History of Urbanization in India


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
BEW



Table of Contents


Chapter II.3
Working Table of Contents
Bibliography 2nd Update
Bibliography 1st Update
Bibliography



Chapter II.3 : Bombay (as of June 9th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

II.3.1 : Headquarters of the East India Company
            In 1534, the Portuguese appropriated the islands from Gujarat. They were ceded to Charles II of England in 1661, which in turn were leased to the British East India Company in 1668. The company found the deep harbour on the east coast of the islands to be ideal for setting up their first port in the sub-continent. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. In 1687, the British East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Mumbai. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency (1). Fortifications were erected around the city to deter attacks from the Dutch in 1673. In 1687 Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company's possessions in India, making it a bustling town under British influence. In 1753 it became subordinate to that of Calcutta.
            From 1817 onwards, the city was reshaped with large civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the islands in the archipelago into a single amalgamated mass. This project, known as the Hornby Vellard, was completed by 1845, and resulted in the total area swelling to 438 kmę¸. Work on the vellard was started in 1782 by William Hornby, then Governor of Bombay, against the wishes of the directors of the East India Company. The purpose of this vellard was to block a creek and prevent the low-lying areas of Bombay from being flooded at high tide. In 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the town of Thane.
            *Hope to find more information from "Bombay, a History", which has still not arrived despite its long overdue expected arrival date.

II.3.2 : Urbs Prima in India
            Urbs Prima means "foremost city", exactly what Bombay was during the mid-1800s. 1840-1865 was the most decisive epoch in the history of Bombay when foundations were truly laid of the future prosperous city. The Charter Acts of 1813 and 1833 had begun an era of free trade with the result that Bombay became an international port and city.
            Several factors helped Bombay to rise as the commercial capital of India. One factor was the natural harbor that could afford shipping accommodation to vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 770,000. The transport facilities by sea and rail brought Bombay closer to the trading centers of India. In 1852 the Bombay Steam Navigation Company entered into a contract with the Government of India for the transport of mail between Bombay and Karachi, thus setting up postal infrastructure. A year later, the Peninsular and Oriental Company (2) set up a monthly mail service between Bombay and England.
            Bombay was also the first city in India to develop railway communication. In 1863 the Great Indian Peninsular Railway connected Bombay with Madras. The railways connected the city with nearby cotton growing areas. Bombay soon became the leader of Indian ports in exporting 80 percent of the country's cotton. The timing was linked to the American Civil War. Before the war, England had preferred American cotton; however, when no supply could come from them, England turned to Bombay. Consequently, during the five years of the war from 1861-1865, Bombay made approximately 81 million sterling more than what had been considered a decent price for its cotton in former years. At the end of the Civil War, the sudden drop in cotton sales was able to be recovered by generous contributions of speculators made when Sir Bartle Frere (3), the then governor, published his plan for beautifying Bombay, by building many public buildings that still stand today. The local municipal bodies cooperated in road building as public works of utility. He impressed authorities in both India and England with the necessity for Bombay to be connected by railway with Delhi. Soon, a Parsi (4) merchant installed a mill within the city precincts with the cooperation of a British manufacturing firm on the joint-stock principle. As the latter provided the mill, equipment, and know-how, the mill turned out to be a success and soon the city was bustling with ten mills, providing jobs for 6,000 workers.
            Apart from the economy, the High Court Act of 1861 abolished the existing justice system (with no substantive law, non-uniform double jurisdiction) and set up a High Court that exercised jurisdiction over both Presidency towns and rural towns.
            Such urbanization and job opportunities appeared favorably to immigrants. In one area, the population soared from 337,000 in 1852 to 816,000 in 1864. This naturally led to shortage of housing, and the poor were driven to live in make-shift shelters of leaves and straw. Another problem was the disposal of corpses. Poor people would often be buried on the shore, and at low tide they would lie half exposed on the sand. As Bombay lacked a proper system of drainage, the open water course carrying the sewage also carried the odor of corpses. Severe health problems ensued, such as cholera and respiratory diseases.
            The government sought to solve such problems. Lack of a drainage system was replaced by house to house visits by sweepers, who collected the soil and delivered it into the tidal current. The lack of water supply was solved by the establishment of Vehar Water Works (1858), which provided 9 and a half million gallons of water to the city. Burials in the sands were strictly forbidden in 1855. Sir Bartle Frere tried to provide building space by adding living space to inhabited areas and demolishing the ramparts of a fort that served no useful purpose. In 1865 the historic Public Health Department was established.

