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Aragon Castile
First posted on November 20th 2011






In 711 the Visigothic Kingdom in Spain was invaded by a Muslim army crossing over from North Africa. In 716 much of the Iberian Peninsula had been conquered and was declared a province of the Umayyad Caliphate (capital Damascus). When the Umayyad Dynasty was ousted in Damascus, a branch of the family established the separate Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba (756-1030). This period is regarded the Golden Age of al-Andalus; the Arab Agricultural Revolution introduced rice and oranges to the Iberian Peninsula; the introduction of Syrian artisans' skills elevated the quality of Spanish craftsmanship.
From 1009 to 1106, Spain was politically fragmented (First Taifa periods); Taifas of Albarracin, Algeciras, Almeria, Alpuente, Arcos, Badajoz, Carmona, Ceuta, Cordoba, Denia, Granada, Jerica, Lisbon, Lorca, Malaga, Mallorca, Mertola, Molina, Meron, Murcia, Murvieto and Sagunto, Niebla, Ronda, Rueda, Saltes and Huelva, Santa Maria de Algarve, Segorbe, Sevilla, Silves, Toledo, Tortosa, Valencia, Zaragoza.
From 1085 to 1145 the Almoravid Dynasty (from North Africa) ruled (most of) al-Andalus. It was followed by the Second Taifa period 1140-1203, Taifas of Almeria, Arcos, Badajoz, Beja and Evora, Carmona, Constantina and Hornachuelos, Granada, Guadix and Baza, Jaen, Jerez, Malaga, Mertola, Murcia, Niebla, Purchena, Ronda, Santarem, Segura, Silves, Tavira, Tejada, Valencia
From 1147 to 1238 the Almohad Dynasty (from North Africa) ruled (most of) al-Andalus. It was followed by the Third Taifa period 1232-1492; Taifas of Arjona, Baeza, Ceuta, Cordoba, Denia, Granada, Jaen, Lorca, Mallorca, Menorca, Murcia, Niebla, Orihuela, Sevilla, Valencia.

In the 8th century, al-Andalus covered most of the Iberian peninsula; only remote mountainous regions in the north had escaped conquest. Here a number of Christian statelets emerged, which over time expanded their territory at the expense of al-Andalus (the Reconquista). By 1266, all of mainland al-Andalus, except for Granada, had fallen to their Christian adversaries - Portugal, Castile and Aragon.

This page deals with mainland al-Andalus, from 711 to 1266, thus excluding the Balearic Islands and the Emirate of Granada.

Historical Atlas : Spain Page

Students' Paper : Yoon, Seong Heon, Contemporary Christian, Muslim and Jewish Views on and Reactions to Islamic Spain and the Reconquista (c.700 CE - c.1500 CE) (2012)
Students' Paper : Cho, Naan, Comparative Culinary History : Italy and Spain (2011)



