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Aragon Portugal
First posted on September 8th 2010, last revised on November 14th 2011






The County of Castile (the land of castles) is first documented for 850 as a border region of the Kingdom of Leon. In 931 independence from Leon was achieved. Temporarily united with Navarra (1028-1035) and Leon (1037-1065), when Castile again was separated from Leon in 1065, it now had the status of a Kingdom.
From 1230 onward, the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon were united in Dynastic Union, and jointly referred to as the Crown of Castile.
Castile was one of the major actors in the Spanish Reconquista, and greatly expanded her territories at the expense of al-Andalus, adding further titles subsummarized under "Crown of Castile" - Kingdom of Toledo, of Murcia, of Sevilla, of Cordoba, of Jaen. The marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon resulted in bpth countries being ruled jointly by the couple, but split again at the death of Isabella, until being reunired in dynastiv union by Carlos I. (= Emperor Charles V.); hence Spain.

The Crown of Castille was established in the 13th century, and it was abolished in 1715. In 1400, the Crown of Castille (Corona de Castilla) was composed of the Kingdoms of Castile, of Leon, of Toledo, of Murcia, of Jaen, of Cordoba, of Sevilla, of Galicia, of the Principality of Asturias and the Lordship of Biscay.
Originally, the various kingdoms had their own representative assemblies (Cortes); King Ferdinand, when being crowned King of Leon in 1230 (he already was King of Castile), merged the assemblies of both, so that the Crown of Castile had one representative assembly. It consisted of three estates, the clergy, nobility and the third estates (the cities).

Historical Atlas : Spain Page

Students' Paper : Yoon, Seong Heon, Contemporary Christian, Muslim and Jewish Views on and Reactions to Islamic Spain and the Reconquista (c.700 CE - c.1500 CE) (2012)
Students' Paper : Kim, Seohee, Waves of Anti-Semitism and their Consequences in late medieval Castile (2012)
Students' Paper : Yoon, Seong Heon, From Castile and Aragon to Spain, An Economic History of the Iberian Peninsula in the 15th and 16th Century (2011)



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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article Kingdom of Castile, Crown of Castile, from Wikipedia; Reino de Castilla, Corona de Castilla, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Historic
Links General Category : Castile, from Wikipedia; Categoria : Reino de Castilla, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
on History Categoria : Historia de Castilla, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Historical Dictionary
Organizations American Academy of Research Historians of Medieval Spain
Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies
Timelines
Accounts of History current Article Kingdom of Castile, Crown of Castile, from Wikipedia; Reino de Castilla, Corona de Castilla, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
historical Esteban de Garibay y Zamalloa, Los Quarenta libros del compendio historial de las chronicas y universal historia del todes reinos de Espana, 1628, in Spanish, GB
D. Gutierrez, Historia del origen, y soberania del condado, y reyno de Castilla , 1785, in Spanish, GB
Specific Periods A. Nunez de Castro, Vida de san Fernando el tercer rey de Castilla y Leon , 1673, in Spanish, GB
J.T. Dillon, The history of the reign of Peter the Cruel, king of Castile and Leon, vol.1, vol.2, 1788, GB
P. de Sandoval, Historia de los reyes de Castilla y de Leon: Don Fernando el Magno, vol.1, vol.2, 1792, in Spanish, GB
P. Merimee, The history of Peter the Cruel, king of Castile and Leon, vol.1, 1849, vol.2, 1849, GB
W.H. Prescott, History of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic, of Spain, vol.1, 1854, vol.2, 1867, vol.3, 1851, GB
La Crisis de los siglos XIV y XV, from Historia Siglo 20, in Spanish
Article : Crisis de la Edad Media en Espana, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Historiography
