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Literature on the History of West Africa
Togo Cameroon
First posted in April 2002, last revised on February 21st 2013

Nigeria since Independence , 1939-1960 , 1918-1939 , 1914-1918

Northern Nigeria .. Southern Nigeria
Lagos .. Oil Rivers Protectorate .. Royal Niger Company
Oyo .. Benin .. Sokoto .. Bornu

Historical Atlas, British West Africa Page

see also History of British West Africa

Students' Paper : Chang, HyeJin, Environmental History of West Africa (2012)
Students' Paper : Kim, Ji Yang, Demographic History of West Africa (2009)
Students' Papers : Kim, Jiwan, The European View of West Africa and Colonialism as expressed in Historic Encyclopedias (2009)

Country Profiles Modern CIA World Factbook : Nigeria; BBC Country Profile Nigeria; World Desk Reference : Nigeria; Art and Life in Africa : Nigeria
Library of Congress Country Studies : Nigeria
Nigeria Page, from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
Nigeria Information, from Art & Life of Africa
Country Profile : Nigeria, from ISS
Nigeria Profile, from International Crisis Group
Historical J. McQueen, A geographical and commercial view of northern Central Africa : containing a particular account of the course and termination of the great river Niger in the Atlantic ocean 1821, IA
A.F. Mockler-Ferryman, British Nigeria; a geographical and historical description of the British possessions adjacent to the Niger River, West Africa 1902, IA
E.D. Morel, Nigeria, its Peoples and its Problems 1911, IA
Links General Nigeria, from Post-Colonial Web (links)
Dawodu.com, has numerous articles on Nigerian history and politics
on History
Historical Dictionaries Afropedea
Organizations Historical Society of Nigeria
West Africa Study Circle (Philatelist)
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Timeline Nigerian History, from ngex
Accounts of History History of Nigeria, from newafrica.com
Brief History of Nigeria, from Motherland Nigeria
Historical Government, from Motherland Nigeria
Nigeria : History Overview, from Postcolonial Web
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Nigeria
For the Record : Nigeria, from UN Human Rights System
Environmental Treaties : Nigeria, from Pop Planet
N.J. Zilius, Nationalism and Regionalism in Nigeria 1969, IA
Tanzania recognizes Biafra, ch.9 of G. Mwakikagile, Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era 2010
V.A.O. Adetula (ed.), Money and Politics in Nigeria, IFES
Military General Wars of Nigeria 1800-1999, from ACED
Article : Nigerian Armed Forces, from Wikipedia
Global Security, Nigerian Army
ODM : Orders, Decorations and Medals of Nigeria
Article : Orders, Decorations and Medals of Nigeria, from Wikipedia
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Nigeria : Satiru Massacre, 1906, Nigeria, Egba Revolt 1918, Nigeria : Biafra, 1966-1970, Nigeria, Muslim Uprising 1981-1984, Nigeria, Internal Conflict, 1990-
Military Units Article : Southern Nigeria Regiment, from Wikipedia
Conflicts, Colonial Era Carolyn A. Brown, The Iva Valley Shooting at Enugu Colliery, Nigeria : African Workers' Aspirations and the Failure of Colonial Labor Reform, IEHC 2006
S. Vandeleur, Campaigning on the upper Nile and Niger 1898, IA
A. Parkinson, The Cameroon Involvement, Britain's Small Wars
Conflicts, Independence Era Biafra Global Security : Biafra War
ICE Case Studies : The Biafran War
Mercenary Wars : Biafra 1966
Operation Biafra Babies
O. Nkwocha, The Republic of Biafra, Once upon a Time in Nigeria, my story of the Biafra-Nigerian Civil War, a struggle for survival (1967-1970) 2010
Article : Operation OAU, from Wikipedia
R.M. Shain, Two Niger Delta Texts on the "Biafran" War, NWU, Passages no. 6, pp. 15-16, 1993
BBC News : Biafra, 30 years on, Jan 13 2000
Niger Delta Article : Conflict in the Niger Delta, from Wikipedia