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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article Al-Andalus, from Wikipedia; Al-Andalus, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Al-Andalus Master Project, from Geni
Historic Idrisi, Dhikra al-andalus Talif Sharif al-idris=: Descripcion de Espa? de Xerif Aledris, 1799, in Spanish, IA
Links General Category : Al-Andalus, from Wikipedia; Categoria : Al-Andalus, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
on History Categoria : Historia de al-Andalus, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Historical Dictionary Enciclopedia de la Biblioteca de al-Andalus, in Spanish
Organizations American Academy of Research Historians of Medieval Spain
Fundacion Ibn Tufayl de estudios arabes
Timelines
Accounts of History current Article Al-Andalus, from Wikipedia; Al-Andalus, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
historical J. Bleda, P. Claves, Coronica de los moros de Espa?: diuidida en ocho libros, 1618, in Spanish, GB
al-Maqqari (-1632), The history of the Mohammedan dynasties in Spain: extracted from the Nafhu-t-tib min ghosni-l-Andalusi-r-rattib wa tarikh Lisanu-d-Din Ibni-l-Khattib vol.1 1840, GB, vol.2 1840, GB
Aben-Adhari de Marruecos (= Ibn Idari), Historias de al-Andalus [1622-1624] 1860, in Spanish, GB
J. Shakespear, T.H. Home, The history of the Mahometan empire in Spain 1816, GB
Florian, History of the Moors in Spain, 1841, GB
L. Viardot, Historia de los arabes y de los moros de Espana, 1844, in Spanish, GB
E.J. Brabazon, Historical tales from the history of the Muslims in Spain, 1853, GB
J.A. Conde, History of the dominion of the Arabs in Spain, 1854, GB; here French edition of 1825, GB
S.P. Scott, History of the Moorish Empire in Europe vol.1, 1904, vol.2, 1904, vol.3, 1904, IA
H.E. Watts, The Christian recovery of Spain, being the story of Spain from the Moorish conquest to the fall of Granada (711-1492 a.d.) 1894, IA
Specific Periods Muslim Conquest, Umayyad Province 711-756 al-Hakam (-870), Dhikr fath al-Andalus: Ibn Abd-el-Hakem's history of the conquest of Spain, 1858, GB
J.G. Ursino, Cronica del Rey Don Rodrigo, con la destruycion de Espa?, y como los moros la ganaron: nueuamente corregida 1586, in Spanish, GB
Article : Chronicle of 754, from Wikipedia
Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba 756-1032 Article : Caliphate of Cordoba, from Wikipedia
The Umayyad [Caliphate] of al-Andalus, 756-1032, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
R.P.A. Dozy, E. Levi-Provençal, Histoire des musulmans d'Espagne: jusqu'?la conqu?e de l'Andalousie par les Almoravides (711 - 1110), 1861, in French, GB
First Taifa Period, 1031-1086 The Taifa Princes 1031-1086, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Article : Primeros reinos de taifas, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Article : Taifa, from Wikipedia
Almoravid Dynasty 1056-1147 The Almoravid Dynasty 1056-1147, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Article : Almoravide, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Article : Almoravid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Second Taifa Period, 1144-1172 Article : Segundos reinos de taifas, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Article : Taifa, from Wikipedia
Almohad Dynasty 1130-1269 The Almohad Dynasty, 1130-1269, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Article : Imperio Almohade, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Article : Almohad Caliphate, from Wikipedia
Third Taifa Period, 124-1266 Article : Terceros reinos de Taifas, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Article : Taifa, from Wikipedia
Historiography
Politics
Military Category : Batallas de al-Andalus, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Article : Umayyad Conquest of Hispania 711-718, from Wikipedia
Article : Battle of Sagrajas 1086, from Wikipedia
Article : (Portuguese) Conquest of Santarem 1147, from Wikipedia
Article : Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa 1212, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances General
Money & Finances
Agriculture & Herding Horse breeding Article : Lusitano, from Wikipedia
The Arab culture in the medieval equestrian world, from The Espanish Horse
Agriculture & Herding Wool Article : Merino : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Oveja merina, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Wine, Licquor Article : Spanish wine, from Wikipedia
Article : Vino de Espana, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Grain La Historia del Arroz en Espana, from Arroz SOS, in Spanish
Una aproximacion a la historia del arroz en occidente y la paella, from Historia Cocina, in Spanish
Mining Las Minas de Almaden, in Spanish
Article : Mineria en Andalucia : Evolucion Historica, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Evolucion Historico de la Mineria en Andalucia, from Junta de Andalucia, in Spanish
Manufacture : Metalwork History of the Toledo Swords, from Aceros de Hispania
Metallurgy, from Cities of Light. The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain
Metalwork, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage (covers not only Spain)
Manufacture : Glass N. Carmona et al., Islamic glasses from Al-Andalus. Characterisation of materials from a Murcian workshop (12th century AD, Spain), Journal of Cultural Heritage 10 (2009) 439-445
Manufacture : Textiles Textiles, from Cities of Light. The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain
Manufacture : Pottery Article : Hispano-Moresque Ware, from Wikipedia
Ceramics, from Cities of Light. The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain
R. Chapoulie et al., Cuerda Seca Ceramics from al-Andalus, Islamic Spain and Portugal (10th?12th Centuries AD): Investigation with SEM-EDX, Archaeometry 47, 3 (2005) pp.519-534.
J. Molera et al., Chemical and Textural Characterization of Tin Glazes in Islamic Ceramics from Eastern Spain Journal of Archaeological Science (2001) 28, pp.331-340
Hispanic Society of America, Hispano-Moresque pottery in the collection of the Hispanic Society of America, 1915, IA
Mills Article : Water Wheel, from Wikipedia
Article : Molinos de Guadalquivir, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Social History T.F. Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Comparative Perspectives of Social and Cultural Formation 1979, thesis Princeton, LIBRO
M. Shatzmiller, Women and Property Rights in al-Andalus and the Maghrib : Social Patterns and Legal Discourse 1995, thesis Univ. of Western Ontario
Ethnography S. Kentaro, The Fihrids and Early Arab Settlers in Eighth Century al-Andalus and Ifrikiyah
Article : Mozarabic language, from Wikipedia
D. Wacks, Ethnic Polemic in Medieval Spain: Arabiyya, Shu'ubiyya, and Ibraniyya, 2011
Religion General Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain, The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier, by James William Brodman, scholarly, 6 long chapters
L.M. Vaughan, Convivencia: Christians, Jews, and Muslims in Medieval Spain, thesis Univ. of Tennessee 2003
Mozarab Articles Mozarab, Mozarabic Rite, from Wikipedia
K.B. Wolf, Christian Martyrs in Muslim Spain, 1988, thesis Cambridge, LIBRO
Jewish Articles : History of the Jews in Spain, Golden Age of Jewish Culture in Spain, from Wikipedia
Article : Historia de los judios en Espana, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Sephardim - Conversos - Marranos : Historical Overview, from JewishGen
