690 donkeys, 1,380,861 head of cattle, 13,794,959 sheep, 2,733,966 goats, and 1,018,383 hogs. Bees are kept in large quantity, and in this century the breeding of the cochenille insect has spread in the southern provinces. Of wild mammals are found wolves, foxes and wildcats; the last afflict not little harm to the herds of sheep. Near Gibraltar, apes are found.
The Spanish mountains are rich in metals, namely the Sierra Morena, but they are produced only to a relatively small extent. Silver and lead mines in Murcia and Andalucia, mercury mines near Almaden and iron ore mines in Asturias and Galicia are the most important ones.
[Population] The population of Spain seems to descend from the Celtiberians, a tribe which emerged from the blanding of immigrant Celts and the original population, the Iberians. But there are also descendents of each of the aforementioned tribes. Although in Antiquity and in the Middle Ages Spain was exposed to the influence of the Romans, Goths and Moors, they have left few traces in the mass of the people, the characteristics of whom still are the same as described by Greek and Roman authors in Antiquity. The Catholic Religion is the dominant one in Spain; until into the most recent times, no other was permitted, and the tolerance, which in modern time gives an appearance, seems not to have much of a meaning. The influence of the clergy is still extraordinarily great, but has been deprived of its strongest foundation by the confiscation of the lands and the monks' monasteries. In 1833 there were 1,833 monks' monasteries with 31,479 monks. Their number has dropped to 41 monasteries with 719 monks. The number of nun's monasteries in the last year was 866 with 13,000 nuns. The munks of the dissolved monasteries are taken care of by the state. According o the concordat of 1851, the Spanish church has 9 archbishops, 45 bishops, 1,014 chapter clergymen and 796 other clergymen at the cathedrals; the number of parish clergy exceeds 20,000. They are paid by the state, the salary for an archbishop ranges from 9,400 to 15,000 Rigsdaler, for bishops from 7,500 to 10,300 Rdlr., for chapter clergymen from 1,100 to 2,200 Rdlr., for parish priests from 200 to 1,000 Rdlr. The entire expense amounts to c. 14 million Rdlr. The education system supports the intellectual well-being. It seems in recent times to have made not small progress, not only as far as the number of schools and students is concerned, but also in respect of the quality of education. In 1848 in all of Spain there were 15,650 schools with 510,111 boys and 153,500 girls, in 1859 the number of schools was 22,060 with in total 1,046,558 students of both genders. High school education was administrated in 1848 in 43 collegia to 8,095 students, in 1859 by 58 gymnasia with 757 profesors and teachers to 13,881 students. Furthermore, in the latter year in 48 private institutions 3,141 students were instructed, and at home 3,127, in total 20,149, as compared to 13,181 in 1848. The number of students at the universities in the same period has declined considerably, in part because of improved high school education, but probably also because the recently strongly growing higher industry provides opportunities for not a few persons, who in earlier times exclusively chosde the university path. The numbers of university studens in 1848 and in 1859 were 11,704 and 6,188 respectively.
Welfare institutions are xraordinarily numerous in Spain. They can be divided in the following classes (1859) :

number number of inmates costs
state institutions 7 3,945 205,000
provincial institutions 329 165,883 4,719,000
communal institutions 654 91,368 1,225,000
private institutions 38 194,094 342,000

... Before we go over to deal with the country's economic constitution, we shall communicate some data concerning population statistics. In Spain at various times censi have been taken, but these often have produced mutually so conflicting results, and it is difficult to determine if the reason for this lies in the conditions of the population or in incorrect or careless procedure. The census of 1822 numbered the population as 11,661,865, than of 1838 as 12,286,941, and as aforelisted, that of 1857 as 15,464,340. So the population over the last 24 years has increased by almost 26 %, or by an annual average of 1.08 %. If one looks at matters by province, extraordinarily great differences are observed. In 6 provinces the average annual increase was above 2 %, in Lerida 4.29 %, in Barcelona 2.56 %, in Zamora 2.34 %, in Valencia 2.31 %, in Burgos and Madrid 2.02 %; in 5 provinces it was below 1/2 %, in Cordoba 0.47 %, in Teruel 0.39 %, in Segovia 0.33 %, in Albacete 0.23 % and in Alicante 0.11 %. Also the number of births relative to the population shows extraordinarily conspicuous differences. In 1859 the number of live births was 556,525 or 1 per 28 inhabitants, but in the province of Alava the relation was 1:148, in Leon 1:66, in Alicante 1:22 and in Almeria 1:21. The number of stillborn in the ame year was 31,080 or 1/18 of the entire number, but in the province of Alava the relation was 1/93, and in Lugo, where it was the worst, 1/5. The number of marriages concluded in the same year was 112,903, or 1 marriage per 137 inhabitants. In the province of Alava the relation was 1:1083, in Leon 1:293, but in Viscaya 1:98, in Burgos 1:101, in Huelva 1:103 and in Badajoz 1:109. The numbr of deaths in 1859 was 449,037, or 1 on every 34 inhabitants; in Leon the relation was 1:67, in Oviedo 1:60, in Pontevedra 1:51, but in Logreno 1:26, in Soria 1:27 and in Badajoz, Murcia, Segovia and Teruel 1:28. Of all dead, 106,866 did not reach their first year, 116,455 died between the age of 1 and 5, 32,150 between the age of 5 and 15, 10,561 between 15 and 20 years of age. The number of dead above 100 years of age was 92, that between 90 and 100 years 1,446. Therefore it seems that conditions for children and the young in Spain are less faviorable than in the remainder of Europe.
[Economy] Agriculture and industry are the main sources of income of the Spanish population. To the information, which already has ben given in regard to agriculture shall be added that in 1850 about 4,600 square miles were under the plough, about half of which belonged to the nobility, 1/6 to the church, and only 1/3 to non-nobles. The parcellization has progressed far, as the following table of land tax payers in 1859 shows (1 Real is about 9 Skilling) :

tax rates (in Real) number
1 to 10 624,902
10 to 20 511,666
20 to 30 363,014
30 to 40 279,363
40 to 50 233,122
50 to 100 555,062
100 to 200 416,546
200 to 300 165,302
300 to 500 131,434
500 to 1,000 85,967
1,000 to 2,000 37,270
2,000 to 4,000 14,850
4,000 to 6,000 4,094
6,000 to 8,000 1,469
8,000 to 10,000 750
over 10,000 1,372

The industry has made great progress in recent years. Except for ironworks, the number of which is unknown, as they are not taxed, in 1857 there were 4,447 mines in operation, but of these many undoubtedly are of little importance. Of the 3,332 silver mines 1,222 were found in the province of Almeria, 707 in Murcia and 162 in Jaen, of 527 coal mines 274 in Oviedo, 55 in Leon, 27 each in Palencia and Teruel. Of the 744 lead mines 438 were in Granada, 90 in Santander, 50 in Ciudad Real and 33 in Malaga. The number of copper mines was 270, that of mercury mines 26, of which 22 were in Oviedo. The number of smelting huts was 300, of which 125 produced iron, the others were for lead, zinc etc., further there were 377 mills and factories for further processing the metals, among them 31 machine factories. Wool spinning and weaving is spread over the entire country, but strongest in Barcelona, Logrono and Alicante. The number of spindles driven by steam or water power was 104,609, that of manually powered ones 54,431. There were 5,401 general and 393 mechanical weaving looms, 847 fulling mills. The cotton industry is most important in the province of Barcelona, as shown by the following table :

Province Number of Spindles Number of Weaving Looms
steam / water powered manually powered general mechanical
Barcelona 680,726 29,698 15,823 5,020
Tarragona 42,004 1,510 133 381
Malaga 9,519 1,510 133 381
Baleares 6,030 1,510 908 28
Gerona 4,860 1,510 22 1,122
Cadiz 4,658 1,510 22 103
Alicante 2,580 1,510 34 24
Other Provinces 1,500 200 505 10
total 751,877 31,408 17,425 7,478

Flax and hemp are processed everywhere, but only manually spun and woven (11,110 looms); the entire matter may be regarded as cottage industry. The number of paper factories was 614, that of oil mills 11,677. Also tanneries are rather numerous. As did the industry, so trade in recent years has made great progress :

Year Imports (Rdlr.) Exports (Rdlr.)
1843 42,735,000 30,752,000
1856 121,857,000 99,383,000
1857 145,330,000 109,219,000
1858 140,582,000 90,761,000

The following tables provide further details on trade in 1858 :

Export Value
wine, raisins, alcoholic spirits 29,466,000
grain and flour 7,516,000
olive oil 6,872,000
citrus fruit 4,180,000
other vegetables 1.967,000
products of livestock keeping 3,541,000
products of forestry 2,774,000
products of fishery 123,000
products of the mines 12,698,000
products of he textile industry 1,261,000
products of other industries 8,972,000
Re-export 10,644,000
various products 747,000
total 90,761,000

Import Value
grain and flour 27,111,000
metals and metalwares 20,087,000
sugar, coffee, cocoa, similar colonial products 17,105,000
cotton, other fibers 17,579,000
textiles 14,690,000
non-food colonial products 7,534,000
food produced by animals 5,054,000
fuel 3,406,000
drugs 2,679,000
construction materials 2,376,000
liquids (wine, oil etc.) 2,260,000
Livestock 2,143,000
fertilizers 3,378,000
transportation items (ships, waggons etc.) 2,857,000
fashion articles, clothing 1,947,000
other articles 1,376,000
total 140,582,000

The direction of the trade may be seen from the following table :

trade with import from export to total
France 43,692,000 25,281,000 68,973,000
Britain 31,242,000 18,360,000 49,602,000
Gibraltar 5,880,000 1,827,000 7,707,000
Sweden 2,550,000 450,000 3,000,000
Russia 1,170,000 1,279,000 2,449,000
Portugal 683,000 1,760,000 2,443,000
Other Europe 8,311,000 5,179,000 13,490,000
Africa 4,730,000 1,972,000 6,702,000
America 40,070,000 33,753,000 73,823,000
Asia 2,254,000 900,000 3,154,000
total 140,582,000 90,761,000 231,343,000

In international shipping, the number of incoming ships was 9,106, he number of outgoing 6,940, together 16,046, as compared to 7,473 in 1843. The value of the goods transported by coasal shipping in 1858 amounted to 166 million Rdlr. Following these data on trade now information shall be given on media of transportation. The combined length of navigable waterways is 93.6 miles, of which the Aragonese Emperor's Canal male up 11.9 miles, the Ebro with the San Carlos Canal 37.4 miles, the Castilian Canal 28.4 miles, the Manzanares Canal 1.9 miles and river Guadalquivir 14.0 miles. At the end of 1859, Spain had the following roads : of 1st class 1,219 miles, of 2nd class 301 miles, of 3rd class 144 miles. Furthermore 200 miles of road were under construction and several hundred miles in the project phase. Also in the construction of railroads the country has made great progress in recent years. In 1858 the total length of railroads in operation was 117 miles, in 1859 154 miles, and large stretches are under construction. Despite this great progress of the means of transportation, still a large share of inland transportation has to be done by the use of beasts of burden.
[Constitution] Spain is a constitutional monarchy, since 1833 hereditary in the female as well as in the male line. The constitution of 1845 has undergone a number of changes in consequence of several revolutions, by royal decree of September 15th 1856 anew has been set in force, but since modified by further decrees. The legislative power is exercised by king and Cortes in combination. The Cortes consists of the Senate and the Congress of deputees. The number of senators was undetermined; they are appointed by the crown for lifetime, selected from the country's highest classes and must be in the possession of a regular income of at least 30,000 Real (c. 2,800 Rigsdaler). The Chamber of Deputees has 349 members, elected directly by the voters in electoral circles which have about 35,000 inhabitants. In order to qualify for election one has to be at least 25 years old and own real estate wih a netto income of 12,000 Real (c. 1,120 Rdlt.) or pay tax of 1,000 Real (c. 93 Rdlr). The right to vote is tied to the same age restriction, and to the payment of 400 Real tax (c. 37 Rdlr.); and half of that some suffices for certain classes of burghers, who in general can be characterised as those who have been given a higher education. The Cortes convenes annually. The king may dissolve the Chamber of Deputees, but in such a case new elections shall be held within 3 months. The government is lead by a ministry, consisting of the ministers of foreign affairs, justice, finances, edyucation and public works, war, the navy. The Council of State consists of the ministers of the crown, a president and 32 councilmen, and is divided in 6 departments. The administration of justice is taken care of by a supreme court in Madrid, 15 courts of appeal, and 497 lower courts. For civil adminisraion the country is divided in 47 provinces on the mainland and 2 in the islands; they are administrated by governors.
[Military] In military respects the mainland is divided in 11 captainships general, and the islands in 2. The army in 1860 consisted of the following departments :

department officers NCOs and soldiers horses
royal halberdsmen 43 240
Infantry 5,792 164,000
Cavalry 968 14,600 14,710
artillery 689 11,680 2,600
engineers 256 3,760
gendarmerie 451 12,500 1,500
various provincial troops 740 18,889 1,200
total 9,119 225,669 20,010