Politics Antonio de Capmany y de Montpalau, Practica y estilo de celebrar cortes en el reino de Aragon, principado de Cataluna y reino de Valencia y una noticia de las de Castilla y Navarra, 1821, in Spanish, GB
Military Articles : War of the Two Peters 1356-1375, Castilian Civil War 1366-1369, Ferdinand Wars 1369-1382, 1383-1385 Crisis, War of the Castilian Succession 1475-1479, Revolt of the Comuneros 1520-1521, Morisco Revolt 1568-1571, from Wikipedia
Articles : Guerra Civil Castellana (links to pages on three wars), Guerra de los Tres Sanchos 1065-1067, Primera Guerra Civil Castellana 1351-1369, Guerra de los Dos Pedros 1356-1369, Guerras Fernandinas 1369-1382, Guerra de Sucesion Castellana 1475-1479, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Economy & Finances General S. Pastrana, La econom? en los siglos XIV y XV, in Spanish
Money & Finances Reduccion completa y reciproca de las monedas de Castilla con las de Cataluna, Aragon, Valencia, Mallorca y Navarra, 1817, in Spanish, GB
E.F. Ganzo, Moneda y cr?ito en el Reino de Le? (1000-1500), 2007, in Spanish
Agriculture & Herding Wool C.R. Philips, The Spanish Wool Trade, 1500-1780
Monopolio de La Mesta y la historia de la lana merina, in Spanish
Article : Concejo de la Mesta, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
J. Klein, The Mesta; a study in Spanish economic history, 1273-1836, 1920, IA
Wine, Licquor Article : Riba del Duero (vino) : Historia, La Mancha (vino) : Historia, Tierra de Leon (vino) : Historia, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Article : History of Sherry, from Wikipedia
Grain C. Santiago-Caballero, Tithe series and grain production in modern Spain : Guadalajara 1700-1800, 2010
Mining Las Minas de Almaden, in Spanish
Article : Mineria en Andalucia : Evolucion Historica, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Evolucion Historico de la Mineria en Andalucia, from Junta de Andalucia, in Spanish
Metal Industry History of the Toledo Swords, from Aceros de Hispania
Mills Article : Molinos de Guadalquivir, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Social History Maria Madramany, Tratado de la nobleza de la Corona de Aragon : especialmente del reino de Valencia comparada con la de Castilla, 1788, in Spanish, GB
Ethnography
Religion General Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain, The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier, by James William Brodman, scholarly, 6 long chapters
L.K. Pick, Christians and Jews in 13th Century Castile : the Career and Writings of Rodrigo Jimenez de Rada, Archbishop of Toledo (1209-1247), thesis Univ. of Toronto 1995
Catholic Franciscan Provinces with their Custodies and Convents, c.1350, from M. van der Heijden and B. Roest, click Castile
Historia de la Provincia de Espana, from dominicos, in Spanish
Articles : Orden Militar de Calatrava, Orden Militar de Alcantara, from Enciclopedia Catolica, in Spanish
G.S. Sainty, The Military Order of Calatrava, from Chivalric Orders
Article : Order of Alcantara, Order of Calatrava, Order of Santiago, from Wikipedia
P. Linehan, Councils and synods in thirteenth-century Castile and Aragon, pp.101-112 in D. Baker, Councils and Assemblies, Studies in Church History 7, Cambridge : UP 1970
Patron Saints Index : Saint Ferdinand III of Castile
Article : Way of Saint James, from Wikipedia
Jewish, Conversos, Crypto-Jewish Marranos, Conversos and New Christians, from Jewish Virtual Library
Articles : History of the Jews in Spain, Marrano, from Wikipedia
Article : Historia de lod judios en Espana, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Sephardim - Conversos - Marranos : Historical Overview, from JewishGen
N. Weisenberg, The Unraveling: Seville, The Jews of Castile, and the Road to the Riots of 1391, thesis Georgetown Univ. 2010
R.J. Duncan, St. Vicente Ferrer and the Anti-Semitism of Fifteenth Century Spain, 2002
S.A. Marks, The Jews in Islamic Spain : Al Andalus, Sephardic Studies
Article : Burgos, Cordoba, Murcia, Salamanca, Seville, Toledo, Valladolid, from Jewish Virtual Library
A. Issaroff, Massacres of Jews in Spain, 2009, from Zionism and Israel, an Encyclopedic Dictionary
J.V. Baruque, El Pogrom de 1391, from Arte Historia, in Spanish