Forgotten Diaries : Nigeria and Niger Delta
Global Security : Nigeria-Niger Delta
S. Omofonmwan, Oil Exploitation and Conflict in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria, EISF 2009
J.B. Asuni, Blood Oil in the Niger Delta, USIP 2009
M.G. Ngwane, The ethnicisation of the Oil conflict in the Niger Delta, 2010
A. Ikelegbe, The Economy of Conflict in the Oil Rich Niger Delta Region of Nigeria , Nordic Journal of African Studies 14 (2) : 208-234 (2005)
Economy & Finances General Global Integrity : Nigeria 2004, Nigeria 2006, Nigeria 2007
Economic History Article : Economic History of Nigeria
Currency and Finances Tables of Modern Monetary History : Africa, from www.dollarization.org, scroll down for Nigeria
P. Okpiebo, Nigerian National Accounts, 1950-1957, African Studies in Income and Wealth, 1962
I.G. Stewart, Consumer Demand in Nigeria, African Studies in Income and Wealth, 1962
Institutions Article : Nigerian Stock Exchange, History, from Wikipedia
Agriculture Online Nigeria, History of Nigeria Agriculture by Sector
M.I. Daneji, Agricultural Development Intervention Programmes in Nigeria (1960 To Date): A Review, Savannah Review of Agriculture 2011
Mining Phia Steyn, Oil Exploration in Colonial Nigeria, IEHC 2006
G.U. Nwokeji (ed.), Tne Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation and the Development of the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry : History, Strategies and Current Directions, Rice Univ. 2007
Wilson Center : Report from Africa : Oil Conflict and Accumulation Politics in Nigeria
K.A. Klieman, U.S. Oil Companies, the Nigerian Civil War, and the Origins of Opacity in the Nigerian Oil Industry, Journal of American History 99 2012 pp.155-165
Funding Universe, Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation History
C.I. Obi, Oil Extraction, Dispossession, Resistance and Conflict in Nigeria's Oil-Rich Niger Delta , draft, Uppsala Article : Petroleum Industry in Nigeria, from Wikipedia
The History of Shell in Nigeria
A.F. Calvert, Nigeria and its tin fields 1910, IA
Industries Nairaland Forum, History of Nollywood, Nigeria's Mega Film Industry
Nigerian Steel Industry - Historical Development
Social History Article : Demographics of Nigeria, from Wikipedia
Article : Corruption in Nigeria, from Wikipedia
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The Abolition of the Slave Trade, Peoples from the Kongo and the Bight of Biafra
R. Winslow, Comparative Criminology, Nigeria
Article : Education in Nigeria, from Wikipedia
Ethnography General Languages of Nigeria (505), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Nigeria
Nigeria, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
African Alphabets, by Saki Mafundikwa, on the Bagam syllabary and the Nsibidi, Yoruba, Ibibio-Efik alphabet (Nigeria)
B. Salawu, Ethno-Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: Causal Analysis and Proposals for New Management Strategies, European Journal of Social Sciences 13/3 2010
Category : Ethnic Groups in Nigeria, from Wikipedia
Hausa-Fulani A.M. Bunza, The emergence of Hausa identity: religion and society 2008
Igbo Igbo People of Nigeria, History of the Igbo People of Nigeria
Article : Igbo People, from Wikipedia
J. Harnischfeger, Igbo Nationalism and Biafra, Afrikanistik Online 2011
Ijaw Earth Rights Institute, History of Ijaws and Neighbours in Southern Nigeria
Article : Ijaw People, from Wikipedia
Itsekiri Article : Itsekiri People, from Wikipedia
Kanuri Article : Kanuri People, from Wikipedia
P.A. Benton, The Languages and People of Bornu, 1968, IA
Urhobo Article : Urhobo People, from Wikipedia
A. Saluri, The Establishment of British Administration in the Urhobo Country, 1891-1913 (Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, vol.1 no.3 (Dec.) 1958, pp.184-209)
Other G.D. Hazzledine, The white man in Nigeria, 1904, IA