The infantry consisted of 40 regiments of the line of 2 battalions each, of one regiment of the line of 3 battalions, of 20 battalions mounted infantry, of 80 battalions reserve. The cavalry consists of 20 regiments of 3 squadrons each, of two squadrons mounted infantry and of 4 individual squadrons. Soldiers are conscripted. The time of service is 8 years, 5 of which in the army and 3 in the provincial militia. It is permitted to pay a sum in place of military service; the sum was fixed by the government in 1859 at 750 Rdlr. The fleet in 1860 consisted of 46 sailships, of which two were ships of the line and 3 were frigates, of 29 shuffle steamers, among which 3 were of 500 horsepower with 16 cannon, 7 of 350 horsepower with 6 cannon, 65 turbine ships among which teo had 1,000 horsepower and 100 cannon, 10 frigates of 300 to 800 horsepower and 35 to 51 cannon, the remainder being smaller ships. Under construction are one ship of the line with 1,000 horsepower and 40 cannon, 8 frigates of 800 horsepower and 51 cannon and 26 smaller propellor vessels. The navy's active personnel consisted of 1,121 officers, 93 machinists, 12,976 sailors and 7,980 marines.
[Finances] The budget for 1861 provides the following data :

State Revenues amount (Rigsdaler)
direct taxes 48,669,000
indirect taxes 43,187,000
stamps and fees 66,717,000
regalia and state property 9,585,000
income from the colonies 12,988,000
total 181,146,000

State expenses are estimated at 180,606,000 Rdlr., of which 34,463,000 come on he military, 10,668,000 on the navy, 19,060,000 on justice, on internal affairs and public works 17,355,000, on finances 42,245,000 Rdlr. Aside the ordinary budget there is an extraordinary one, the revenue of which for 1861 is calculated at 40,022,000 Rdlr., generated by the sale of state property (22,934,000 Rdlr.), state bonds (15,219,000 Rdlr.), repayment of railroad subvention (1,869,000 Rdlr.). The related expenses are : costs of sales 506,000 Rdlr., state debt 2,149,000 Rdlr., justice 832,000, army 5,980,000, navy 9,344,000, internal affairs and public works 17,794,000, finances 373,000, subventions for railroad construction 2,812,000, amortisation of railroad bonds 232,000 Rdlr. The amount of state debt given differs from source to source. According to the Gotha Calendar on November 1st 1858 the fixed debt amounted to 1,259 million Rdlr., the floating debt to 49 million, combined1,308 million Rdlr; other sources give lower figures. Spain's financial history provides an extraodinarily outstanding image of bad management and thoughtless idleness since the close of the last century, and while in the most recent years, with rising revenues, a more orderly situation is arrived at, it remains clear, based on the accessible information, that one is far from balancing expenses and revenues.
[History] ... The Habsburg Dynasty died out with Carlos II. in the year 1700, and the War of Spanish Succession ended with the loss of the European possessions outside of Spain and the accession to the throne of Philipp V., the grandson of Louis XIV. Boh under him and his son Carlos III. the country rose again, but the decline under Carlos IV. was an even deeper fall. He resigned government in 1808 and his son had to give way to Joseph Napoleon, against whom quickly a rebellion broke out, which, supported by Britain, ended with the expulsion of the French (1814). During the rebellion, the Cortes (1812) gave the country a constitution, which Ferdinand VII. on his return declared invalid, as he had thrown himself into the arms of the most extreme political and ecclesiastical reaction. The inescapable consequence was the fall of the country into ruin, and as at the ame time the American colonies began to separate themselves, on New Years Day 1820 a military rebellion broke out, which forced the king to recognize the constitution of 1812. This was followed by a French intervention in 1823, which termnated he constitution, but was nable to restore calm and order. As Ferdinand in 1832 abolished the law of succession introduced by Philipp V. (in he male line only), after his death (1833) the Carlist War erupted which ended in favour of Ferdinand's daughter Isabella, who in 1843 was declared of age and so became Spain's queen.

source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Spanien
Spain, in Antiquity also called Iberia, among the Greeks Hesperia, in Spanish Espana, in French l'Espagne, Lat. Hispania. A western European kingdom, taking in the by far larger part of the Pyrenaean peninsula, stretching from 36 to 43 degrees 47 minutes northern latitude and from 9 degrees 22 minutes western longitude to 3 degrees 20 minutes east of Greenwich.
Table of Contents : borders, coasts p.63, topography p.64, waters p.65, climate p.65, vegetation, fauna p.66, area and population p.66, educational institutions p.67, agriculture and forestry p.68, mining and smelting p.70, industry p.71, trade and communication p.72, welfare institutions p.73, constitution and administration p.73, justice p.74, finances p.75, army and navy p.75, coat of arms, military orders p.75, geographic-statistical references p.76, history p.76.
[Borders, coasts] ...
Topography ...
Waters ...
Climate ....
Vegetation and Fauna. The variety in the climate and topography causes the vegetation and fauna to be manifold. In regard to its vegetation, Spain is divided in 5 zones of vegetation. (1) the northern or central European vegetation zone with central European flora (oaks, beeches, edible chestnuts, alders, elms, fruit and walnut trees, the cultivation of grain and vegetables, of wine only in favorable locations), (2) the peninsular or central vegetation zone (Alpine and Pyreneic plants, heather with cistineas, thyme and other labiates, broom, centaurea, thistles, artemisia; here and there extended coniferous forests as well as stands of evergreen oaks and chestnuts), (3) the western or Atlantic vegetation zone, in the north with predominantly central European vegetation, in the south with a vegetation reminding of Africa (olive tree, orange, fig and almond tree, viticulture, laurel, cypress, agava, Indian fig, date palm and midget palm, carob bean tree, cistus heather with myrtles, pistacchios and other evergreen bushes, in the mountain regions oaks, chestnuts, junipers, orchards, Alpine meadows), (4) the eastern, more Mediterranean vegetation zone (labiate heath, barren steppe, groves of evergreen oaks and of pines, olive tree, cultivation of wine and wheat, mulberry, fig and almond tree, peach and apricot tree, walnut tree, maize, hemp, flax, in the south orange tree, carob bean tree, date and midget palm, cultivation of artichokes and melons, in swampy lowlands of rice), (5) the southern or African region up to an altitude of c.630 m, characterised by the dominance of plants which are characteristic for Northern Africa, Sicily, Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor etc., and by the cultivation of subtropical and tropical crops (sugar cane, cotton, sweet potatos, cochenille cactea). Not less manifold and excellent is the fauna, which except for the species present in the countries of Europe located on the same latitude, and except for a number of species endemic to the peninsula, also is home to numerous representatives of Africa's fauna, even to those from the Orient and Central Asia. The European zone, in general coinciding with the zone of central European vegetation, is characterised by central European animals (among them the wolf, the dormouse, the mountain hare, the chamois, the wildcat, the Pyrenees ibex, the lammergeier, the vulture etc.) The central or southern European zone, comprising of the central, western and eastern vegetation zone, features a colourful mixture of European and African species (panther lynx, genet cat, ichneumon, southern species of vultures, eagles and falcons, screaming and climbing birds etc., numerous butterflies, scorpions). The southern or African zone feaures many African species (among them the north African monkey on the rock of Gibraltar, the dromedary, African birds, the chameleon etc.) in addition to animals only appearing in southern Europe, or being endemic to Spain (Spanish ibex in the Sierra Nevada, Spanish hare, flamingo etc.).
Area and Population. The area of Spain, i.e. of the European motherland, the Balearic and Canary Islands and the North African possessions included, is 504,552 square km (9,163.6 square miles). According to the latest census of Dec. 31st 1877 the population numbered 16,634,345 inhabitants, the distribution of which over the individual provinces may be seen from the following table.

province area (sq. km) area (sq. m.) population end 1877 population end 1886 per sq km
Alava 3,045 55.3 93,538 99,034 33
Albacete 14,863 269.9 219,058 221,894 15
Alicante 5,660 102.8 411,565 423,808 75
Almeria 8,704 158.1 349,076 358,486 41
Avila 7,882 143.2 180,436 193,565 25
Badajoz 21,894 397.6 432,809 469,952 21
Barcelona 7,691 139.7 836,887 861,212 112
Burgos 14,196 257.8 332,625 351,293 25
Caceres 19,863 360.8 306,594 329,707 17
Cadiz 7,342 133.3 429,206 433,516 59
Castellon 6,465 117.4 283,981 298,965 46
Ciudad Real 19,608 356.1 260,358 285,341 15
Cordoba 13,727 249.3 385,482 406,059 30
Coruna 7,903 143.5 596,436 623,575 79
Cuenca 17,193 312.3 236,253 245,112 14
Gerona 5,865 106.5 299,702 309,992 53
Granada 12,768 231.9 479,066 480,594 38
Guadalajara 12,113 220.0 201,288 207,030 17
Guipuzcoa 1,885 34.2 167,207 181,673 97
Huelva 10,138 184.1 210,447 227,116 22
Huesca 15,149 275.1 252,239 263,634 17
Jaen 13,480 244.8 423,025 436,184 32
Leon 15,377 279.3 350,210 378,098 25
Lerida 12,151 220.7 285,339 290,856 24
Logrono 5,041 91.6 174,425 179,897 36
Lugo 9,881 179.5 410,810 429,430 43
Madrid 7,989 145.1 594,194 590,965 74
Malaga 7,349 133.5 500,322 522,376 71
Murcia 11,537 209.5 451,611 462,039 40
Navarra 10,506 190.8 304,184 321,015 30
Orense 6,979 126.8 388,835 399,552 57
Oviedo 10,895 197,9 576,352 596,856 55
Palencia 8,434 153.2 180,771 190,724 23
Pontevedra 4,391 79.8 451,946 467,289 106
Salamanca 12,510 227.2 285,695 311,428 25
Santander 5,460 99.2 235,299 248,753 46
Zaragoza 17,424 316.5 400,587 401,386 23
Segovia 6,827 124.0 150,052 160,111 23
Sevilla 14,062 255.4 506,812 526,864 37
Soria 10,318 187.2 153,652 162,555 16
Tarragona 6,490 117.9 330,105 345,601 53
Teruel 14,818 269.1 242,165 250,823 17
Toledo 15,257 277.1 335,038 357,886 23
Valencia 10,751 195.3 679,046 692,245 64
Valladolid 7,569 137.5 247,458 261,254 35
Viscaya 2,165 39.3 189,954 204,043 94
Zamora 10,615 192.8 249,720 274,312 26
[mainland] total 492,230 8,939.6 16,061,860 16,733,200 34
Baleares 5,014 91,0 289,035 311,652 62
Canary Islands 7,273 132.1 280,974 311,030 43
Spain 504,517 9,163.0 16,631,869 16,733,200 34
in North Africa 35 0.6 2,476 2,522 72
total sum 504,522 9,163.6 16,634,345 17,358,404 34

