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People have tendency to view same object with different understandings. Understanding varies depend on each individual's education and experiences. Therefore, if there is a half filled cup of water on the table, one might interpret that scene as a half full of water or as a half empty of water. Even with same object on the table, different perspective views item differently. This difference is exactly applicable to historical events as well. In 1688 to 1689, there was a revolution that the James II of England, a one and only catholic monarch of England, was overthrown from the crown because of the fear of Catholic tyranny. As the result of crown, the throne was shifted to a Protestant daughter of James II, Mary and her husband William of Orange. History called this revolution as a Glorious Revolution in 1688 because of the peaceful way that was taken in the process of exile of King James II. However, that was the only limited view from England. From the view of Scotland, the Glorious Revolution cause many bloodsheds and economic challenges that lead into the union of Scottish and English parliaments. This paper is planning to focus on the reactions of Scotland to the Glorious Revolution (1) Jacobites uprising, (2) Darien Scheme and (3) treaty of union.
February 1685, King James II succeeded the throne of England. Since he was the first catholic king after the reformation, the popery became deeply concerned of the conspiracy theory that the Catholics may overthrow the country. However, the parliament, on the other hand, was supportive of James II. They agreed to give same revenues to James II as his brother enjoyed. Unfortunately, the favor eroded when it became clear that James II was not only willing to ensure freedom of Catholics in England but also planning to repeal the Test Acts to allow Catholics to occupy public institutions. November 1685, the parliament rejected James II's request for money and declined to repeal the Test Acts. Acknowledging the fact that they would not support him as they did before, James II prorogued parliament.
1686, James II started to introduce Catholics to army, universities, and even the Anglican Church after partially removing the Test Acts. While James II forced the England society to accept Catholicism, which was the sole and certain factor that they would reject, the public stated hostile towards James II. Even after, the public had to witness James II's anti-protestant campaigns. For example, James II would replace Deputy Lieutenants, Justices of the Peace and members of municipal corporations with Roman Catholics.
On April 5th 1687, the King announced a Declaration of Indulgence, which eliminated all religious discrimination laws in England. The announcement caused great uneasiness in the relationship between the James II and the parliament because the king forced this plan without parliamentary approval. Despite the hatred and criticism, James II continued to suspend and dismiss those who would disagree to the repeal of penal laws to produce a obedient parliament that would support him. Now, whigs and the tories both became concerned about England's future
Then suddenly, James II had a healthy prince as born in 10 June 1688. English Tories and Whigs were feared continuation of Catholic monarch. The seven bishops of England, who were imprisoned by James II, wrote a letter to the William of Orange. Since William was the husband of the Mary, who is the protestant daughter of James II, the bishops thought that this was the only way to protect England from James II's Catholicism and his allies. With the invitation, William landed at Torbay, Devon, on 5 November 1688 with military force. James II already had prepared force to defend himself to England¡¯s attack. Yet, once the arrival of William was spread around in London, King James left the London. The Crown was vacant due to the King James's attempt to escape. As the result, Mary and William were presented with crown with the Bill of Rights, a document that separates power of parliament and monarch. This incident was known as the revolution of 1688 or so called Glorious Revolution.
The result of revolution was cannot be easily in taken by the follower of King James in the Highland in Scotland. The followers were called as Jacobites. They are the followers of Roman Catholic and swear allegiance to King James that they decided to stay Royal to their own monarch. Thus, Jacobites cannot acknowledge the new protestant monarch, King William. When King James was in exile from the crown, Graham of Claver house also known as Viscount Dunbee, gathered people together to raise rebellion. At, first Dunbee faced difficulty in gathering supporters. But, 200 Irish troops sent by King James arrived at Kintyre and western Scottish Highlands including Roman Catholic and Church of Scotland clans supported Dunbee to add more force.
In July of 1689, high in energy, Dunbee¡¯s force defeated a larger lowland force. With scare weapons and soldiers, Jacobites win against the force of lowland. During the battle, one third of Highland soldiers were scarified even the head of the Highland troop, Dunbee was also killed. Therefore, Jacobites lost their core leadership to continue the fight. At that point, King William who feared the further Jacobite rise and wished firm control over Scotland landed at Scotland with large number of troops. In 1690, at the battle of the Boyne defeated the Jacobite forces big that Jacobites lost their will and hope to secure King James and bring his throne back. Since Scotland parliament also proclaimed William and Mary as King and Queen of Scotland through a Convention of Estates that King William demanded the leaders of Jacobite clans to swear allegiance to him by 1st of January 1692. And threat the leaders with possible severe outcomes that they would face in case of refuse. With the permission from the King James who flees to France; almost all clan leaders accept William as their new King. Yet, one clan, the MacDonals of Glencoe missed the deadline. Just like King William has promised, MacDonalds faced severed consequence. In one day, 38 of MacDonald of the MacDonalds of Glencoe were killed. 40 women and children were also killed and their houses were burn down as well. The action of Jacobites to assassinate King William is continued until 1696 in England. It failed but King William¡¯s mistrust and hatred toward Scotland increased dramatically.