S.A. Marks, The Jews in Islamic Spain : Al Andalus, Sephardic Studies
Article : Burgos, Cordoba, Murcia, Salamanca, Seville, Toledo, Valladolid, from Jewish Virtual Library
A. Issaroff, Massacres of Jews in Spain, 2009, from Zionism and Israel, an Encyclopedic Dictionary
E.H. Lindo, The history of the Jews of Spain and Portugal, from the earliest times to their final expulsion from those kingdoms, and their subsequent dispersion: with complete translations of all the laws made respecting them during their long establishment in the Iberian peninsula, 1848, GB
J. Finn, Sephardim: or, The history of the Jews in Spain and Portugal, 1841, GB
Article : 1066 Granada Massacre, from Wikipedia
Muslims Article : Islam in Spain, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Predecessors Galicia (Suebic Kgd.) Article : Suebic Kingdom of Galicia, from Wikipedia
Spania (Byzant. Prov.) Article : Spania, from Wikipedia
Tudmir (Visigothic) Article : Reino de Tudmir, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Visigothic Kingdom Article : Visigothic Kingdom, from Wikipedia
Provinces of al-Andalus Septimania Article : Septimania, from Wikipedia
Outposts of al-Andalus Fraxinetum Article : Fraxinet, from Wikipedia
Taifas First Taifa Period
of some duration
Wikipedia Articles : Taifas of Albarracin, Algeciras, Almeria, Alpuente, Arcos, Badajoz, Carmona, Cordoba, Denia, Granada, Lorca, Malaga, Mertola, Molina, Moron, Murcia, Niebla, Ronda, Rueda, Saltes and Huelva, Santa Maria de Algarve, Segorbe, Sevilla, Silves, Toledo, Tortosa, Valencia, Zaragoza
Wikipedia Spanish edition, Articles Taifa de Almeria, Badajoz, Taifa de Denia, Jaen, Sevilla, Toledo, Zaragoza; Republica de Cordoba
First Taifa Period
Short-lived
Wikipedia Articles : Taifas of Jerica, Lisbon, Murvieto and Sagunto
Second Taifa Period
of some duration
Wikipedia Article : Taifas of Beja and Evora, Jaen, Murcia, Silves, Valencia
Wikipedia Spanish edition, articles : Taifa de Jaen : Segundo reinos de taifas, Murchia : Segunda Taifa, Silves, Valencia : Segunda taifa,
Second Taifa Period
short-lived
Wikipedia Article : Taifas of Almeria, Arcos, Badajoz, Carmona, Constantina and Hornachuelos, Granada, Guadix and Baza, Jerez, Malaga, Mertola, Niebla, Purchena, Ronda, Santarem, Segura, Tavira, Tejada
Third Taifa Period
of some duration
Wikipedia Article : Taifas of Lorca, Murcia, Niebla, Orihuela, Valencia
Third Taifa Period
of some duration
Wikipedia Article : Taifas of Alcira, Denia and Jativa, Arjona, Baeza
Local History Cordoba F. Ruano, Historia general de Cordoba, vol.1 1761, in Spanish, GB
L. Miraver y Alfaro, Historia de Cordoba, vol.1, 1863, vol.2, 1866, in Spanish, GB
Article : Medina Azahara (Cordoba), from Wikipedia
Granada Article : Granada musulmana, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Lisbon Article : History of Lisbon : Moorish rule, from Wikipedia
Article : Historia de Lisboa : al-Ushbuna : Lisboa muçulmana, from Wikipedia Portuguese edition
Murcia Article : Historia de Murcia : Epoca musulmana, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Sevilla A. Morgado, Historia de Sevilla, 1587, in Spanish, GB
A. de Solis, Annales de la ciudad de Sevilla, 1748, in Spanish, GB
Toledo Article : Toledo : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Toledo : Historia medieval, from Wikipedia
Valencia Article : Valencia : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Historia de la ciudad de Valencia : Epoca musulmana, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Zaragoza Article : Zaragoza : Arab Sarqusta, from Wikipedia
Article : Historia de Zaragoza : Sarqusta, from Wikipedia
Institutions
Culture Science and Scholarship in al-Andalus, from Islamicity
Andalusi Poetry, from Cities of Light. The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain
The Art of Islamic Spain, from Cities of Light. The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain
The Art of the Umayyad Period in Spain 711-1031, from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
G.J. Adler, The poetry of the Arabs of Spain, 1867, GB
Article : Spanish architecture : The architecture of al-Amdalus, from Wikipedia
Biographies Centro Digital de Estudios Biograficos, Diccionario Biografico Espanol, posted by Real Academia de la Historia, in Spanish
Others Sumptuous Living, from Cities of Light. The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain; Behind this nebulous title hides an occasionally romanticizing account of transfer of knowledge from the East to Spain during the Muslim period; terms used such as "Green Revolution" lack support by evidence
The Transfer of Knowledge from Islamic Spain to Europe, from Cities of Light. The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Emirs and Caliphs of Cordoba, from Wikipedia
Regnal Chronologies : Iberian Peninsula : al-Andalus
Lists of Bishops Lista : Episcopologio de Valencia, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Anexo : Arzobispos de Zaragoiza, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Anexo : Obispos de Malaga, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Bishops of Dumio / Vilamaior / Ribadeo / Mondonedo, from Wikipedia, Obispos de Salamanca, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Segovia, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Zamora, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, List of Bishops / Archbishops of Toledo, from Wikipedia, Arzobispos de Sevilla, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Cadiz, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Cordoba, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Merida-Badajoz, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, List of Bishops of Coria / Caceres, from Wikipedia
Economic Data
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties
Document Collections A. Zikaron, Denksteine, Toledo (Sephardic Gravestones), 1841, posted by Sephardic Studies
Individual Documents Medieval Sourcebook : Ibn Abd-el-Hakem: The Islamic Conquest of Spain
Historical Maps Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 800 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Maps : Europe in the Year 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, from Euratlas
Maps : Mediterranean in 750, 880, 1000, 1100, 1180, 1214, 1300, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Map : Taifa Kingdoms, no date given (11th century), from Wikipedia
Map : Taifa Kingdoms 1080, from Wikipedia
Series of Maps : Reconquista 792-1300, from Wikipedia
Map : Taifa de Sevilla 11th C., from Wikipedia
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular
Religious Andalusia, Spain, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Economic
Geographical
Historical
Travelogues
Institutions Archives
Musea Portal Museos de Andalucia : Museo Arquelogico de Cordoba, Museo Arquelogico de Granada, Museo Arquelogico de Ubeda (Jaen), Museo Arquelogico de Sevilla
Article : Museo Arqueol?ico y Etnol?ico de C?doba, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Monuments Categorie : Monuments d'al-Andalus, from Wikipedia French edition
Libraries
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Coins of al-Andalus, Tonegawa Collection
Spanish Umayyads, Almoravids, from Early Islamic Coins by J. Roberts
Carolingian Era Islamic Coins from Iberia, posted by T. Oberhofer
A.C. Garcia, F.M. Escudero, El Hallazgo de Moneda Califal de Fontanar (Cordoba)
Digital Library Numis : Islamic Coins - Hispoano-Arabic