R.C. Albanes, La Historia Negra de la Iglesia : El Antisemitismo en Espana y la Expulsion de los Judios, in Spanish
E.H. Lindo, The history of the Jews of Spain and Portugal, from the earliest times to their final expulsion from those kingdoms, and their subsequent dispersion: with complete translations of all the laws made respecting them during their long establishment in the Iberian peninsula, 1848, GB
J. Finn, Sephardim: or, The history of the Jews in Spain and Portugal, 1841, GB
Muslims F. Fernandez y Gonzalez, Estado Social y Pol?ico de Los Mud?ares de Castilla , 1866, in Spanish, IA
I.E.S. Alcaria, Expulsion of the "Moriscos", Chronology 1609-1614
History of Regions Predecessors Principality of Asturias Article : Principality of Asturias, from Wikipedia
Article : Principado de Asturias, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Lordship of Biscay Article : Lord of Biscay
Article : Senorio de Vizcaya, frim Wikipedia Spanish edition
Kingdom of Castile Article : Kingdom of Castile, from Wikipedia
Article : Reino de Castilla, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Kingdom of Cordoba Article : Kingdom of Cordoba, from Wikipedia
Articles : Reino de Cordoba, Republica de Cordoba, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Kingdom of Galicia Article : Kingdom of Galicia, from Wikipedia
Article : Reino de Galicia, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Kingdom of Jaen Article : Kingdom of Jaen, from Wikipedia
Articles : Reino de Jaen, Taifa de Jaen, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Kingdom of Leon Article : Kingdom of Leon, from Wikipedia
Article : Reino de Leon, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
The Kingdom of Leon : Brief History, The Kingdom of Leon after 1230, from Leon Real
Kingdom of Murcia Article : Taifa of Murcia, from Wikipedia
Articles : Taifa de Murcia, Reino de Murcia, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Kingdom of Sevilla Articles : Kingdom of Seville, Taifa of Seville, from Wikipedia
Articles : Reino de Sevilla, Taifa de Sevilla, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Kingdom of Toledo Articles : Taifa of Toledo, Kingdom of Toledo, from Wikipedia
Articles : Taifa de Toledo, Reino de Toledo, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Local History
Institutions Article : University of Palencia (1212-1264), University of Siguenza (1476-1837), from Wikipedia
History of the University of Salamanca (1134), University of Valladolid (1346), University of Santiago de Compostela (1495), University of Sevilla (1505)
Article : Toledo School of Translators (12th, 13th c.), from Wikipedia; Article : Escuela de Traductores de Toledo, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Culture Article : Tauromaquia (historic bullfighting), from Wikipedia Spanish edition
T. de Castro, The Role of Food in the Conflict of Two Identities : Moriscos and Castilians in Early Modern Times 2009
Biographies Centro Digital de Estudios Biograficos, Diccionario Biografico Espanol, posted by Real Academia de la Historia, in Spanish
Biographies of Spanish Saints, from Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Castilian Monarchs, from Wikipedia
Titles of European Rulers : Castile
Lists of Bishops List of Bishops / Archbishops of Burgos, from Wikipedia, List of Bishops of Palencia, from Wikipedia, List of Bishops / Archbishops of Oviedo, from Wikipedia, Obispos de Astorga, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, List of Bishops of Leon, from Wikipedia, Arzobispos de Santiago de Compostela, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Diocesa de Lugo, Lista de Prelados, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Bishops of Dumio / Vilamaior / Ribadeo / Mondonedo, from Wikipedia, Lista de Obispos de Orense, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Tuy, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Avila, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, List of Bishops of Ciudad-Rodrigo, from Wikipedia, Obispos de Salamanca, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Segovia, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Zamora, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, List