The increase of the Spanish population is a very weak one, compared to the first proper census of 1857, which counted 15,464,340 inhabitants, by 1877 it amounted to only 1,170,005 souls, or pr year to merely 0.4 %, The reason lies in the many wars which Spain had to fight domestically and in the colonies, in a considerable emigration, especially to South America and to Algeria (Province Oran). For the end of 1886 the population was calculated at 17,358,404 inhabitants. Remarkable is the fact, that population density from the center to the periphery increases. The lowest population density have the provinces Ciudad Real and Cuenca with 13 respectively 14 inhabitants per square km, most densely populated are Barcelona and Pontevedra (over 100 inhabitants per square km). By gender 1044 females come on 1000 males. By land of birth among the resident population of Spain (1877) were 16,591,796 born in Spain, 17,656 in France, 7,941 in Portugal, 4,771 in Britain, 3,497 in Italy, 952 in Germany.
The Spanish nation is a mixture of various peoples. The old Iberians were first accompanied by Celts, then by Phoenicians and Carthaginians, then by Romans, then Goths; later, Jews, Berbers and Arabs (especially in Andalucia, Murcia and Valencia), finally also negroes (from Morocco and beyond). The dominant language is the Castilian, further are spoken Catalan (an idiom related to Provençal) in Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands, Basque (in he Basque Provinces and in Navarra) and Galician (which is very close to Portuguese). The Spanish language, as a world language is widely spoken in Central and South America and therefore constantly gains in importance.
The colonies or overseas possessions, only a remnant of the immeasurably large areas Spain once possessed, presently consist of :

in America area (sq. km) area (sq. m.) population
Cuba 118,833 2,158.13 1,521,684
Puerto Rico 9,315 169.17 754,313
in Asia
Philippines 293,726 5,334.37 5,559,020
Sulu Islands 2,456 44.60 75,000
in Oceania
Marianas 1,140 20.72 8,665
Carolinas 700 12.71 22,000
Palau 750 13.62 14,000
in Africa (Guinea)
Fernando Poo, San Juan etc. 2,200 39.95 68,656
total 429,120 7,793.27 8,023,383

The Spaniards are in general a bodily well-shaped people, mostly of medium stature, slim, wih black hair. The women are characterized by firy eyes and by gracefullness. They develop early, but soon begin to age. The Spanish are sober, moderae, courageous, full of national pride, but also vindictive, bigots, and lethargic. National dress of the men is the Spanish coat (capa), cut in round shape, surrounding the entire body, that of the women the mantilla, fixed to the head with a comb, and crossed over the breast. The dominant dress colour is black. Further, the national dress varies from province to province. The upper classes have taken over French fashion. Main entertainment is the dance, accompanied by song or by castagnettes, by tambourin or guitar, and the bullfights. By confession 16,603,959 were Catholics, 6,654 Protestants, 4,021 Jews, 9,645 Rationalists, 271 Muslims, 209 Buddhists etc. According to the constitution the Roman Catholic Church is state church, but nobody may be molested because of his confession or of the exercise of his rites, unless public morals are offended in the process. For the administration of ecclesiastic affairs there are 9 archbishops in Spain (in Toledo the Primate of Spain, in Burgos, Granada, Santiago, Zaragoza, Sevilla, Tarragona, Valencia and Valladolid) and 45 suffragan bishops. Bishoplic jurisdiction is also exercised by the patriarch of India, as he is the general vicar of army and fleet. The subordinate clergy consists of c. 40,000 clergymen working in the world, 800 monks and 13,000 nuns. Proper monk monaseries do no longer exist, as they were dissolved by law in 1841. Only 41 houses of such orders remain, which instruct misionaries, educate the youth or devoe themselves to the treatment of the sick. There are 60 Protestant communities.
Educational Institutions In regard to intellectual culture the Spanish nation despite its talent still stands at a low position because of the flawed state of public education, a situation which is explained by the fact hat education, until 1808, was in the hands of the clergy. For elementary education, there are (1881) 29,828 elementary schools. The atendance of school is mandatory. While in 1797 only 393,126 children attended elementary school, the number increased gradually, namely in consequence of legal reforms in 1838, 1847 and 1857, to 663,711 in 1848, to 1,046,558 in 1861 and to 1,769,608 in 1881. Normal schools to educate teachers - 47 for male teachers, 29 for female teachers. To secondary schools belong the institutes which used to be Latin schools (institutos de segunda ensenanza) in which humanities and real subjects are studied in a six-year course. There are 61 such schools with about 35,000 students. In addition there are the colegios, private preparatory schools preparing for study at university and at special institutions. Spain has 10 universities, in Madrid, Barcelona, Granada (each with 5 faculties, for philosophy and literature, exact sciences, pharmacy, medicine, law), at Salamanca, Sevilla, Valencia (each with 4 faculties, the aforementioned without pharmacy), Santiago and Zaragoza (each with 3 faculties, the former for medicine, pharmacy and law, the latter for philosophy, pharmacy and law), Valladolid (2 faculties, for medicine and law) and Oviedo (1 faculty, law). All universities combined have 475 professors and lecturers, and about 16,000 students. Attached to 7 universities are schools graduating notaries public. Higher technical schools are : a school of architecture, a school for trade and industry, an engineering school for the construction of roads, canals and port in Madrid, a school for industrial technology in Barcelona. Among the professional schools are the theological seminaries in the bishops' seats, the royal school for diplomacy in Madrid, the royal school for forest engineers in Escorial, the agricultural school in Cordoba, the veterinary schools in Madrid, Cordoba, Leon and Zaragoza, the royal school for mine engineers in Madrid, the school for pit foremen in Almaden, the royal school of the beautiful arts, the national school for music and declamation (both in Madrid), the provincial schools for the beautiful arts in Barcelona, Sevilla, Valladolid and Valencia, the academies for the general staff in Madrid, for artillery in Segovia, for the corps of engineers in Guadalajara, for the cavalry in Valladolid, the (general) military academy in Toledo, the navy school in Ferrol. The promotion of intellectual education is further served by eight academies, seven of them located in Madrid, and by public libraries, of which the national library in Madrid and that in Escorial are the best. The most important historic collections are the royal arsenal, the royal cabinet of coins and antiquities, the royal museum for paintings and sculptures, the national museum for paintings and the museum for natural history, all in Madrid. Botanical gardens are at Madrid and Valencia, an astronomic-meteorological observatory in Madrid.
Agriculture and Forestry Among the sources of revenue of the Spanish population agriculture takes the first place. But the treatment of the soil still is of a very dissatisfactory state. Fertilization is primitive, and also in regard to agricultural tools and methods, the experience and improvements of recent times hardly have been implemented. At the beginning of the 19th century a large part of the land still was owned by the dead hand, i.e. by the clergy, the municipalities, by charitable institutions, and by the state. The sale of church lands was decreed in 1820 and 1841 and confirmed by the law of May 1st 1855, which subjects all land and tithes owned by the dead hand to alienation. The peasants are free, and in part owners of their mostly rather small plots, in part hereditary tenants. The productive soil covers 79.6 % of the total area, 33.8 % fall on fields and gardens, 3.7 % on vinyards, 1.6 % on olive groves, 19.7 on natural meadows and pastorage, 20.8 % on forest. In Spain the soil, in order to become productivem usually requires artificial irrigation, for the purpose of which magnificent installations have been created, partially by the government, in part by associations, by estate owners and municipalities. Still, irrigated lands make up only a small portion of the productive soil. Best cultivated is the soil in the provinces Palencia, Pontevedra, Coruna, Valladolid and Barcelona, the least in the provinces Oviedo, Huelva, Almeria and Santander. The Spanish economists divide Spain in 7 regions of cultivation : the region of sugar cane, of oranges, of the olive tree, of wine, of cereals, of meadows and pastorage, of heath. The cultivation of grain is of importance almost everywhere, but most important in both Castiles, in Leon and in the basin of the Guadalquivir. The average annual grain harvest delivers the following quantities :

wheat 61,142,000 hl
oats 4,481,000 hl
rye 11,629,000 hl
maize 13,173,000 hl
barley 27,792,000 hl
rice 1,212,000 hl