The tension and hatred between Scotland and England continued in the economic sector as well. Scots parliament formed a trade company called Darien in 1695. This company¡¯s purpose was to open up a trade between Scotland and potential colonies in Africa, India, and America. At that time majority of European powers were eagerly swelling each colonies to boast about their powers. Also, through maximizing their colonies, European powers gained enormous economic benefits through trade. Mother countries import natural resources from their colonies for cheaper cost and export manufactured goods to colonies to consume. Scotland wanted to enter this trade field to gain profit. Unexpectedly our of "the act named 20 Directors, of whom ten were Lodoners, seven it is true London Scots" were interested in Scots company. The capital from the English director was more than 50 % of portion of Darien Company's investment. Yet, from the English parliament perspective, the establishment of a trade company itself seemed like Scotland's interference of England's Trade. Therefore, with the judgment that Darien Company is threatening the profit of similar trading companies in England, English parliament raised a threat with the agreement of King William. Of course the King William's mistrust toward was at its peak with the reveal of the assassination plan in 1696.
With the threat raised by the English parliament, English directors who invested in the Darien Company pulled their capital away from the company. Also, East India Company, a trading company located in India, strongly objected the Darien as well. With the William's influence even Dutch investors withdraw their investment at Darien and refuse to sell ships to the company to initiate trade. With continuous disturbance of England, Scot's trade company¡¯s pathway of trading was almost blocked. So, they decided to invest solely in the Darien isthmus in Panama. Even to this action, William also order Jamaica whish was the colony of England to refuse aid to Scotland and encouraged Spain to view Darien's settlement as an invasion toward Spanish territory. Without choice, Scottish ships sail with the hope of settlement of New Edinburgh in July 1698 but with the lack of support from the English colonies they had to faces hunger and unbearable weather condition. So, the expedition failed. Darien Company also took the expedition in the following year but the result was similar. Out of 2500 sailor that had left Scotland, only few hundred survived. This was the end Scotland's trial to expand their colonies and trade.
The aftermath from the Darien scheme, the tension was at its highest between England and Scotland. To add on worsen the situation between Scotland and England, there was a series of laws were ratified by the both Scottish and English parliament. English parliament passed the Act of settlement. The Act stated that the throne in England would be passing to Sophia and Hanover because of the death of Queen Anne's children. This Act anger Scottish parliament that since they both share their monarch yet there was completely no discussion was made between the two parliaments. It was simply decided by English parliament and they just notify the decision to Scots. This action of ignorance led to another law that worsens the relationship, Act of Security by Scottish parliament. This Act said that Scotland will not accept the same Hanoverian succession of England. In 1705, finally English parliament imposed Aliens Act to Sots. England threatened Scotland with economic sections including a ban on exports to England and its colonies until Scots admit the Hanoverian succession that was decided by them.
The situation was in favor of England, to the make things worse to Scotland, they suffered with long term famine. This famine was also known as "7 years". Trade ways are interfered by England and agriculture industry was in their worst possible condition that the economic status of Scotland was in their weakest ever. Eventually, Scotland accepted the Hanoverian succession. At this moment the opinion of uniting both parliaments was mentioned by many politics. This was not the first time that idea of combining Scotland and English parliament but every time when this opinion was aroused it did not work out because of several reasons. From the Scotland perspective, with the uniting parliament, they could be bail out of current economic instability with free trade to England and its colonies. Also, their security will be guarantee with Great Britain's forceful naval power. The succession be protected to Protestantism. On the other hand, Scots worried about the burden of high rate of tax and discrimination within the trade competition. Most importantly Scotland worries about their existence and identity. If uniting in complete then Scotland will be tuned into a part of England so Scot's unique legal system and public opinion will be diluted.
From the position of England, this Union of parliaments was truly needed. England felt that they were always constantly exposed to the threat of war from the North due to the close relationship between Scotland and France. England always put extra attention to balance the relationship to not be troubled with Scotland at same time with France as well. If union is complete than England is out of this long lasted fear. Also, English feared a Jacobite succession in Scotland. English did remember strong opposition toward King William and they really fear the repetitive succession to the Catholic. Therefore, with many discussion and concerns both parliaments agreed on the Treaty of Union in 1707. All of these long years of conflicts and tensions all began with the attempt of the Glorious Revolution.
Note : This is the first attempt of a Korean high school student (name withheld on purpose) to write a history essay in a class taught in English. Posted here NOT for the purpose of information, BUT to show mistakes which can be made by beginners. .
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