of Bishops / Archbishops of Toledo, from Wikipedia, List of Bishops of Cuenca, from Wikipedia, Arzobispos de Sevilla, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Cadiz, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Cordoba, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, Obispos de Merida-Badajoz, from Wikipedia Spanish edition, List of Bishops of Coria / Caceres, from Wikipedia, Obispos de Plasencia, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Economic Data Prices and wages in Spain, 1351-1800, from Global Price and Income History Group, Southwest Europe, click : Spain 1351-1800
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws Reportorio vniuersal de todas las leyes destos Reynos de Castilla, 1553, in Spanish, GB
Ordenanzas reales de Castilla, vol.1, 1779, vol.2, 1779, vol.3, 1780, in Spanish, GB
Ordenanzas aprobadas por S M y el Real Consejo de Castilla, 1817, in Spanish, GB
Treaties Treaty Between Spain [Castile, Leon, Aragon etc.] and Portugal, Concluded at Alcacovas, September 4, 1479, from Avalon Project
Tratado de Cazorla 1179, from Ayuntamento de Cofrentes
Document Collections Coleccion de las cronicas y memorias de los reyes de Castilla, Cronica de D. Alfonso el Onceno, pt.1, 1787, Cronica del Rey D. Enrique el Quarto, 1787, Cronica de D. Alvaro de Luna, 1784, Memorias Historicas de la Vida y Acciones del Rey D. Alfonso el Noble Octavo de Nombre, 1783, Cronica de D. Pedro Nino, 1782, Cronicas de los Reyes de Castilla, Don Pedro, Don Enrique II, Don Juan I, Don Enrique III, vol.1, 1779, vol.2, 1780, in Spanish, GB
J.M. de la Puente, Epitome de la cronica del Rey Don Juan el segundo de Castilla, 1678, in Spanish, GB
Bullarium ordinis militaris de Alc?tara, 1759, in Latin, GB
Documentos sobre la expulsi?, from Sefarad
A. Zikaron, Denksteine, Toledo (Sephardic Gravestones), 1841, posted by Sephardic Studies
Fuentes para la historia de Castilla, 1907, IA
Individual Documents Synod of Castile's Jews 1432, from Medieval Sourcebook
Edict of Expulsion of the Jews 1492, from Sephardic Studies
The following account gives a detailed and accurate picture of the expulsion and its immediate consequences for Spanish Jewry. It was written in Hebrew by an Italian Jew in April or May, 1495, from Sephardic Studies
J.M. Quintana, Memoirs of Gonzalo Hernandez de Cordova, styled the Great Captain (16th century Castile), 1851, GB
Historical Maps Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Maps : Europe in the Year 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, from Euratlas
Map : Corona de Castilla 1400, from Wikipedia
Map : Crown of Castille 1217-1717 (series of maps), from Wikipedia
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles : Castile, from EB 1911
Article Kastilien (Geschichte), from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Castile and Aragon, articles from Catholic Encyclopedia
Spain, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Economic
Geographical Kingdom of Galicia pp.273-276, Principality of Asturias pp.276-278, Lordship of Biscay pp.278-281, Kingdom of Leon pp.290-294, Province of Estremadura pp.294-301, Kingdom of Old Castile pp.297-301, of New Castile pp.301-305, Seville pp.309-314, of Cordova pp.314-315, of Jaen pp.315-316, of Granada pp.316-319, of Murcia pp.319-321, in vol.6 of T.G. Smollett, The Present State of All Nations, 1769, GB
Historical Article : Les Etats de Castile, pp.227-272, in : Jean Joseph Vaissete, Geographie historique, ecclesiastique et civile, 1755, in French, GB
The History of Castile, pp.1-429 in vol.41 of G. Sale, An Universal history, from the earliest account of time, 1760, GB
Parliamentary Debates domestic Actas de las Cortes de Castilla 1861, IA, vol.2, 1861, IA, vol.3, 1861, IA, vol.4, 1861, IA, vol.5, 1861, IA, 1863 vol.1, 1864, in Spanish, GB
Coleccion de cortes de los reynos de Leon y de Castilla, Volumes 1-6, 1836, in Spanish, GB