Most cultivated is wheat; rye and barley mainly in the northern, maize in the southern provinces. In the latter, rice fields appear at several isolated locations, while they are a main source of revenue in the province of Valencia. Wheat flour is an important export article, most notably for the province of Valladolid. The cultivation of potatos is of lesser importance (18,300,000 hl harvest), that of legumes instead very extended, as peas and beans are favorite dishes of the Spaniards and are grown in great quantity (chick peas 2,354,000 hl). No state in Europe has such a manifold production of vegetables as does Spain, where horticulture especially is conducted in he province of Valencia. Except for normal kitchen greens are produced : Spanish pepper, the love apple (Lyciopersicum Esculentum) [the tomato], the watermelon, the cucumber, the calabash, occasionally the sweet potato and the peanut. The most widely grown garden plants are : cabbage, lettuce, onions, garlic, cucumber, artichokes, strawberies. Vegetables and garden fruits form an extport article of not low importance. The beet only serves as animal fodder. The country's trade crops are hemp (the best in Granada and Murcia), flax, woad, safran, liquerish, sugar cane, which is grown on the southern and eastern coast, especially in the province of Malaga, and because of legal protection, increasingly, rapeseed in the northern provinces, caraway in La Mancha, mustard, poppyseed, sesame, ricinus and other oil seeds. Cotton, which still 20 years ago formd an export article of the Balearic Islands, presently is no longer being cultivated. The cultivation of tobacco is forbidden. Esparto grass, which grows in Spain's south near the coast without being given any care, is used for various wickerwork, ropes, mats, footwear etc., as well as for paper production, and exported in great quantity (annually 400,000 metric centerweights). An important branch of agriculture is fruit tree cultivation. In adition to the central European fruit kinds, walnut and hazelnuts one finds the most beautiful chestnut forests and various southern fruits (oranges, lemons, pomegranades, figs, almonds, dates, carob beans, Indian figs, bananas) not only along the coast and in the southern provinces, but also in the warm river valleys of the north. The southern fruits and the walnuts and hazelnuts form an important export artricle. In 1886 816,666 metric centerweights of oranges were exported, 73,493 metr. ctrw. of lemons, 27,730 metr. ctrw. of almonds, 40,090 metr. ctrw. of hazenuts. Extended stretches of land, especially in the south, are devoted to the cultivation of the olive tree, which delivers an important article for export. But because of poor treatment of the fruit achieves a low price, and is refined abroad, mainly in France. The production, mainly concentrated in Andalucia, Murcia, Valencia, Aragon and Catalonia, in good years delivers c. 2.5 million hl oil, the export average of the last couple of years c. 250,000 metr. ctrw. In recent years, the cultivation of cacahuetes or mani, a kind of pistacchio from which a cheap and useful oil is extracted, has developed into a separate branch of agriculture in the province of Valencia. Further important branches of agriculture are mulberry tree cultivation and viticulture. Favoured by its geographic location and climatic conditions, the country produces the most firy wines in all varieties and large quantity. The average harvest is more than 20 million hl (in 1887 28 million). The most famous wines are those of Andalucia, especially those from Jerez de la Frontera, Puerto de Santa Maria and Malaga. These wines mainly are exported to Britain and America. Of the Catalonian wines, only those of Reus and Tarragona are excellent, of those from Valencia only the red Benicarlo wines esteemed. The wine from Alicante is very fine and rich in alcohol. The Castilian wine, among them the excellent Mancha wine (Valdepenas) is mostly consumed domestically. The Aragonian wines are the darkest, finest and least sour ones. Excellent wine regions are also southern Navarra, the lower Duero valley, Vizcaya, Orense, the region of Placentia and the Serena in Estremadura, finally Mallorca (see under Spanish wines). Lately Spanish wines were sold much in Spain, where the production losses caused by the vine pest and by bad harvests were covered by Italian and also by Spanish wines, mostly from he northeastern provinces. In total, about 7 million hl are exported annually, 6 million of which to France. In addition, fresh grapes form an export article (in 1886 : 192,000 metc. ctrw.). Of importance is raisin production, namely raisins from the provinces of Alicante (Denia) and Malaga are exported, mainly to Britain and North America (in 1886 : 384,460 metr. ctrw.). The leading fodder plants are lucernes and esparsette. Proper meadows only are found in he northern provinces and in higher mountain areas. Much more extended is pastorage in such areas which are unsuited for agriculture and forestry, but mainly serve the breeding of sheep, such as Estremadura, Lower Andalucia, Aragon, Old Castile and Leon.
Of great importance is livestock keeping. In 1878 were counted 460,760 horses, 941,653 mules, 890,932 donkeys, 2,353,247 head of cattle, 16,939,288 sheep, 3,813,006 goats, 2,348,602 hogs. Horse breeding which earlier enjoyed such a great reputation, then declined, has improved again. The best horses are the Andalucian ones, and among them those of Cordoba. But the number of horses bred here does not suffice to satisfy the country's needs. Great care is devoted to the breeding of mules and donkeys, which are not only the most favored domesticated animals, but are also exported in quantity. Catle breeding is divided into the breeding of tame cattle and of wild bulls required for bullfights, who are held on isolated pastures and in the mountains, namely in Navarra, in the Sierra Guadarrama, the Sierra Morena and on the Guadalquivir. The tame cattle is not of big size, but srong and well-built, the best is bred in the northern provinces, where alone dairy products are produced. Spanish sheep breeding, once leading the world, and a source of immense revenue, is still considerable, but has been overtaken by other countries, and declining. The main cause for his is the lifting of a burdensome stipulation, which required the landowners to leave a stretch on both sides of the road 90 paces wide for the passing herds of sheep to graze on (to and from their winter pastures in Estremadura), a measure taken by the administration in 1858 to elevate agriculture. Presently, as far as herds of sheep still migrate, the owners of the herds have to pay a grazing fee for the pastures. The majority of the Marino herds belongs to the estate owners of Leon, Old Castile and Lower Andalucia. The wool production of he Spanish sheep has sharply declined (to c. 20 million kg, only the smaller part of which fine and usable wool), but sheep wool still forms an export article (1886 92,000 metr. ctrw.). The breeding of lambs is especially important for lower Aragon, where buyers from all of Spain come. Goat breeding is important for the mountain areas and goat cheese is an important item in domestic trade, while their skins are exported in quantity. Hog breeding is conducted everywhere, in quantity in Estremadura. Excellent hams, also sausages and bristles are exported. Pig and goat skins in Spain generally are processed into wine hoses .. In the provinces Murcia and Cadiz also camels (1878 : 1597) appear. Livestock is exported in considerable numbers to Portugal and Britain. Of poultry, mainly chicken, in Andalucia and Estremadura also turkeys are kept, of little importance is beekeeping, of importance the (once even more importan) sericulture, namely concentrated in Valencia and Murcia. The cochenille breeding (introduced in southern Spain in 1820) now is conducted in large scale around Malaga and Motril.
Hunt and fishing in Spain are free, but he former is not seriously conducted; the most frequent game are rabbits, the most frewuent fowl partridges. The catch of tuna, sardines, anchovis and salmon and the process of smoking them occupies thousans of men on the coasts of Viscaya, Galicia, Andalucia, Valencia and Catalonia. Also coral fishing at the coast of Andalucia is increasing in recent years. Forestry in Spain still is at a low level. While c. 20 % of the total area are covered by forest, because of forestry being neglected, he collection of firewood being unrestricted, the forests being damaged by herdsmen and herds, and the state forests being exploited without a plan, only 9 % of the area is actually covered by forest. The most important coniferous tree is the pine, the best foliferous trees the oak, red beech, chestnut, elm and the olive tree, which forms entire forests, especially in Andalucia. According to the law of February 19th 1859 a part of the forests owned by the state, the communes and corporations (3.5 million ha) shall be sold, but the remainder (6.5 million ha) regularly administrated. For this purpose the counry has been divided in 10 forest districts; also there is a school for forestry in Escorial. Very blessed with forests is Catalonia, where (especially in the Monseny Mountains) the most profitable timber types, such as chestnut (excellently suited for barrels), walnut tree (suited for wooden wheels) and cork oaks, thrive, the latter appreciated because of the cork, of her bark used as tanning material, and of the branches excellently suited o be converted into charcoal. Except for Catalonia, this tree also is found in Estremadura, Andalucia and Valencia. The annual production of cork plates amounts to 520,000 metr. ctrw., the average annual export of corks 1,010 million pieces, of plates and tables 25,000 metr. ctrw. Byproducts of forestry are sumach bark (for tanning), ladan balsam, edible acorns, chestnuts, berries, medical plants etc.
Mining and Smelting Spain is a country extraordinarily rich in metals and ores, and could find a rich source of income in its mining and melting industry, if the former would be conducted in a rational way and result in effective extraction. Mining is under the administration of the ministry for national economy respectively under the junta established for his area of responsibility. The law of July 6th 1859 divided the country in 17 mining districts, every one of which is under a royal mining engineer, and in Madrid a supreme mining authority has been established. By the same law the state reserved the right to exploit most mines, all salt mines and salines (except for those in the Basque provinces). The financial misery of recent years has caused the state to sell off most state property, thus also most of the mines, so that it only owns the mercury mines of Almaden and a few salt mines. In the entire country there are 6,000 mines of all kinds, to which the old slag heaps, partially dating back to Roman times, have to be added as objects of exploitation. More than 45,000 workers are employed in the extraction of ores and production of metals. According to the last survey (1883) mining and smelting produced 540 metr. ctrw. silver, 16,670 metr. ctrw. mercury, 1,422,240 metr. ctrw. pig iron, 321,560 metr. ctrw. copper, 993,120 metr. ctrw. lead, 68,430 metr. ctrw. zinc, 10,707,500 metr. ctrw. coal, 6,750,000 metr. ctrw. salt, 111,290 metr. ctrw. sulphur. It is remarkable that the smelting industry is not capable of keeping pace with the mining industry, that a large share of the produced ores are exported to Britain and other countries, and often, after having gone through the smelting process, are reimported into Spain. In 1886 49.2 million metr. ctr. of ores were exported (41.8 million iron ore, 6.7 million copper ore). As far as the individual branches are concerned, at present gold is only produced in he arsenic mines of Culera (Catalonia), in small quantities extracted from the sands of the river Sil. The production of silver also has declined, while still several mines operate, the richest of which are those on the western slope of the Sierra Almagrera (Province Almeria), those of Hiende la Encina (Province Guadalajara) and those of Farena (Province Tarragona). In the mercury mines of Almaden (12 mines) more than 3,000 workers are employed. The export is 11,000 metric tons on average. Spain has large deposits of iron ore in many provinces, especially in Vizcaya (at Somorrostro), Guipuzcoa (Irun), Navarra (Lesaca, Vera), Santander, Oviedo and Granada, which ae not sufficiently exploited. The most important smelting works are in the provinces Vizcaya, Navarra, Oviedo, Sevilla, Malaga etc. The province of Huelva has inexhaustable deposits of copper in the mines of Rio Tinto, Tharsis and other mines already exploited by the Carthaginians and Romans. The mines of Rio Tinto in 1873 were sold by he Spanish government for 96 million Francs to a syndicate of British and Bremen companies; Tharsis already longr belongs to a British enterprise. In regard to the production of lead, Spain exceeds all other countries in Europe. he main seats of lead mining and smelting are the provinces Murcia (near Cartagena 76 works with 150 furnaces and 150,000 workers), Almeria (lead mines of Sierra Gador, Sierra Almagrera, Alhamilla etc., 13 works near Garrucha) and Jaen (Linares and Baylen). The export of metallic lead in 1886 amounted to 1,150,000 metr. ctrw. Zinc mining is concentrated on the provinces Santander, Guipuzcoa, Murcia, Granada, Malaga and Almeria. Smelting is done at a low scale; most of the ore is exported to Belgium and to other countries. The most important coal mining districts are in the province Oviedo, then in Burgos and Soria, Leon and Palencia, Teruel and Santander. Annual production has increased from 355,000 metr. tons in 1861 to over 1 million, but still is less than the import of British coal (of 1.4 million metr. tons in 1886). Spain is extraordinarily rich in salt. This product does not fall under a monopoly; there are state-owned production units, which can be divided into 20 main and 12 subordinate facilities, but also many private persons engage in the production of salt, mainly from seawater. They only have to pay industry tax. Mineral salt mines are operated in Cardona (province Barcelona), Pinoso (province Alicante), Gerry y Villanova (province Gerona), Minglanilla (province Cuenca) etc. Sea salt is mainly produced in the lagoons of Cadiz Bay and on the banks of the lower Guadalquivir, further on the island of Ibiza, in the lagoons of Torrevieja (province of Alicante, state-administrated) etc. The entire salt export amounts to 2.5 million metr. tons annually. Manganium ore is mostly produced in the province of Huelva, but in consequence of over-exploitation it is likely hat the deposit soon will be exhausted. Alum ore is found at many places, sulphur is mainly produced in Murcia and the east of Granada, sulphurous pebbles in the province of Huelva (namely in the aforementioned mines of Rio Tinto and Tharsis, with constantly increasing export figures), asphalt in the province Alava, antimon in Zaragoza, Ciudad Real and near Cartagena, also graphite, mountain oil, naphta, phosphorite (the latter mineral, most mportant for agriculture, is produced in 9 mines in the province of Caceres with an average production of 1.8 million metr. ctrw.).
Industry The Spanish industry still does not occupy the position which is due to her because of her rich resources and favorable commercial location, but in recent years has progressed considerably. The industrially most developed provinces are : Barcelona, Gerona, Tarragona, Guipuzcoa and Vizcaya, further Valencia, Murcia, Alicante, Almeria, Granada, Sevilla, Malaga, Galicia, Asturias, Santander, Madrid and Ciudad Real. As far as the individual branches of industry are concerned, the production of iron- and steelwares is conducted most intensely in Catalonia, the Basque territories, and in the provinces Malaga and Sevilla. A good reputation has the industry producing hand weapons, which is served by factories in Toledo, Oviedo, Placencia (Guipuzcoa); famous are the Toledan swords. A large enterprise is the national factory at Trubio (Oviedo) for cast ironwares and artillery supplies. In addition to ironwares Spain produces copper- and leadwares in quantity, brass mainly at San Juan de Alcaraz (prov. Albacete), bronzewares at Barcelona, Eibar (Guipuzcoa) and in Navarra, bijouterie and filigran works. The production of machines is centered on Barcelona (4 large factories with c. 1700 workers), Sevilla, Malaga, Madrid and Valladolid, shipbuilding in Barcelona, Cartagena, Cadiz and Santander, the production of chirurgical and precision instruments in Madrid. Musical instriments, namely pianos, are produced in Barcelona, Sevilla, Zaragoza and Valladolid, guitars in Murcia, string instruments mainly in Palma. Two factories produce porcelain, an impressive establishment in Sevilla and several factories in the provinces Valencia, Madrid and Castellon produce earthenware. The production of fire-resistant clay products in Barcelona is of a quality which permits export into the countries on the Mediterranean, up till Constantinople. Another important industry is the production of tiles, glazed plates and mosaic floors, which, conducted as a cottage industry, employs thousands in he province of Valencia and delivers valuable items for export. Hydraulic chalk (cement) is only produced in Guipuzcoa in a quantity of c. 100,000 metr. ctrw. annually. Spain produces good glass in relatively large, but mainly for domestic consumption; the export to the colonies is a minor one, polished glasswares are imported. Glass is produced at many places, especially in Badalona, Murcia, Cadalso (Madrid) and Gijon. The processing of cork into corks, plates and tables is a profitable business in the country where the raw material is grown, the province of Gerona (export value 1886 over 17 million Pesetas). Furniture is produced in Madrid and Barcelona, but their products failed to expel the refined import articles from the market. Wickerwork, based on straw and reeds, is of importance for the cottage industry. Spain's leather industry used to be on a much higher level than it is now, despite the country still excelling in the production of Saffian and Corduan, and continues to export certain quantities of leather. The best products come from Cordoba, Barcelona, Toledo, Burgos and the Basque Provinces. Especially Spain is home to the most artistic saddles and riding equipment. The silk industry, for which all climatic conditions are given, has suffered much from a disease befalling silkworms, and presently is limited to the provinces of Murcia, Valencia and Sevilla, where silk spinning produces excellent yarn. The production of silk cocons is just over 1 million, that of raw silk about 85,000 kg annually. Silk weaving flourished in earlier centuries and is still conducted in factories in Madrid, Valencia, Barcelona, Granada, Sevilla and Toledo, without covering the domestic demand. Sheep wool weaving makes great progress, but only produces for the domestic market, where it has to fight with foreign competition. Its main seat is Catalonia, namely Barcelona, Tarrasa, Sabadell, Manresa etc. Barcelona also excels in the production of shawls and of cloth for the upholstering of furniture. Good cloth and flanell is produced in Alcoy, Palencia, Bejar (province Salamanca). Valencia and Murcia produce blankets made of condemser yarn and of worsted yarn, which are indispensable for the inhabitants as clothing, ornament and for the transport of utensils. The Spanish cotton industry develops relatively favorably. While in 1834 only 600,000 fine spindles were counted in the spinning industry, the number has increased to 1,835,000 in 1881. The cotton consumption in the last years was on average 490,000 metr. ctrw. For Catalonia the cotton industry is of greatest importance. Barcelona supplies almost all Spanish colonies with woven and printed cloth (indiennes). Also this industry is represented in the Basque provinces, in Malaga, Valladolid, Santander and the Baleares, although stimm import is necessary (1886 yarn for 2.1 million, textiles for 11.4 million Pesetas). Flax spinning makes great progress. Linen weaving produces for the domestic market and exports into the colonies and Brazil, but also Spain imports from Britain and Ireland. The seats of this industry are Catalonia, Aragon, Galicia, Castile and Navarra. Esparto weaving, which is conducted in Murcia, Alicante and elsewhere, delivers various products such as overcoats for miners, carpets, mats etc. In recent years, linen and hemp yarn was imported in quantities of 42,000 metr. ctrw. annually, textilles made of such in a quantity of 6,300 metr. ctrw. Dyeing and printing are old and importan branches of the Spanish industry, namely in Catalonia and the Basque provinces. Lace manufacturing also is old and progressing; her home is Catalonia. Machine-made lace is produced in Barcelona, Mataro etc. Gloves are produced in Madrid and Valladolid, knitwares in Barcelona. The shoe industry visibly develops on the Baleares (export via Barcelona to the Spanish colonies). For the consumption of the Spanish rural population, hemp shoes (alpargetas) are produced at many locations. Newly rising industries are the production of fans in Valencia and buton production in Madrid. In paper production machines are used more and more. There are already 40 paper factories (in Barcelona, Tolosa etc.), while the paper production in butts declines more and more. A main article of the paper production is cigarette papr (namely in Alcoy). Important is the food industry. There are 18 refineries for colonial sugar (Barcelona, Malaga and environs, Granada and Almeria, annually c. 150,000 metr. ctrw.), numerous chocolate factories, so in Madrid and environs, Barcelona, Zaragoza, Ciudad Real, Astorga, Oviedo, Malaga etc., several factories for canned fruits and candied fruit, several large factories for canned fish and meat (in Guipuzcoa and Coruna) and several factories for the production of maccaroni and pasta (in Malaga). Wheat flour is shipped from Santander to the Spanish colonies (in the last years on average 275,000 metr. ctrw.). Noteworthy are the distillery of wines and its remnants, the production of liquors (especially cinnamon liquor, in the province Albacete), and brewery in the larger cities. The tobacco indusry is a state monopoly, which is rented out since 1887. It employs large establishments in Madrid, Sevilla, Santander, Gijon, Coruna, Valencia and Alicante. The necessary leaves mostly come from the overseas colonies (Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines), partially even from Germany. But still large amounts of foreign cigarettes are smuggled into the country. Finally have to be mentioned the production of vermillion, of soap (in Catalonia and Andalucia, especially Malaga), of candles and various chemicals, bok printing and lithography (Madrid). In all of Spain freedom of trade prevailsd for some time now. Therefore there are no guilds, only professional associations (gremios) of craftsmen and businessmen, to serve a purpose easier achieved by a group than by individuals. Chambers of Commerce serve the purpose of promoting industry and trade, as do the Industrial Association of Madrid, the business associations in various cities and the technical colleges.
Trade and Communication Spain occupies an extraordinary favorable locaion for international trade, and for a long time the Spanish trade was among the world's most voluminous. If in present times hardly anything reminds of what it once has been, this is to be blamed on external and internal wars, and the neglect of the country's natural resources. The center of the country's domestic trade is Madrid. Next, Valladolid, Palencia, Burgos, Oviedo, Vitoria, Zaragoza and Granada are the most important places of domestic trade, In regard to foreign trade, Spain is divided in several separate customs districts, namely the mainland with the Baleares, the Canary Islands, the provinces in America, the possessions in Asia and Oceania, the island Fernando Poo and dependencies, and the North African possessions. Every one of these customs zones has its own tariff, the north African ports have been declared free ports. In the customs zone of the Spanish mainland and the Baleares, a tariff has been introduced on October 5th 1849 which since has been frequently modified, and namely been reduced by the conclusion of trade agreements. So Spain concluded trade and navigation agreements with Morocco in 1861, with Turkey in 1862, with China in 1864, with France in 1865, with most European countries and with Siam since 1870, in which it has conceded reduced import tariffs for foreign goods and even taken on the obligation, to further reduce the tariff at a later date. The financial situation and the movement of the other continental states toward a system of protective tariffs caused Spain to also raise her import tariffs by new tariffs (1882, 1886) and to conclude trade agreements modified in this sense with the other states. Noteworthy for Spain's foreign trade is a considerable smuggle trade through Portugal and Gibraltar, in case of the latter namely with British products. The total value of Spain's imports and exports (i.e. of the mainland including the Balearic Islands) in the last number of years amounted to : (in million Pesetas, 1 Peseta = 80 Pfennig) :