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general ISBN Database
on al-Andalus Hispania Judaica (on source editions)
ORB Bibliographies : Medieval Spain
Bibliography : Reconquista, from Crusades Encyclopedia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
on al-Andalus LIBRO - Library of Iberian Resources Online
Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
Biblioteca Digital Castilla - La Mancha Biblioteca Digital Hispanica
Biblioteca Saavedra Fajardo de pensiamento politico hispanico
Biblioteca Leonesa Digital
Biblioteca Digital de la Region de Murcia
Fondo Antiguo de la Universidad de Sevilla
Biblioteca Historica, from Universidad Complutense Madrid
Thesis Server TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online)

Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
Online
Al Masaq Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean vol.s 21-22
General Accounts Joseph E. O'Callaghan, A History of Medieval Spain, Ithaca : Cornell UP 1975, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 946.02 015h
W. Montgomery Watt and Pierre Cacha, A History of Islamic Spain, New Brunswick : Aldine (1965) 2007, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 946.022 W344h
Special Topics David Nicolle, El Cid and the Reconquista 1050-1492, Oxford : Osprey 1988, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 946.02 N645e
Jane S. Gerber, The Jews of Spain, The History of the Sephardic Experience, NY : Free Press 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 946 G362j
Norman A. Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands, A History and Source Book, Philadelphia : Jewish Publication Society of America 1979, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 909.04 S857j
A. Katie Harris, From Muslim to Christian Granada. Inventing a City's Past in Early Modern Spain, Baltimore : Johns Hopkins UP 2007, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 946.8204 H313f