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Literature on the History of West Africa
Senegal Niger
First posted in April 2002, Last revised on May 9th 2012

Mali since Independence

French Soudan 1939-1960
French Soudan 1922-1939
Upper Senegal and Niger, 1898-1922


Timelines : Mali since 1880
Historical Atlas, Mali Page

Students' Paper : Chang, HyeJin, Environmental History of West Africa (2012)
Students' Paper : Kim, Ji Yang, Demographic History of West Africa (2009)
Students' Papers : Kim, Jiwan, The European View of West Africa and Colonialism as expressed in Historic Encyclopedias (2009)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Mali, from Wikipedia
Country Profile : Mali, from ISS
Links General from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Mali, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Mali, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History from Wikipedia
Politics Politics of Mali, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Mali; For the Record : Mali, from UN Human Rights System
Governments on the WWW : Mali
Military Wars of Mali, 1800-1999, from ACED
J. Morel, Calendrier des crimes de la France outre-mer, 2005 : 25 avril 1890: Prise et carnage d'Ouossebougou par le commandant Archinard (Soudan), 1er mai 1898: Sac de Sikasso par le colonel Audeoud (Soudan), 9 janvier 1899: Sac de Sansanne-Haoussa (Soudan), 2 mai 1899: Massacre de Birni-N'Konni (Soudan - Niger), 8 août 1899: Les tirailleurs sont payes avec des captifs (Soudan), 30 novembre 1900: "Tout porteur leve pour la corvee ne revoit jamais son village." (Soudan)
Economy & Finances Entry Mali, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Mali
Article Economy of Kenya, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Kenya, from Wikipedia
Ethnography Category Languages of Mali, from Wikipedia
Languages of Mali (40), from Ethnologue
Country Report : Mali, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
Migration Information Source : Mali
Niger : Tuareg, from Minorities at Risk
Art and Life in Africa : Mali
African Alphabets, by Saki Mafundikwa, among them Bambara script
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Mali
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Mali, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Mali, from Wikipedia
Mali, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
History of Regions Article Regions of Mali, from Wikipedia
Regions of Mali, from www.statoids.com
Circles of Mali, from www.statoids.com
Local History List of Cities in Mali, from Wikipedia
History of Bamako, of Timbuktu, Segou, from Wikipedia
Institutions Mali, from Airline History
Biographies List of Malians, from Wikipedia
Chinese Ambassadors to Mali, from PRC MOFA
African Women Bibliographic Database

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Political Leaders, from ZPC
Regnal Chronologies : Northern Africa, scroll down for Gao, Old Ghana, Kaarta, Macina, Mali, Segu, Songhai
Lists of Ambassadors
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Institut National de la Statistique, Mali
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Election Results from Psephos, since 2002; from IFES Election Guide; since 2002; from African Elections Database, since 1959
EISA : Mali Election Archive
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes
Selected Articles The History of Mali, from World History Archives
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Mali, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Newsreels Search INA Video
Bibliotheque/Mediatheque pour un voyage dans l'Histoire recente par l'audiovisuel : videos et TV : Mali
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Archives nationales d'outre-mer, Base Ulysse, image base (France)
Images du passe en Afrique de l'Ouest
Gallica, search for Soudan Français, Mali, Images
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Mali
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Mali
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Mali, from ILO, 27 docs. since 1960
Document Surveys
Document Collections
Historical Maps responsible institutions Institut G?graphique du Mali, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : West Africa Historical Map Archive : Historical Maps of West Africa
collections : Mali David Rumsey Map Collection : Mali
Mali Maps, PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Mali, from Wikimedia Commons
West Africa, Modern
West Africa, Contemporary d'Anville, Carte de la Cote de Guinee, 1729, Gallica
H. Moll 1729 : West Africa, Urhobo Historical Society
Imago Mundi, Carte de l'Afrique occidentale française, Vidal de la Blache c.1910
West Africa 1914, from Heritage History
Humtec, AOF c. 1930s
AOF 1936
Missions protestantes en A.O.F., 1950, Carte d'implantation des differentes societes de missions protestante, 1952, DEFAP
Carte des fuseaux horaires de l'Afrique occidentale française 1912, Gallica
Carte zootechnique de l'Afrique occidentale française 1906, Gallica
Repartition approximative des peuplements naturels de caoutchouc (AOF) 1906, Gallica
AOF 1936, Wikipedia
Guinea (i.e. most of French West Africa) 1936, Probert Encyclopedia
La zone d'irrigation du Niger (1/1.900.000e environ). - La valle du Niger et ses voies d'acces sur la cote d'Afrique (1.660.000e environ), 1921, Gallica
Carte de Soudan Occidental 1893, 1894, Gallica
Mali, Modern
Fr. Soudan, Contemporary Huillard, Campagne Galli?i, 1887-1888. Carte du Soudan français, Gallica
R. de Lannoy de Bissuy, Carte de l'Afrique ?l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 17. Timbouctou 1892, 24. Segou Sikoro, Gallica
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary L.G. Binger, Itineraire de Bammako au golfe de Guinee a travers les pays de Kong et du Mossi, 1889, Gallica
Carte cotonniere du Soudan français, 1906, Gallica
L. Debuissons, Limites des possessions fran?ises au Soudan d'apr? la convention du 21 mars 1899 et les conventions anterieures, Gallica
Haut-Senegal. Campagne 1885-1886. Theatre des operations contre Mahmadou-Lamine, Gallica
Frey, Carte du Haut-Senegal et du Haut-Niger 1888, Gallica
Environs de Kita. , Itin?aire de Kita ?Mourgoula, Environs de M?ine, Mission topographique du Haut-Senegal, 1881, Gallica
Etat de Bammako 1883, Gallica
U.S. Army Map Service, French West Africa 1:200,000, 1940-, PCL, UTexas
U.S. Army Map Service, West Africa 1:250,000, 1955-, PCL, UTexas
Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000. 10. Bir el Abbas 1883, 10. Bir el-Abbas 1889, 10. Bir el-Abbas 1896, 11. In Salah 1884, 11. In Salah 1889, 11. In Salah 1895, 17. Timbouctou 1883, 17. Timbouctou 1892, 18. Gogo 1884, 18. Gao-Gao 1899, 24. Segou Sikoro 1884, 24. Segou Sikoro 1892, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheet 7 Sahara (1943), 11 Dakar (1969), 12 Ouagadougou (1969), PCL, UTexas
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Sudan, French West Africa, Timbuktu, from EB 1911
Article Timbuktu, Massina, Segu, Senegambien, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Sudan, Senegambien, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1894-1896, in German
Entry Azawad, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Timbuctu, posted by DTBSWS
Upper Senegal & Niger pp.348-349 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Institutions Archives
Musea Category : Museums in Mali, from Wikipedia
Museums in Mali, from International Council of African Museums
Libraries Mali, Direction Nationale des Biblioth?ues et de la Documentation (DNBD)
National Libraries of Africa : Mali
Mali, from Directory of Libraries in North Africa
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Wikipedia
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Mali, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from Wotld Currency Museum
Stamps Stamps French Soudan 1893-1921, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Mali survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.109-204 in P.J. Imperato, Historical Dictionary of Mali, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1977 [G]
Clio, Voyages Culturels : Bibliographie Mali
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
general bibliographies
Mali entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Mali-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna

Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Mali Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.29, pp.841-846 Article Western Africa : Mali. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.29
Specific Topics Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Französischer Sudan, pp.15-18
Historical Dictionaries Pascal James Imperato, Historical Dictionary of Mali, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1977 [G]
Articles : Azawad pp.51-53, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]

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