year import export
1882 816.7 765.4
1883 893.4 719.5
1884 779.6 619.2
1885 764.8 698.0
1886 855.2 727.3
1887 811.2 722.2

Spain's foreign trade is mainly conducted by sea. Of the entire trade of the last number of years, 16 % was by land, 84 % by sea. The main articles of foreign trade in export (with value of 1887 in million Pesetas) were : wine (281.7), ores (86.7), lead (22.0), raisins (22.2), livestock (12.4), cork (16.8), oranges (15.4), sheep wool (14.1), olive oil (9.7; 1880 : 40.0), shoes (12.4), esparto (8.9), grapes (9.7), wheat flour (5.2), canned goods (6.9), iron and ironwares (10.4), in imports : wheat (62.8), cotton (62.5), alcoholic spirits (45.0), timber (35.3), tobacco (30.3), fish (29.8), sugar (29.7), coal (25.6), woolwares (24.9), machines (20.1), skins and fur (19.4), other cereals (17.5), livestock (17.1), iron and ironwares (16.9), chemicals (15.8), cocoa (13.6), flax and hemp yarn (13.3). As far as the individual countries are concerned which participate in Spain's foreign trade, the bulk is conducted with France (imports 234.7 million Pesetas, exports 308.9 million P.), followed by Britain (114.0 / 184.6). Then follow the United States of North America (99.6 / 21.9), Cuba (37.3 / 61.0), Germany (82.9 / 9.6), Belgium, Portugal, Italy, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Argentina, the Netherlands, Norway etc.
In the last decade, Spanish navigation has much progressed. The number of ports on the coast of the Spanish mainland and the Baleares is 116, of which 56 are on the Atlantic coast, 60 on that of the Mediterranean. The most important of the former are Bilbao, Santander, Gijon, Ferrol (naval port), Coruna, Vigo, Huelva and Cadiz, of the latter Malaga, Almeria, Cartagena, Alicante, Valencia-Grao, Tarragona and Barcelona, on the Baleares and Pithyuses Palma, Mahon, Ibiza. In recent times the necessity of the construction of secure port facilities has been realised. With this object in mind, works have been begun, and largely completed, in Alicante, Barcelona, Cartagena, Tarragona and Valencia-Grao. The number of lighthouses in operation is 198. In the lighthouse at Cape Machichaco in Vizcaya a school for lighthouse custodians is operated. The Spanish merchant marine at the begin of 1884 numbered 1544 sailships with 309,779 register tons and 282 steamers with 200,100 tons, in total 1826 seagoing ships with 508,879 tons. The ship movements of al Spanish ports combined in 1887 in register tons were :

incoming ships outgoing ships
Spanish ships 4,264,482 4,420,130
foreign ships 6,900,494 6,696,443
total 11,164,976 11,116,573
coastal shipping (1885) 5,661,952 5,237,227