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Provincial Archives : Diputacion de Burgos, Archivo Provincial; Archivo Historico Provincial de Toledo; Diputacion de Valladolid, Archivo Provincial; Archivo Historico de Asturias; Archivo Historico Provincial de Vizcaya; Gubierno de Cantabria, Archivo Historico Provincial de Cantabria; Arquivo Historico Provincial de Ourense; Archivo General de la Region de Murcia; Diputacion de Cordoba, Departamento de Archivo; Diputacion Provincial de Jaen, Archivo
Municipal Archives : Ayuntamento Burgos, Archivo Municipal; Ayuntamento Santiago de Compostela, Archivo Municipal; Archivo Municipal de Toledo; Ayuntamento de Valladolid, Archivo Municipal; Ayuntamento de Oviedo, Archivo Municipal; Arquivo Municipal de Coruna; El Archivo Municipal de Segovia; Archivo Municipal de Cordoba; Ayuntramento de Sevilla, Archivo Municipal
Diocesan Archives : Catedral de Burgos, Archivo Historico; Archivo Historico Diocesano, Santiago de Compostela; Catedral de Toledo, Archivo y Biblioteca Capitulares; Archivo Historico Ecclesiastico de Bizkaya; Obispado de Ourense, Archivo Historico Diocesano; Catedral de Salamanca, Archivo y Biblioteca; El Archivo Historico Diocesano de Jaen
University Archives : Archivo General de la Universidad de Burgos; Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Arquivo Historico Universitario; El Archivo Historico de la Universidad de Oviedo; El Archivo Historico de la Universidad de Salamanca; Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla, Archivo Historico
Other Archives : Archivo de la Real Chancilleria de Valladolid
Archivo del Reino de Galicia
Archivo General Militar de Segovia
Musea Museo de Burgos
Museo das Peregrinacions, Santiago de Compostela
Museo del Ejercito, Toledo, from Turismo Castilla-La Mancha
Museo de la Siderurgia y la Mineria de la Castilla y Leon, Sabero (Leon)
Museo del Traje (Clothing), Madrid
Museo Provincial del Vino, from Diputacion de Valladolid
Museo Hidraulico Molinos del Rio Segura, from Auntamiento de Murcia, in Spanish
Monuments Category : Cloisters in Andalusia, Asturias, Basque Autonomous Community, Cantabria, Castile and Leon, Castile-La Mancha, Extremadura, Galicia, Community of Madrid, La Rioja, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Watermills in Andalusia, Castile and Le?, Galicia, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Castles in Andalusia, Asturias, Basque Autonomous Community, Cantabria, Castile and Leon, Castile-La Mancha, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Community of Madrid, Region Murcia, from Wikimedia Commons
Libraries
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of Castile and Leon, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Coins of the Kingdom of Castile and Leon, from The Maskukat Collection
Search Coin Archives for Castile
J.M. de Francisco Olmos, El Nacimento de la Moneda en Castilla, La Moneda de Castilla Bajo Medieval, in Spanish
Reyes de Castilla y Leon, from Monedas Espanoles
A.R. Valdes, Las monedas medievales castellanas y leonesas, 2001, in Spanish
Monedas medievales espanolas : Corona de Castilla
J. de Santiago Fernandez, Monedas de velon circulantes en Castilla, durante el reinado de Carlos II (1665-1700), 2009, in Spanish
E.F. Ganzo, Moneda y cr?ito en el Reino de Le? (1000-1500), 2007, in Spanish

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general ISBN Database
on Castile Hispania Judaica (on source editions)
ORB Bibliographies : Medieval Spain
Bibliography : Reconquista, from Crusades Encyclopedia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
on Castile LIBRO - Library of Iberian Resources Online
Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
Biblioteca Digital Castilla - La Mancha Biblioteca Digital Hispanica
Biblioteca Saavedra Fajardo de pensiamento politico hispanico
Biblioteca Digital Vasco; Biblioteca Digital de la Biblioteca Foral de Bizkaia
Biblioteca Leonesa Digital
Biblioteca Digital de la Region de Murcia
Fondo Antiguo de la Universidad de Sevilla
Biblioteca Historica, from Universidad Complutense Madrid
Thesis Server TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online)

Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
Online
General Accounts
Special Topics Teofilo F. Ruiz, Spanish Society 1400-1600, Harlow : Pearson Education 2001, KMLA Lib.Sign. 306.0946 R934s