Yoruba Article : History of the Yoruba People, from Wikipedia
S. Johnson, The history of the Yorubas : from the earliest times to the beginning of the British Protectorate 1921, IA
Religion Religious History B. Salawu, Ethno-Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: Causal Analysis and Proposals for New Management Strategies, European Journal of Social Sciences 13/3 2010
A. Kariuki, Violence begets Violence: Nigeria's deathly religious history
A.O. Omotosho, Religious Violence in Nigeria - the Causes and Solutions: an Islamic Perspective 2003
Islam Article : Islam in Nigeria, from Wikipedia
Article : Shi'a Islam in Nigeria, from Wikipedia
Christianity Article : Church of Nigeria : History, from Wikipedia
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Nigeria, from Kirken i Norge
by Region Pre-Colonial States General List of Nigerian Traditional States, from Wikipedia
Adamawa Article : Adamawa Emirate, from Wikipedia
Adamawa Emirate, The Chronicles, the History
Benin Articles : Benin Empire, Oba of Benin, from Wikipedia
A.M. Boisragon, The Benin Massacre, 1898, IA
R. Bacon, Benin, the City of Blood 1897, IA
A.J. Dawson, In the Bight of Benin, 1897, IA
H.L. Roth, Great Benin; its customs, art and horrors 1903, IA
J. Pinnock, Benin : the surrounding country, inhabitants, customs, and trade 1897, IA
J. Fawckner, Narrative of Captain James Fawckner's travels on the coast of Benin, West Africa (1732) 1837, IA
Bonny Article : Kingdom of Bonny, from Wikipedia
H. Crow, Memoirs of the late Captain Hugh Crow of Liverpool : comprising a narrative of his life together with descriptive sketches of the western coast of Africa, particularly of Bonny; the manners and customs of the inhabitants, the productions of the soil, and the trade of the country. 1830, IA
Bornu Articles : Bornu Empire, Sayfawa Dynasty, Borno Emirate, from Wikipedia
A.R.I. Doi, Islam in Kanem-Bornu Empire
Lists of Mais (Kings) of Kanem-Bornu, from Afropedea
A. Schulze, Das Sultanat Bornu mit besonderer Berücksichtigung Deutsch-Bornus, 1910, in German, IA
Gombe Article : Gombe Emirate, from Wikipedia
Ilorin Article : Ilorin Emirate, from Wikipedia
Kalabari Article : Kalabari Kingdom, from Wikipedia
Kano Articles : Kingdom of Kano, Kano Emirate, from Wikipedia
Oyo Article : Oyo Empire, from Wikipedia
Sokoto Article : Sokoto Caliphate, from Wikipedia
Warri Article : Kingdom of Warri, from Wikipedia
Historic Polities/Provinces Biafra Article : Biafra, from Wikipedia
C. Schmidt, Aktion Biafra, NZZ July 6 2007, in German
Lagos Colony Article : Lagos Colony, from Wikipedia
L. Mathe-Shires, Lagos Colony and Oil Rivers Protectorate
Northern Nigeria Article : Northern Nigeria Protectorate, from Wikipedia
F.L.S. Lugard, A tropical dependency : an outline of the ancient history of the western Sudan with an account of the modern settlement of northern Nigeria, 1905, IA
C.W.J. Orr, The making of Northern Nigeria 1911, IA
Oil Rivers (Niger Coast) Protectorate Article : Niger Coast Protectorate (Oil Rivers Protectorate), from Wikipedia
L. Mathe-Shires, Lagos Colony and Oil Rivers Protectorate
F.E. Hodges, Consular Jurisdiction in Her Majesty's Protectorate of the Niger Coast 1895, IA
Royal Niger Company Chartered Territory Article : Royal Niger Company, from Wikipedia
Southern Nigeria Article : Southern Nigeria Protectorate, from Wikipedia
C.H. Robinson, Nigeria, Our Latest Protectorate 1900, IA
R. Simpson, The Bite of Benin : "where Many Go in But Few Come Out", 1919, IA
Nigeria Colonial Government, Owerri : General notes for the provinces as a whole, and notes on Onitsha Province 1948, IA
A.G. Leonard, The Lower Niger and its Tribes, 1906, IA
Modern States General Article : States of Nigeria, from Wikipedia
States of Nigeria, from www.statoids.com
Geographic Regions Niger Delta Article : Niger Delta, from Wikipedia
Institutions Nigeria, from Airline History

