1939-1957 History of West Africa






Ghana Independent, since 1957



In 1957, the Gold Coast, now under the name of GHANA, became independent, as the STATE OF GHANA, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. In 1960, KWAME NKRUMAH proclaimed the REPUBLIC and assumed the presidency, supposedly lasting for lifetime. A ONE-PARTY-STATE was established in 1964.
Kwame Nkrumah was outspoken anti-colonial, PAN-AFRICAN and dreamt of an African form of SOCIALISM. He established a political union with Guinea (1959) and Mali (1960). His economic policy, aiming to develop the country by pursuing large-scale state-run projects, failed, and falling market prices for cocoa only worsened the situation. In 1966, while on state visit to the People's Republic of China, Nkrumah was ousted in a coup d'etat. Krumah took up residence in Guinea.
The next years were politically instable - further coups took place in 1972, 1978 and 1979. In 1981, Lt. J.J. RAWLINGS seized power for a second time (after 1979), this time to hold on to it. Under his presidency, the economy recovered and began to grow. Multiparty democracy was reintroduced in 1992; President Rawlings has held on to power.






EXTERNAL
FILES
Ghana, History of, from Infoplease
Biography of Kwame Nkrumah, from Infoplease, and from web.centre.edu and Kwame Nkrumah, His Rise and Fall 1957-1966 from Great Epic Books, book advertisement/summary, illustrated
CASCON Case GUV : Ghana - Upper Volta 1964-1966, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
Ghana : The Party System in 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
DOCUMENTS Flag of Ghana, from FOTW; Flag of 1964-1966, from FOTW
Kwame Nkrumah, I speak of Freedom, speech 1961, from Modern History Sourcebook
Foto of Nkrumah's cabinet, from Warder Collection, NY
Banknotes from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Ghana Archive, from Africa Online, archive of recent articles
REFERENCE Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1958 p.298 (on events of 1957) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1959 pp.298-299 (on events of 1958) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1960 p.296 (on events of 1959) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1961 pp.303-304 (on events of 1960) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1962 p.296 (on events of 1961) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1963 pp.411-412 (on events of 1962) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1964 pp.395-396 (on events of 1963) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1965 pp.390-391 (on events of 1964) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1966 pp.348-349 (on events of 1965) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1967 pp.374-376 (on events of 1966) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1968 pp.377-378 (on events of 1967) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1969 pp.372-373 (on events of 1968) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1970 pp.378-379 (on events of 1969) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1971 pp.361-362 (on events of 1970) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1972 p.332 (on events of 1971) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1973 pp.329-330 (on events of 1972) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1974 pp.335-336 (on events of 1973) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1975 pp.327-328 (on events of 1974) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1976 pp.368-369 (on events of 1975) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1977 pp.370-371 (on events of 1976) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1978 pp.412-413 (on events of 1977) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1979 pp.405-406 (on events of 1978) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1980 p.408 (on events of 1979) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1981 p.407 (on events of 1980) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1982 pp.404-405 (on events of 1981) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1983 pp.400-401 (on events of 1982) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1984 pp.402-403 (on events of 1983) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1985 pp.466, 686 (on events of 1984) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1986 pp.460-461, 683 (on events of 1985) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1988 pp.390, 604 (on events of 1987) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1989 pp.389-390, 605 (on events of 1988) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1990 pp.407, 620 (on events of 1989) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1993 pp.361-362, 614 (on events in 1992) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1994 pp.359-360, 615 (on events in 1993) [G]
Article Ghana, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1995 pp.412, 615 (on events in 1994) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.406-412 (data of 1969-1970) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1975-1976 pp.310-315 (data of 1974-1975) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1978-1979 pp.531-537 (data of 1977-1978) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1980-1981 pp.535-540 (data of 1979-1980) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1983-1984 pp.546-550 (data of 1982-1983) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1984-1985 pp.545-549 (data of 1983-1984) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1985-1986 pp.546-550 (data of 1984-1985) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1987-1988 pp.556-560 (data of 1986-1987) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1988-1989 pp.558-562 (data of 1987-1988) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1989-1990 pp.563-567 (data of 1988-1989) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1990-1991 pp.563-567 (data of 1989-1990) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1991-1992 pp.561-565 (data of 1990-1991) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1992-1993 pp.634-638 (data of 1991-1992) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1993-1994 pp.639-643 (data of 1992-1993) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1994-1995 pp.630-634 (data of 1993-1994) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1995-1996 pp.628-632 (data of 1994-1995) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1996-1997 pp.572-576 (data of 1995-1996) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1997-1998 pp.582-586 (data of 1996-1997) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1998-1999 pp.633-637 (data of 1997-1998) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 2000 pp.730-735 (data of 1998-1999) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 2001 pp.710-715 (data of 1999-2000) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 2002 pp.740-745 (data of 2000-2001) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 2003 pp.742-747 (data of 2001-2002) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 2004 pp.744-749 (data of 2002-2003) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Statesman's Yearbook 2005 pp.744-749 (data of 2003-2004) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.70-71 [G]
Article : Ghana, in : The World in Figures 2nd ed. 1978 pp.70-71 [G]
Article : Ghana, in : The World in Figures 4th ed. 1984 pp.70-71 [G]
Entry : Republic of Ghana, Cabinet, p.42; Background Notes : Ghana, pp.604-612, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1961 pp.308-309 (on events of 1960) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1962 pp.311-312 (on events of 1961) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1963 pp.285-286 (on events of 1962) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1964 pp.282-284 (on events of 1963) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1965 pp.301 (on events of 1964) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1967 pp.312-314 (on events of 1966) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1968 pp.305-306 (on events of 1967) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1969 p.321 (on events of 1968) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1970 pp.48, 323 (on events of 1969) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1971 p.319 (on events of 1970) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1972 p.311 (on events of 1971) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1973 p.320 (on events of 1972) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1974 p.269 (on events of 1973) [G]
Article : Ghana, in : Americana Annual 1976 p.272 (on events of 1975) [G]
Entry : Ghana, pp.502-507 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Entry : Ghana, in : The Commonwealth Yearbook 1989 pp.197-200 [G]



This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on September 28th 2006

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