Royal Niger Company History of West Africa Nigeria 1914-1918

Northern Nigeria, 1900-1914

The charter of the Royal Niger Company was revoked in 1900, and the British government took over. The territory was named Northern Nigeria, and Frederick Lugard was appointed High Commissioner.
He launched a military campaign to enforce British rule. The emirates of Northern Nigeria succumbed in 1903; Kano and Sokoto were taken by force. The capital of Northern Nigeria was moved from Lokoja to Zungeru in 1902. In 1912 the move of the capital from Zungeru to Kaduna was contemplated. Railway lines were constructed to connect Lagos with Jebba on the Niger River (begun in 1896, finished in 1909) and Baro on the Niger River with Kano (begun in 1907).
Regarding the administration of predominantly Islamic Northern Nigeria, Lugard implemented Indirect Rule, which relied mainly on the Emirs as executors of British policy. Lugard was reluctant to permit missionaries the opening of schools in Northern Nigeria, in order not to offend the Emirs on whom the country's administration relied.
In 1912, Frederick Lugard was also appointed High Commissioner of Southern Nigeria; In 1914, according to his suggestion, both protectorates were merged into one colony - Nigeria. A major reason for the merger were the costs for railway construction.

Timeline of Nigerian History, from Nigeria Exchange
Northern Nigeria Regiment, from Land Forces of Britain, the Empire and Commonwealth
Richard Cavendish, The fall of Kano: February 3rd 1903, from History Today
Article Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, Nigeria, Bauchi, from EB 1911
Article Nigeria, Upper and Lower, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Sokoto Conquest 1903, from ACED
DOCUMENTS Excerpts of Frederick Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, 1926, from Swarthmore
Act of Navigation for the Niger, from General Act of the Berlin Conference, 1885, posted at this site
Flag of Northern Nigeria, from FOTW
High Commissoners, Governors of Northern Nigeria, from World Statesmen
Nigeria Page, from Sandafayre Stamp Atlas
Map : Hausaland 1896 (pre-conquest Northern Nigeria), posted by PCL, UTexas
French map Central Africa 1895 (covers Nigeria), posted by PCL, UTexas
REFERENCE A.C. Burns, History of Nigeria, London 1929
M'Baye Gueye and A. Adu Boahen, Conquest and Reaction in Northern Nigeria, pp.137-138 in A. du Boahen (ed.), Unesco General History of Africa Vol.VII : Africa under Colonial Domination 1880-1935, Paris etc. 1985
Article Nigeria, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp. 650-652 (on events of 1912) [G]
Article Northern Nigeria, in : Statesman's Year Book 1901 p.212 (on events of 1900) [G]
Article Northern Nigeria, in : Statesman's Year Book 1905 pp.229-230 (on events of 1904) [G]
Article : Niger Territories, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.567-569 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on August 31st 2007

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