In Spain, inland navigation is of little importance. Among the large rivers there is one, which, if the water level is high, in certain stretches is navigable for flat boats, the Ebro, up to Zaragoza and perhaps even to Navarra. The Guadalquivir, Guadiana and Minho are only navigable for larger ships in their lower stretches, the first listed up to Sevilla. Therefore they do not suit inland shipping. The other rivers, as far as hey belong to Spain, are so full of sandbanks, holes, currents that they are unsuited for inland shipping. Among the canals the Emperor's Canal of Aragon takes the first place, begun under Emperor Charles V., 119 km long and 3,35 m deep, at the surface 23.5 m wide, which in ddition to inland navigation serves irrigation. In the 18th century three navigable canals were constructed, among which the 160 km long Castilian Canal, which branches off the Pisuerga near Alar del Rey and ends in the same river near Simancas, is the most important one. The Manzanares Canal (from Madrid to Toledo, 14 km) and the Canale Nuevo, branching off the Ebro at Amposta and ending in San Carlos de la Rapita after 10 km, are little used by navigation. From this century date the Guadarrama Canal (17 km) and the Murcia Canal (28 km). Recently a joint stock company has undertaken the channelization of the Ebro up to Zaragoza. The combined length of all of Spain's canals is about 700 km.
Spain's first railroad from Barcelona to Mataro (28 km) was taken in operation on Oct. 28th 1848. Since, the Spanish railroad network developed as follows : 1855 595 km, 1865 5226 km, 1876 5796 km, 1886 9185 km. The main lines are : the Spanish northern railroad from Madrid via Irun to the French border, with branch lines to Zamora, Salamanca, Segovia and Santander. Connected to the northern railroad are the northwestern or Galician railroad with the lines Palencia-Coruna, Monforte-Vigo, Leon-Gijon, then the railroad Tudela-Bilbao, which crosses the northern railroad near Miranda. An important line in the northeast is the railroad Zaragoza-Pamplona which sends out a branch to the northern railroad to Alsasua. From Madrid go out in addition to the first-mentioned line the railroads via Zaragoza to Barcelona and the railroad to Alicante, both of which are connected by the coastal line via Tarragona and Valencia until Almansa. From the former several lines branch off in Catalonia, and one via Porthou into France, from the latter lines to Toledo and Cartagena branch off. Connected with the railroad Madrid-Alicante finally are the Andalucian lines to Cadiz, Malaga and Granada as well as the railroad via Ciudad Real and Badajoz to Portugal. Madrid and Lisbon are also connected by the new direct line via Talavera. Also the island of Mallorca has her railroad Palma-Manacor. The individual railroad lines have been built by private companies, mainly financed by British capital. Horse tramways exist in Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia-Grao. In recent times also large sums have been invested in the construction of roads, which had been neglected for so long. The combined length of he completed roads is about 19,000 km. Further 3,000 km are under construction or planned. The country's center suffers most from the lack of roads. Litle concern is spent on local roads. Spanish state telegraph service in 1886 operated a network of lines of 17,840 km and employed 3,540 individuals. 2.8 million telegraphs were sent. The postal service operated in 1886 2655 post offices, with 7,112 employees. 111 million letters were delivered. Since 1886 15 chambers of commerce, trade and navigation were established. Banks with the right to issue banknotes used to exist in most cities. The law of March 19th 1874 the circulation of credit was concentrated in one bank, the Bank of Spain (starting capital 100 million Pesetas), and the closure of all other banknote-issuing and discount banks ordered. Most were converted into branch offices of the Bank of Spain. Further there is a large number of independent credit institutes, numerous savings banks, pawnbrokers, bourses in all larger trading places. The most famous fairs are those of Talavera de la Reina in New Castile, Palencia, Valladolid, Medina de Riuseco and Soria in Old Castile, Puente de la Reina, Estrella and Corella in Navarra, Granollers and Tarrara in Catalonia, Ronda and Puerto de Santa Maria in Andalucia, the main wool markets are those of Cuenca in New Castile and Bejar in Leon. The currency unit since 1871 is the Peseta of 100 Centimos = 1 Franc = 4 reales de vellon (copper Reales). The current coins are in gold the gold dublon = 100 Reales = 21.06 Mark, the gold dollar (Escudo de oro) = 40 Reales = 4.20 Mark, the half gold dollar = 20 Reales = 2.10 Mark, in silver : the Duro or Spanish dollar (peso fuerte, abroad called Piaster) = 20 Reales = 4.20 Mark, the half duro or escudo (medio duro, escudo) = 10 Reales, the Peseta = 4 Reales, the half Peseta = 2 Reales, the single Real (Real de vellon). The only valid paper money in Spain presently is that issued by the Bank of Spain, the largest bills may not exceed 1000 Pesetas. In regard to measurements and weights, in 1855 the metric system was introduced by law.
[welfare institutions] ...
Constitution and Administration The basic law to the present state constitution of Spain is the constitution of June 30th 1876. According to it Spain is a limited monarchy, presently under the Bourbon dynasty. The succssion is the cognatic one, according to which the female gender has the same right as the male one, and only the proximity of descent decides who shall succeed, so that a closer fremale descendant takes a higher rank than a more distant male descendant, but in the ruling line the younger prince is preferred over the older princess. Only Roman Catholics qualify for succession. Majority is achieved with the completion of the 16th year. If a minor succeeds or if the king for a longer duration is prevented to rule by himself, in the first case a guardianship, in both cases a regency is implemented, by appointment by the Cortes. The present king is Alfonso XIII., born posthumously to Alfonso XII., born May 17th 1886. The regent is his mother Marie Christine. The king respectively regent exercises legislative power together with the Cortes, which is divided in 2 chambers, the senate and the congress of deputees. The senate is formed of senators in their own right, by senators appointed by the crown for lifetime, by senators who are elected by provincial representations and the highest taxed, and half of whom are replaced every 10 years; the adult sons of the king and the crown prince, the grandes of Spain who enjoy an annual pension of 60,000 Pesetas, the general captains of the army and the admirals of the navy, the archbishops, the presidents of the Council of State, of the supreme court, of the supreme war council and supreme navy council, if they are in office for at least 2 years. The senators appointed by the king or elected by provincial representations and the highest taxed, have to belong to certain classes of state officials, the army or clergy, or receive an annual rent of 20,000 Pesetas. The number of senators in their own right and that of those appointed by the king together may not exceed 180; the same number is that of the elected senators. Every senator has to be a Spaniard and at least 35 years old. The congress of deputees consists of those members who were elected by electoral juntas for a term of 5 years, at a rate of one representative for 40,000 inhabitants. In order to qualify for election as a deputee, Spanish citizenship, secular status, majority and the enjoyment of all civil rights are required. The passive voting right is unrestricted, the active voting right, since the reform of July 20th 1877 limited to those who pay 25 Pesetas annually in tax. The Cortes convenes every year. The president and vice presidents of the second chamber are elected, thoe of the first chamber appointed by the king. The king and each of the two legislative bodies have the right to initiate laws. Financial laws first have to be presented to the Chamber of Deputees. The congress has the right to accuse ministers, in which case the senate functions as jury. The deputees to not receive any payment or diets. The civil rights correspond to those basic rights customary in other representative monarchies. The citizens by class are divided in nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants, who are equal in front of the law. The nobility is divided in a higher and a lower nobility; the former is divided in grandes and titulados, the latter are hidalgos or fidalgos. The "Grandeza" presently is awarded by the king in part for individuals, in part as a hereditary honour; it comes with the address "your excellency". The titulados are families, who since ancient times inherit the title duke, marquis, count, viscount or baron only to the eldest son. The rather numerous lower nobility is divided in the nobility of the sword and the patented nobility. But neither higher nor lower nobility enjoys any privileges. The address "Don", which used to be restricted to higher nobility, now is granted to any educated person. The communal constitution dates back to 1845 and, as is the provincial constitution, modeled largely after the French. Every province has a provincial deputation, the members of which are elected by the communal representations. Every commune of at least 30 residents has a communal representation (ayuntamiento) which is elected for two years, and which is presided by the alcalde who also functions as the justice of peace. The alcaldes are elected annually and confirmed by the government.
At the top of state administration is the council of ministers (consejo de ministros), which is assisted by the royal council of state (consejo de estado). The latter consists of 33 councilmen who are appointed by the king, and of the ministers, and debates government measures in its sections corresponding with the ministries, decides in the case of conflicting competences between judicial and administraive offices. Royal ministries are : the ministry of foreign affairs (also for matters concerning the royal house), the minisry for grace and justice (also for culture), the ministry of war, of the navy, of finances, of the interior (ministerio de la gobernacion, also responsible for railroads, the postal and telegraph service), the ministry for economy (ministerio de fomento, for agriculture, mining, industry, trade, construction and education) and the ministry for the colonies (ministerio de ultramar). The audit court is independent. At the head of provincial administration for the entire domestic and fiscal administration governors head the 49 provinces. Further every province has a sanitary junta and a central postal administration. Police is exercised in he communities by the alcaldes, in the larger cities by police commissioners, supervised by the governors. For the military administration, the country is divided in 16 capitanates general. and these are subdivided in provincial military gubernias, for the navy 3 departments (capitanates general). The colonial administration consists for every colony of a government with captain general, a supreme military commander and a civil governor, the letter immediately appointed by the king. The Cortes is not involved.
[administration of jurisdiction] ...
Finances The suggested budget for the financial year 1888-1889, in Pesetas, foresees :

direct taxes 310,983,000
indirect taxes 314,294,394
customs 172,993,000
state monopolies 21,198,038
state domain 7,944,000
state treasury 24,255,500
total 851,667,932

civil list 9,350,000
Portes 1,940,205
state debt 279,099,611
courts 1,361,276
pensions 50,593,826
minister presidency 1,148,959
foreign affairs 5,300,620
grace and justice 59,092,859
war 154,720,262
navy 26,683,627
interior 31,186,781
public works & education 100,385,507
finances 20,826,781
tax administration 106,967,871
total 848,657,985