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Nigeria, by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Nigeria, by B. Schemmel; Regnal Chronologies : West Africa, scroll down for Kano
Lists of Ambassadors Chinese Ambassadors to Nigeria, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Nigeria, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Nairaland, Nigeria Exchange Rate to Dollar History 1972-
Inflation Rates Historical Inflation Rates, from Index Mundi, since 2000
Election Results Nigeria, from Elections around the World
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes
Selected Articles Time Topics : Biafra
The History of the Republic of Nigeria, from World History Archives
Staatskalender Digitized Books from Nigeria 1897-1938 British Online Archives, Nigeria Blue Books 1862-1945
Online Yearbooks - Nigeria Entries
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections Digital Journalist : 100 Photographs that Changed the World by Life : Biafra 1969
Universal Collections
Items on Nigeria
License Plates : Nigeria, from Francoplaque
Airline Timetable Images : Nigeria
Archival Deposits British Archives National Archives, UK
Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Archive Records
ArchivesHub, UK
British Library, Nigeria Official Publications
(British) Government Publications Relating to Africa in Microform, D.C. Dorward : Government Publications Relating to Nigeria 1862-1960
(British) Government Publications Relating to Africa in Microform, D.C. Dorward : Annual Departmental Reports Relating to Nigeria and British Cameroons, 1887-1961
Institute of Commonwealth Studies, Nigeria: Political Parties, Trades Unions and Pressure Groups Material 1957-, ArchivesHub
U.S. Archives National Archives, US : Confidential U.S. State Department Files : Biafra-Nigeria 1967-1969
Dutch Archives Nationaal Archief, Ambassade Nigeria 1959-1974
Nigerian Archives Endangered Archives : EAP087 : Northern Nigeria: precolonial documents preservation scheme
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Nigeria, from ILO, 33 docs. since 1960
Document Surveys
Document Collections Truth Commissions : Nigeria, from United States Institute of Peace
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, Nigeria : Document List
Biafraland, US Diplomatic Archives: Nigeria (1964-1968), extract of Foreign Relations vol.xxiv
World History Sources : The Nigerian Civil War and its Documents
S. Ekine (ed.), Blood and Oil : Testimonies of Violence from the Women of the Niger Delta, sources date from 1990 to 2000, IA
Radio Biafra London Online : Secret British Papers Released : Why Biafra Lost the War
Wikileaks : Nigeria
Open Source Guinea; site difficult to navigate, lots of primary sources
Individual Documents H. Goldie (ed.), Memoir of King Eyo VII of Old Calabar : a Christian king of Africa, 1894, IA
C.O. Ojukwu, Biafra's Declaration of Independence 1967, Black Past
C.O. Ojukwu, Ahiara Declaration, The Principles of the Biafran Revolution speech June 1 1969
Historical Maps responsible institutions Directorate of Technical Cooperation in Africa (DTCA), National Mapping Agencies in Africa
Federal Surveys, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
National Space research and Development Agency, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : West Africa Historical Map Archive : Historical Maps of West Africa
collections : Nigeria Maps of Urhobo Lands and the Niger Delta, from Waado
Nigeria Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Maps of the History of Nigeria, Old Maps of Nigeria, from Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection : Nigeria
West Africa, Modern
West Africa, Contemporary d'Anville, Carte de la Cote de Guinee, 1729, Gallica
H. Moll 1729 : West Africa, Urhobo Historical Society
Imago Mundi, Carte de l'Afrique occidentale française, Vidal de la Blache c.1910
West Africa 1914, from Heritage History
Humtec, AOF c. 1930s
AOF 1936
Missions protestantes en A.O.F., 1950, Carte d'implantation des differentes societes de missions protestante, 1952, DEFAP
Carte des fuseaux horaires de l'Afrique occidentale française 1912, Gallica
Carte zootechnique de l'Afrique occidentale française 1906, Gallica
Repartition approximative des peuplements naturels de caoutchouc (AOF) 1906, Gallica
AOF 1936, Wikipedia
Guinea (i.e. most of French West Africa) 1936, Probert Encyclopedia
Carte de Soudan Occidental 1893, 1894, Gallica
Nigeria, Modern Nigeria 1913, 1963, 1976, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Nigeria, Linguistic Groups, from T/V Tribe
Nigeria Benin Cameroon Languages, from Wikipedia
Nigeria, contemporary Gulf of Guinea (Gulf of Benin) c.1890, from Wikipedia
Nigeria 1906, 1922, 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
Detail, Modern Biafra Independent State, from Wikipedia
Detail, Contemporary Willink Commission 1952-1953 Map 1 (Northern Region), Map 2 (all of Nigeria), Map 3 (Western Region), Map 4 (Ilorin, Kabba Divisions), Map 5 (Eastern Region) from Waado
U.S. Army Map Service, West Africa 1:250,000, 1955-, PCL, UTexas