II.3.3 : Birth of Bollywood
            Although the Internet only provides the history of "bollywood" in itself and how it grew, I want to focus on how its affected its native city. One possible source is the book I bought called "History of Bollywood" (for my former topic), but it is currently not at school, I will bring it here by next week. Maybe Bollywood's effects on urbanization were minimal, but I would expect such a national, big industry to bring more commerce, human resources, jobs, wealth, wannabes, and urban flair to a city, like Hollywood was never Hollywood before the industry came in.

            In addition I want to focus on the real modern sense of urbanization in the 20th century after Britain's independence. Hopefully this will be made easier with the arrival of Bombay, a history by Teresa Albuquerque which has still not arrived after 15 days of its expected arrival date. Hopefully it has not got lost along the way.

(1) The Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. It was established in the 17th century as trading posts of the British East India Company, but later grew to encompass much of western and central India, as well as parts of post-partition Pakistan and the Arabian Peninsula.
(2) The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, which is usually known as P&O, was a British shipping and logistics company which dates from the early 19th century.
(3) Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere (March 29, 1815 - May 29, 1884) was a British colonial administrator.
(4) A Parsi s a member of a close-knit Zoroastrian community based primarily in India.



Working Table of Contents (as of June 9th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Introduction
II. Major Urban Cities, case by case
     1. Delhi
         1. Capital of India, since 1911
         2. Creation of New Delhi by Edwin Lutyens
         3. Delhi's satellite cities
         4. Master Plan for Delhi
             1. First Master Plan for Delhi, 1961-1991
             2. Second Master Plan for Delhi, 1981-1991
     2. Kolkata (Calcutta)
         1. Urban Structure of Kolkata
             1. Capital of Britain's Indian Empire
             2. Post-Independence : Mass Demographic Changes.
             3. Damage to Infrastructure during the 1960-70s
             4. India Pakistani War : Mass Influx of Refugees and its strains
         2. Development of in-City infrastructure
         3. Establishment of Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority
     3. Mumbai (Bombay)
         1. Events relevant to Urbanizaiton, before Indian independence from Britain
             1. Headquarters for East India Company, 1687
             2. Urbs Prima in India, 1840-1865
             3. Birth of Bollywood
         2. After Indian independence from Great Britain.
             1. Boom of the 1970s
             2. Heart of India's business
             3. Among world's top 10 financial flow hubs
     4. Chennai (Madras)
         1. Colonial City - Fort St. George
         2. Under British Colonial Rule
         3. Impact of bombings during WWI
         4. Chennai by region
             1. North Chennai - the Industrial area
             2. South Chennai and West Chennai - residential to commercial
             3. Guindy National Park
IV. The Impact of Geography of each cities in regard to urbanization.
     1. Geographic Region
         1. North : Delhi
         2. East : Kolkata
         3. West : Mumbai
         4. South : Chennai
     2. Partition of India and Mass Migration
V. The Impact of Demographics on Indian Urbanization
     1. Ethnic Variety
     2. Influence of Caste System
VI. Development of National Urban Infrastructure
     1. Railways in India
     2. Sewage System
VII. The Dark Side of Urbanization
     1. Environmental Issue
     2. Slum/Ghetto Issue
VIII. Future of India's Urbanization
IX. Conclusion



Bibliography (as of June 9th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Bibliographies Used
a.      Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keyword India (site in German, most entries in English; http://www.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/hylib/iblk/)
b.      Mansingh Surjit, Historical Dictionary of India, Lanham Md.: Scarecrow 2003

II. Bibliographies Not Yet Used
c.      Republic of India, from WHKMLA : http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xindia.html
d.      British India, from WHKMLA : http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xbrindia.html