State debu, which in the 1870es already had exceeded 12,000 million Pesetas, since, by a thorough conversion, was reduced by half; on January 1st 1887 it amounted to 6,334 million Pesetas, he annual interests 236 million Pesetas.
[Army and Navy] ...
[Coats of Arms, Military Orders] ...
Geographic-Statistical References
M. Willkomm, in Stein-Hörschelmann's Handbuch der Geographie, Leipzig 1862; M. Willkomm, Die pyrenäische Halbinsel, Prag 1884, Carrasco, Geografia general de la Espana, Madrid 1861ff., Coello, Resena geografica de Espana, Madrid 1859, Mingote y Tarazona, Geografia de Espana y sus colonias, Madrid 1887, Diccionario geografico-historico de Espana por la real Academia de la historia, Madrid 1802-1846, 8 vols., Madoz, Diccionario geografico-historico-estadistico de Espana, Madrid 1846-1850, 16 volumes, Mariana y Sanz, Diccionario geografico, estadistico, municipal de Espana, Valencia 1886, Martinez Alcubilla, Diccionario de la administracion espanola (4th ed., Madrid 1886ff), Cuendias, Spanien und die Spanier, Brüssel 1851, von Minutoli, Spanien und seine fortschreitende Entwickelung, Berlin 1851, Lestgarens, La situation economique et industrielle de l'Espagne en 1860, Paris 1860, Garrido, Das heutige Spanien, in German by A. Ruge, Leipzig 1863, Davillier, L'Espagne, Paris 1873, illustrated by Dore, Simons, Spanien in Schilderungen, illustrated by Wagner, Berlin 1880, Lauser, Aus Spaniens Gegenwart, Kulturskizzen, Leipzig 1872, Parlow, Kultur und Gesellschaft im heutigen Spanien, Leipzig 1888, the travelogues of von Minutoli, Huber, Cook, O'Shea, Th. Gautier, E. Quinet, Boissier, von Rochau, Willkomm, von Quandt, Ziegler, Rossmässler, Wachenhusen, Hackländer, von Wolzogen, W. Mohr (Cologne 1876, 2 vols.), Lauser (Berlin 1861), de Amicis (in German Stuttgart 1880), Bark (Berlin 1883), Passarge (Leipzig 1884), Th. von Bernhardi (Berlin 1886), Parlow (Vienna 1889); tour guides ... maps ...
[The Era of the Romans and Visigoths] ...
[Arab Rule] ...
[The Rise of Christian Kingdoms] ...
[Castile and Aragon] ...
[Spain as a World Power] ...
[Decline under the Late Habsburgers] ...
[Spain under the Bourbons until the French Revolution] ...
[Spain during the Era of Revolution] ...
[The Reaction under Ferdinand VII.] ...
The Carlist War and the Regency From Portugal, where he found refuge and support from DonMiguel, Don Carlos already protested on April 29th 1833 against the new succession regulation, and after Ferdinand VII.'s death proclaimed himself king of Spain. In addition to the Apostolic party, especially the Basque provinces and Navarra supported him, as their age-old privileges (which did include abuses such as smuggling) were questioned by the liberals. The Carlist uprising began in October 1833 with the appointment of a junta and the arming of the people, lead by Zumala-Carreguy. The same excellent commander gained for the Carlists more and more victories in the mountain war, and took control of a part of Catalonia. Also Don Carlos, after the toppling of Don Miguel expelled from Portugal, appeared in the rebellious provinces. The civil war soon was of cruel nature, and after Mina had the mother of a Carlist general shot, prisoners on both sides were no longer spared. The Christinos (suipporters of the regent), who in numbers were far superior, as their government was supported by the larger part of the country, the army and the officials, the population of the cities and the large number of amnestied Spaniards (50,000 persons), would have been able to easily suppress the Carlist rebellion, if they would not have suffered from internal disputes. The progressists, which now called themselves the progressive liberals, were not satisfied with the new constitution which the new minister Martinez de la Rosa had introduced after the dismissal of Zea-Bermudez (Jan. 15th 1834), the Estatuto Real (with two chambers, the Proceres and the Procuradores), and demanded the reintroduction of the constitution of 1812. All further concessions of the regent, who depended on the support of the liberals, did not suffice; in 1836 the progressists organised uprisings in numerous cities, on the occasion of which the constitution of 1812 was proclaimed. Finally, on August 12th 1836, also one of the militia regiments garrisoned at San Ildefonso rebellion, moved on La Granja palace, where Queen Christine resided, and forced her to accept the constitution of 1812. Minister Isturiz, a Moderado, fled, Quesada was murdered by the mob. The new prime minister Calatrava called on Cortes to convene on October 24th 1836, which revided the constitution of 1812 in 1837 in a moderate way.
The dispute in the liberal camp encouraged the Carlists to engage in bold actions. After his victory at Huesca Don Carlos crossed the Ebro and threatened Madrid, while simultaneously a Carlist general made progress in Andalucia which had to be concerning for the liberals. He was defeated by Narvaez; in the north Espartero fought the decisive victory at Huerta del Rey (October 14th), and by and by took control of the northern provinces. Because also in the Carlist camp there was discord between the court camarilla under the Princess of Beira, the second wife of Don Carlos, and commander-in-chief Maroto, who on February 20th 1839 had several members of the camarilla shot. In order to protect himself from the revenge of his opponents, Maroto on August 31st 1839 concluded the Treaty of Vergara with Espartero, in which he and 50 Carlis commanders laid down their arms. On September 15h Don Carlos crossed onto French territory; on July 6th 1840 he was followed by Cabrera, who had continued the resistance in Lower Aragon and Catalonia. The Cortes confirmed the fueros of the Basque Provinces. By the late summer of 1840, all of Spain was submitted to Queen Isabella, and the Carlist War was terminated.
His successes in the Carlist War had gained Espartero such a reputation, that the regent, who by confirmation of the ayuntamento law (communal constitution law) passed by the conservative Cortes had caused a progressist rising in Madrid, had to appoint him prime minister in September 1840. She resigned on October 12th and moved to France, when Espartero presented her an unacceptable program of government. Now Espartero was elected regent on May 8th 1841. But despite his reputation, and despite his successful effort to raise the country's prosperity, he constantly had to face the intrigues of his opponents, of the [former] regent and the Moderados, the disobedience of his own supporters, of the progressists, and insurrections (pronunciamentos) of ambitious officers. In June 1843 a general rebellion erupted, which was joined by he radicals, and spartero had to flee to Britain. After the Moderado majority of the Cortes on November 18th 1843 declared Queen Isabella (not yet 14 years old) of age, first Bravo Murillo, then Espartero's rival Narvaez took over the lead of the ministry; Queen Christine was recalledm the constitution in May 1845 amended in a reactionary way; a high census was introduced for the Cortes, he senate appointed by the crown for lifetime, he Catholic religion proclaimed state religion.
The Reign of Quen Isabella Narvaez already in 1846 got in a conflict with the Cortes and resigned. The queen now appointed Isturiz. The establishment of a firm, focussed government was made more difficult by the marriage of Isabella II. The plan to marry her to the Coun of Montemolin, the son of Don Carlos, was spolied by King Louis Philippe of France, who wanted one of his sons to ascend on the Spanish throne. The game of intrigues of Spanish marriages ended in Louis Philippe, according o a promise given to the British, gave his son, the Count of Montpensier, in marriage not to Queen Isabella II., but to her sister, the Infanta Luisa, but, in order to achieve his aim indirectly, pushed through that Isabella II. had to marry her cousin Francis d'Assisi, a bodily and mentally weak prince, which excluded any hope for direct descendants. But Isabella, despising he husband forced upon her and violating the limits set to her by tradition, chose favorites and gave birth to many children, thus destroying the egotistical calculations of the House of Orleans. These favorites, in the choice of whom Isabella gradually descended from Serrano to Marfori, exploited their position shamelessly to satisfy their ambition and greed, and so in the otherwise so loyal people the the moral reputation of the monarchy was destroyed by the hypocritical, immoral appearance of the court. The government of the unfortunate country turned into an undignified game of intrigues in the surrounding of the monarch, which despite maintaining calm, endangered progress in the intellectual and material development of the country, and undermined the ethical basis of the state. The ministers changed so frequently, that in 1833-1858 Spain had not less than 47 prime ministers, 61 ministers of foreign affairs, 78 ministers of finance and 96 ministers of war.
After the brief government under the progressists under Serrano in 1847-1851 Narvaez headed a ministry, which despite being Moderado, proceded with moderation and not only maintained calm, but also increased national prosperity. His successor Bravo Murillo (1851-1852) by planning to change the constitution in an absolutist-ecclesiastical spirit, caused unrest, which in 1854 expressed itself in pronunciamentos of numerous generals. Finally a rebellion broke out in Madrid, and the queen could only restore calm by appointing Espartero as prime minister. After he had convinced the queen to pass the law concerning he sale of state domains in 1855, he was toppled on July 14th by O'Donnell, who after suppressing a rebellion in Madrid disarmed the National Guard, restored the constitutrion of May 1845 and interrupted the sale of state domains. For a number of years, O'Donnell and Narvaez alternated in office, the former being prime minister in 1855-1856, 1858-1863, 1865-1866, he used to be a progressist, now wanted to lean on a central party, the Liberal Union, but with his suggestions and measures met the suspicion of his former fellow party members, and therefore attempted to gain successes in foreign policy. The War against Morocco 1859-1860 (see there) was to serve this purpose, in which O'Donnell only won military laurels, but no real advantages. In 1861 San Doningo on Haiti was reunited with Spain, and in an alliance with Britain and France, Spain intervened in Mxico at the end of 1861, as the latter had denied satisfaction for the violation of Spanish interests, but the Spanish commander Prim withdrew in 1862 from the operation, when he recognized the egotistical intentions of the French. A conflict with Chile and Peru which in 1866 resulted in the formal declaration of war against Spain by Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Ecuador (Jan. 14th), ended without a result after the unsuccessful siege of Valparaiso and Callao. San Domingo was given up in 1865. Under these circumstances, O'Donnell, although he suppressed several military revolts and foiled an attempted landing by the Carlist pretender, the Count of Montemolin (April 1st 1860), he could not hold on to his position in the long run. When O'Donnell no longer was able to maintain calm, Queen Isabella preferred Narvaez, whose moderate views suited her more. Narvaez, prime minister in 1856-1857, 1864-1865 and 1866-1868, favoured the clergy, suppressed freedom of the press and freedom of association, and, especially during his last year in office, treated the leaders of progressists and the Liberal Union with reckless severity. Rios Rosas, Serrano etc. were arrested, others, such as O'Donnell, Prim, fled abroad. The Cortes, the elections to which in Spain always are controlled by the government, willingly agreed to the lifting of constitutional liberties and to the declaration of the stae of siege, and Isabella was so certain of the success of the clerical party hat she even expressed her intention to defend the cause of the pope with the worldly power of Spain.
Narvaez died suddenly on April 23rd 1868. His successor Gonzalo Bravo had to accept Isabella's favorite Marfori into his ministry. After a Unionist conspiracy was uncovered in July, the aim of which was to elevate Montpensier to the throne, and the leaders, respected generals such as Serrano, Dulce and others, had been deported to the Canary Islands, the queen went to San Sebastian in order to discuss with Napoleon the occupation of Rome by Spanish troops. In the meantime, the Liberal Union, the Progressists and the Republicans joined to commonly stand up against Isabella's maladministration. The unionist generals were picked up from the Canary Islands by a steamer, brought to Cadiz, where also Prim appeared, and the fleet under Admiral Topete on September 18th 1868 proclaimed the deposition of Isabella. The rebellion quickly spread across all of Spain. General Pavia took command of those troops which had remained loyal and moved against the rebels into Andalucia, but on Sepember 28th he was defeated near Alcolea which is near Cordoba. Serrano entered Madrid on October 3rd, while Isabella fled to France on September 30th.
Anarchy and Civil War The Unionists and the Progressists under Prim now formed a privisional government presided by Serrano, which immediately abolished the Jesuit Order, restricted the monasteries, introduced full freedom of he press and of teaching; the people enjoyed their freedom and showered the heroes of the glorious revolution with praise. The constituent Cortes, elected according to a new law, convened on February 11th 1869; the Unionists numbered only 40 delegates, which removed their candidate for the throne, Montpensier; the Republicans 70, the Progressists held the majority. Also they wanted establishmnt of a constitutional monarchy, and on June 1st 1869 the Cortes accepted a monarchic-constitutional monarchy. But on April 6th King Ferdinand of Portugal declined the Spanish crown offered to him, as did the young Duke of Genova, so the Cortes decided to install a regency, and appointed Serrano regent on June 18th. The uncertainty of Spain's political situation encouraged Don Carlos, the grandson of the first Don Carlos, to enter Spanish territory in July, and, aided by the clergy, to stir up Carlist insurrections in the northern provinces, while the Republicans rose in several cities, namely in Barcelona. Finally, prime minister Prim succeeded on persuading Hereditary Prince Leopold von Hohenzollern to accept the Spanish crown, and on July 4th 1870 regent and ministry decided to suggest his candidacy to Cortes. The unexpected objection of France thwarted his candidacy, the hereditary prince resigned his candidacy on July 12th, in order not to become the cause of a major war. When the Franco-German War broke out, the Spanish government, which had immediately accepted his resignation, took a strictly neutral stand. In place of the Hohenzollern prince, Prim now won over Duke Amadeo of Aosta, the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele of Italy as a new candidate for the throne; he was elected King by the Cortes on November 16th with 191 to 98 votes.