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Nigeria, from EB 1911
Religious Article Nigeria, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1911 edition
Economic Nigeria pp.343-346 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues H. Clapperton, Journal of a second expedition into the interior of Africa, from the Bight of Benin to Soccatoo, 1829, IA
J. Fawckner, Narrative of Captain James Fawckner's travels on the coast of Benin, West Africa (1732) 1837, IA
M. Laird, Narrative of an expedition into the interior of Africa, by the River Niger, in the steam-vessels Quorra and Alburkah, in 1832, 1833 and 1834, vol.1 1837, vol.2 1837, IA
W. Allen, A narrative of the expedition sent by Her Majesty's Government to the River Niger in 1841 under the command of Captain H.D. Trotter, vol.1 1968, vol.2 1968, IA
J.H. van Boudyck Bastiaanse, Voyage a la cote de Guinee, dans le golfe de Biafra, a l'ile de Fernando-Po, l'ile de Ste. Helene et autres iles dans le passage, a bord su Brick-Goelette, le Lancier 1853, in French, IA
S. Crowther, Journal of an Expedition Up the Niger and Tshadda Rivers 1855, IA
W.B. Baikie, Narrative of an exploring voyage up the rivers Kwora and Binue (commonly known as the Niger and Tsadda) in 1854. 1856, IA
T.J. Hutchinson, Impressions of Western Africa. With remarks on the diseases of the climate and a report on the peculiarities of trade up the rivers in the Bight of Biafra 1858, IA
M.R. Delany, Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party 1861, IA
W. Cole, Life in the Niger : or, the journal of an African trade 1862, IA
A. Burdo, Niger et Benue: voyage dans l'Afrique centrale 1880, in French, IA; The Niger and the Benueh; travels in Central Africa 1880, IA
E. Viard, Ou Bas-Niger 1886, in French, IA
H. Barth, Travels and discoveries in North and Central Africa : including accounts of Tripoli, the Sahara, the remarkable kingdom of Bornu, and the countries around lake Chad 1890, IA
A. Mattei, Bas-Niger, Benoue, Dahomey 1890, in French, IA
A.F. Mockler-Ferryman, Up the Niger 1892, IA
H. Bindloss, In the Niger country 1898, IA
F. Bauer, Die deutsche Niger-Benue-Tsadsee-Expedition 1902-1903 1904, in German, IA
Institutions Archives National Archives of Nigeria, ArchivesWiki
Musea National Commission for Museums and Monuments, Nigeria
Libraries National Libraries of Africa : Nigeria
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; from Wappenlexikon, comment in German, with history
National Anthems : Nigeria, from National Anthems, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Nigeria, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from World Currency Museum
Collections of Coins : Nigeria, bilingual Russian-English page
Stamps Rare Nigeria, Niger Coast, Northern Nigeria, Lagos Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery
Stamps Oil Rivers 1892-1894, Nigeria 1914, Northern Nigeria 1900-1912, Lagos 1874-1906, Southern Nigeria, 1901-1912, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Nigeria survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
Ethno-Net Africa Database : Nigeria, Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.347-384 in A. Oyewole, Historical Dictionary of Nigeria, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1987 [G]
pp.547-566 in A. Oyewole, D. Lucas, Historical Dictionary of Nigeria, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 2000, KMLA Library R 966.9 O98h
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies Nigeria
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Colonial Nigeria, Selected Bibliography, from Postcolonial Web
Annotated Bibliography on Colonial and Postcolonial Nigeria
J. Kenny, The Spread of Islam, Nigeria Bibliography
Bibliography on Migration Profile of Nigeria
serial publications
general bibliographies
Nigeria entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Nigeria-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna

Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Nigeria Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Online Journals
General Accounts On West Africa Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.29, pp.894-905 Article Western Africa : Nigeria. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.29
Nigeria, in : Lilian Charlotte, Economic History of Asia and Africa, New Delhi (c. 1926) reprint 1998, pp.485-497 [G]
On Nigeria Toyin Falola, The History of Nigeria, Greenwood 1999, 296 pp.
Specific Topics S. Johnson, The History of the Yorubas, Cambridge : UP (1921) 2010, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 966.9 J66h
A. Afigbo, Igbo History and Society, Trenton NJ : Africa World Press 2005, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 966.9 F196i
Historical Dictionaries A. Oyewole, Historical Dictionary of Nigeria, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1987, 391 pp. [G]
Articles : Bamilekeland pp.60-62, Benin pp.75-77, Biafra pp.78-80, Calabar pp.99-101, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]

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