On the day on which King Amadeus landed in Cartagena, December 30th 1870, General Prim died; he had been mortally wounded by assassins on Dec. 27th in Madrid. This ay the young ruler lost his strongest support. Still he assumed government on January 2nd 1871, and he charged Serrano with the formation of a cabinet. The grandes openly showed Amadeus their contempt in the most brusque way; a number of officers refused to swear the oath to him. Elections for the Cortes, held in March, produced a slight majority for the government, among the opposition were 60 Republicans and 65 Carlists, who attacked the king harshly. Among the king's supporters there was no unity. Serrano was pushed out of office in July by the intrigant Zorilla, a radical progressist, who could hold on to the leadership in government only until October. The conservative progressist Sagasta, since the end of 1871 prime minister, after the dissolution of the Cortes, in the new elections in April 1872 gained the majority, and in June was succeeded by Serrano, who successfully had fought the Carlists, but had granted them amnesty in the Convention of Amorevieta (May 24th 1872), in order to restore calm in Spain. For this purpose he requested the king to grant him extraordinary authority, which the king, at the instigation of Zorilla, refused. On June 16h the latter again took on the lead of the government, but was neither able to end the factional struggle in the new Cortes, in which the ministerial majority more and more openly expressed her republican principles, nor was he able to end the rebellions in the country. Convinced that he could not gain any authority in the restless country, Amadeus abdicated on February 10th 1873 and returned to Italy.
The Cortes immediately declared the republic, with 256 to 32 votes, and elected Figueras president, a federalist republican who wanted to limit the authorities of the central government to a minimum, and instead wanted to grant extended autonomy to provinces, cities and communities. The oath and the conscription for the army were abolished. After the supporters of a unitary state had been chased out, the federalists in the elections of May 10th gained an overwhelming majority. The latter did not regard Figueras to be sufficiently extreme, and Pi y Margall took his place, under whom complete anarchy arose. In the north the Carlists spread again, the pretender Don Carlos established his headquarters in Estrella. In the large cities of the south, such as Malaga, Cadiz, Sevilla and Cartagena, the Red Communists (Intransingents), by the immediate implementation of the federative republic tried to establish their rule, proclaimed the autonomy of Andalucia, established welfare committees, and took control of several warships. he Cortes now realized the necessity to energetically fight Carlists and Intransingents. For this purpose Castelar, until then a federalist, on September 9th took the lead of a new government, suspended the Cortes after having had been granted extraordinary powers, on September 21st he suspended constitutional liberties and declared martial law in its full severity. Sevilla, Malaga and Cadiz were submitted immediately, Cartagena had to be taken by siege and surrendered only on January 12th 1874. In the north, the Carlists made more and more progress, and the action of the Cortes, which after her first session (January 2nd 1874) refused to thank Castelar in any way for his energetic action, and forced him to resign, gave reason to the worst fears. Then Serrano had the assembly terminated on January 3rd by General Pavia, and as president of the executive took he helm of a new government the primary aim of which was the termination of the Carlist war. The fight centered on Bilbao, which was besieged by the Carlists since December 1873. Serrano forced them in May to lift the siege, but they defeated the government troops under Concha on June 25th to 27th near Estrella, and Don Carlos' brother repeatedly crossed the Ebro, in July he even penerated as far as Cuenca. Finally Serrano prepared an energetic concentrated attack on the Carlists and increased the size of the army to 80,000 men, when he suddenly was toppled.
The Rule of Alfonso XII.; Newest Time After all attempts to elevate a foreign prince onto he Spanish throne had failed, the experiment of a republic had resulted in complete anarchy, Don Carlos had made a candidacy impossible by his conmnection to Ultramontanism and his barbaric course of waging war, only Isabella's eldest son Alfonso remained, who by the abdication of his mother on June 25th 1870 had become the claimant of the younger line of the House of Bourbon, as the candidate for the throne of the Moderate Liberals. His elevation seemed to the officers the only salvation from the chaos, and in agreement with the most influential generals, on December 29th 1874 in Sagunto Martinez Camos proclaimed Alfonso XII. King of Spain. The northern army and the garrison of Madrid declared for him, anmd Serrano laid down his office without attempting to resist. The head of the Alfonsist party, Canovas del Castillo, was called to lead a cnservative-liberal government, which was confirmd by the king after his entry in Madrid (January 14th 1875). The new constitution, agreed with notables, abolished trial by jury, civil marriage and freedom of instruction, and made further concessions to the clergy, in order to deprive Carlism of its base, but it promised, applied honestly and modestly, a peaceful and free development. The Carlist War now was conducted by the generals Quesada and Moriones according to a systematic plan, with sufficient forces, and successfully concluded by the conquest of Vittoria (July 8th 1875), Seo de Urgel (August 26th 1875) and Estella February 19th 1876); Don Carlos on February 28th at Roncevalles crossed into French territory. The fueros of the Basque provinces were abolished. The new Cortes elected on January 20th 1876, in which the government held a strong majority, was opened by the king on February 15th, and on May 24th approved the new constitution. The minister of finasnces decided to deal with financial ruin by suspending the payment of interest on state debt until January 1st 1877, and from then onward to resume partial payment. The rebellion in Cuba finally was settled early in 1878, but only by the Treaty of Tanjon (February 10th 1878), in which General Martinez Campo promised the rebels full amnesty, the abolition of slavery and economic independence of the island. As Canovas refused to present the last concession to the Cortes, he resigned in March 1879 and left the leadership of government to Martinez Campos, who failed to gain approval for the reforms for Cuba suggested by him, and who therefore already resigned on December 7th 1879. Canovas, again prime minister, in 1880 got a law concerning the abolition of slavery on Cuba approved, but in view of the Spanish finances the export tariffs collected there and the monopolies in favour of Spanish trade and indusry remained.
As Martinez Campos, after his unsuccessful premiership, joined Canovas' opponents, now in the Cortes the parties of the Constitutionals and the Centralists formed an influential liberal-dynastic opposition under Sagasta, whom King Alfonso XII., in order no to alienate the Liberals, charged with forming a government. Sagasta became prime minister, Martinez Campos minister of war. The new ministry dissolved the Cortes, and given the control the government exercises over the election, gained a large majority in the chamber as well as in the senate. Minister of finances Camacho immediately transferred Spain's state debts, for which high interest rates had to be paid, in a 4 % state debt, and concluded a trade agreement with France (1882) which secured a eform of the tariff. However, Sagasta could not hold on long, even after having reorganized his cabinet in Januar 1883 giving more positions to the Liberals. The Constitutionals, especially Serrano, demanded thorough reforms, namely the reintroduction of he constitution of 1869, which Sagasta resolutely refused to implement; in August 1883 soldier rebellions broke out in Badajoz, Barcelona, Seo de Urgel and other garrisons of the north, which proclaimed the republic with the constitution of 1869. After the rebellions were suppressed, the king decided to charge the dynastic left with government, and in October 1883 charged Posada Herrera to form a new government which promised a revision of the constitution including the introduction of civil marriage, trial by jury and universal adult manhood suffrage. But this failed because of the opposition of Sagasta, whose address draft which severely criticized the policy of the Dynastic Left, was accepted by Cortes in January 1884. Therefore the King again charged Canovas to form a Conservative-Liberal cabinet.
Alfonso XII., in addition to striving to reconciliae the monarchist parties and to unite them on the basis of a constitutional policy, in foreign policy he pursued the aim of restoring Spain's reputation and influence in Europe. For this purpose he strove to restore and strengthen the armed forces at land and at sea; further he wanted to lean on the Central European powers and in the summer of 1883 he undertook a journey to Austria and Germany, where he was given an honorable reception by Kaiser Wilhelm during the mperial manoeuvres in Homburg, and was given the command of a regiment of ulans. On his return trip through France he was roughly insulted on September 29th, but compensated by the enthusiastic reception he received when he entered Madrid (October 2nd). A visit by the German crown prince in November expressed the reputation the king enjoyed in Germany. A terribble earthquake in Andalucia, a cholera epidemic and the introduction of direct consumption taxes in 1885 caused foment; as an igniting spark the news of a German warship having hoisted the German flag in the Carolinas not only caused the Madrid mob to emotional outbursts against Germany and its embassy in Madrid, but also caused the leaders of the parties, namely of the Radicals sympathizing with France, in order to increase their popularity, to threaten Germany with war. Only the king remained steadfast against a fatal rush of action and thus made possible honorable understanding with Germany. Unfortunately, he died already on November 25th 1885.
Alfons XII. left behind as a widow his second wife Marie Christine, an Austrian archduchess, who immediaely was proclaimed regent and who gave birth to a son, Alfonso XIII., on May 17th 1886. Changes on the throne took place without disruption, republican army revolts in Cartagena and Madrid instigated by Zorilla, and the intrigues of Montpensier, which all were without effect, disregarded. Canovas regarded it imperative to make the liberal parties interested in the continuation of the dynasty, and therefore suggested to the regent to appoint Sagasta prime minister in his place (November 27th 1885). Sagasta, by holding new elections, gained a majority in the Cortes, which was opened on May 10th 1886, approved the introduction of trial by jury (May 7th 1887) and took on the debate of the army reform suggested by minister of war Cassola, which included mandatory military service. The revenues were increased by renting out post steamer lines and the tobacco monopoly. The regent succeeded by dignified and prudent appearance to win the respect and the sympathies of the people to the same degree as her deceased husband had done. The old clerical absolutism, because of the incompeence of its leaders and the penetration of liberal ideas, outwardly is overthrown and nonviable, but in the spirit of the people so little overcome and exterminated, that no liberal government can rely on the support of the mass of the people, but has to use the aid of the party leaders and ambitious generals, which exploit their protege, discredit him and finally cause his ruin. In alliance with other parties, every party is capable, after a few years, to topple a government.
Historical References Lembke, Geschichte von Spanien, vol.1, Hamburg 1831, vol.2 and 3 by Schäfer, Goha 1844-1861, continued by Schirrmacher, Gotha 1881ff., Lafuente, Historia general de Espana, Madrid 1850-1866, 30 vols., new ed. Barcelona 1888, 22 vols., Cavanilles, Historia de Espana, Madrid 1861-1865, 5 vols., Rico y Amat, Historia politica e parlamentaria de Espana (Madrid 1860-1862, 3 vols.), Alfaro, Compendio de la historia d'Espana, 5th ed., Madrid 1869, Rosseeuw Saint-Hilaire, Histoire d'Espagne, Paris 1839-1876, 14 vols., Gebhardt, Historia general de Espana, Madrid 1864, 7 vols., Havemann, Darstellungen aus der inneren Geschichte Spaniens, 15.-17. Jahrhundert, Göttingen 1850, Fapia, Historia de la civilization d'Espana, Madrid 1840, 4 vols., Montesa and Manrique, Historia de la legislazion etc. de Espana, Madrid 1861-1864, 7 vols., Aschbach, Geschichte der Omajiden in Spanien, 2nd ed. Wien 1860, 2 vols., Aschbach, Geschichte Spaniens und Portugals zur Zeit der Herrschaft der Almorawiden und Almohaden, Frankfurt 1833-1837, 2 vols., Dozy, Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne, Leiden 1861, 4 vols., in German Leipzig 1873, Dozy, Recherches sur l'histoire et la litterature de l'Espagne pendant le moyen-age, 3rd ed. Leiden 1881, 2 vols., Prescott, History of Ferdinand and Isabella, in German Leipzig 1842, Prescott, History of the reign of Philipp II. of Spain, in German Leipzig 1856-1859, 5 vols., Häbler, Die wirtschaftliche Blüte Spaniens im 16. Jahrhundert, Berlin 1888, Actas de la cortes de Castilla 1563-1713, Madrid 1861-1885, Morel-Fatio, L'Espagne au XVIe and XVIIe siecle, Heilbronn 1878, Baumgarten, Geschichte Spaniens zur Zeit der französischen Revolution, Berlin 1861, Baumgarten, Geschichte Spaniens von der französischen Revolution bis auf unsre Tage, Leipzig 1865-1871, 3 vols., Arteche y Moro, Guerra de la independencia 1808-1814, Madris 1868-1883, vols.1-5, Hubbard, Histoire contemporaine de l'Espagne, Paris 1869-1883, 6 vols., Lauser, Geschichte Spaniens from Sturz Isabellas bis zur hronbesteigung Alfonsos, Leipzig 1877, 2 vols., Borrego, Historia de las cortes de Espana durante el siglo XIX, Madrid 1885, Cherbuliez, l'Espagne politique 1868-1873, Paris 1874, Leopold, Spaniens Bürgerkrieg, Hannover 1875, de Castro, Geschichte der spanischen Protestanten, in German Frankfurt 1866, Wilkens, Geschichte des spanischen Protestantismus im 16. Jahrhundert, Gütersloh 1877, Kayserling, Geschichte der Juden in Spanien, Berlin 1861-1867, 2 vols., Solvay, l'art espagnol, Paris 1886

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek


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