III. Printed or Electronic Sources Used
1.      "Calcutta : Not `the City of Joy'" ESS Environmental Software and Services GmbH AUSTRIA. .
2.      Chakraborty, A. "Migration and Urbanisation Problems in Calcutta." The Info Project. Mental Health and Society, 1978;5(1-2):72-78.
3.      "History of Calcutta." BangaliNET. .
4.      Kundu, Abanti. "Social Scientist, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Apr., 1983), Pp. 37-49." Urbanisation in India: a Contrast with Western Experience JSTOR. .
5.      Oppili, P. "How Urbanisation Watered Down the Natural Wealth." Tamil Nadu. The Hindu (Online Newspaper).
6.      Albequerqe, Teresa. Bombay, A History. Books from India or Oscar Publications. Delhi
7.      Pinto, Marino R. Metropolitan City Governance In India. Books from India or Oscar Publications. Delhi
8.      Huda, Manirul. Urbanisation in India. Books from India or Oscar Publications. Delhi
9.      Ganguli, D.S. Regional Economy of West Bengal: A Study in Urbanisation, Growth Potential and Optimisation of Industrial Location. Books from India or Oscar Publications. Delhi
10.      "CHAPTER 14 : Urban Development." ECONOMIC SURVEY OF DELHI. Delhi Planning Department. http://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/chapter_14.htm
11.      "Is Delhi Prepared? Page 2 of 4." GIS Development. .
12.      Albuquerque, Teresa. Urbs Prima in Indis. Promilla & Co. Publishers, New Delhi, 1985
13.      Article "Henry Bartle Frere", from Wikipedia, accessed May 2008 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Bartle_Frere
14.      Article "Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company" from Wikipedia, accessed May 2008 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsular_and_Oriental_Steam_Navigation_Company
15.      Article "Bombay Presidency" from Wikipedia, accessed May 2008 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombay_Presidency#20th_Century_reforms
16.      Article "Company rule in India", from Wikipedia, accessed May 2008 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Company_rule_in_India

IV. Sources Accessed or Certain to be Accessed
1.      Calcutta: society and change 1690-1990 / Roy, Samaren. - Calcutta : Rupa, 1991. - 220 p. & Ill.; ISBN 81-7167-054-7
2.      Regional disparities and regional development planning of West Bengal / By Sachi G. Dastidar ; Shefali S. Dastidar. - Calcutta : Firma KLM Private, 1991. - VIII,180 p. & ill.., maps, bibliography pp. 159-177
3.      Spatial strategies and infrastructure planning in the metropolitan areas of Bombay and Calcutta / Richardson, Harry W., 1984; ISBN 0-566-00650-2; in : Spatial, environmental and resource policy in the developing countries / ed. by Manas Chatterjee, Peter Nijkamp (u.a.). - Aldershot/Hampsh. (u.a.) : Gower, (circa 1984), pp. 113-139 : 3 maps., 7 Tab., bibliography.
4.      The Bombay Urban Development Programme, Mumbai, India / Desai, Padma Ashit, 2001; In: Third World Planning Review (Liverpool), 23 (2001) 2, pp. 137-154
5.      Bombay/Mumbai: the postmodern city / Kamdar, Mira, 1997; In: World Policy Journal (New York/N.Y.), 14 (Summer 1997) 2, pp. 75-88.
6.      Peri-urban dynamics : case studies in Chennai, Hyderabad und Mumbai / ed. by Veronique Dupont [u.a.] Centre de Sciences Humaines. - New Delhi, 2006. - 109 p. & Ill., maps, bibliography.; (CSH Occasional Paper; No. 17)
7.      B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave MacMillan 2003
has tables on population of major cities pp.39-47; such as Bangalore, Cacutta, Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Karachi, Lahore, Madras
8.      Digital South Asia Library : Imperial Gazetteer (25 volume encyclopedia issued 1908-1931 9.      Imoperial Gazetteer of India, 1908-1931, posted by DSAL, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer
10.      Historical Maps of India, links by Ian Poyntz, http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~poyntz/India/maps.html
11.      Diwakar A., M.H Qureshi. Demographic processes of urbanisation in Delhi. POPLINE Document Number: 241558
12.      Article: Kolkata, from Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcutta#Urban_structure
13.      Article: History of Mumbai, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Mumbai
14.      Article: Delhi, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombay
15.      Article: History of Chennai, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Madras
16.      Article : History of Calcutta, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Calcutta
17.      19th Century History of Mumbai: Mumbai/Bombay Pages. http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/history/c19.html

V. Sources Regarded Relevant, but May Not be Accessed
1.      "Centre for Urban Economic Studies." University of Calcutta. Maybe I can contact them, and ask for information. Careful about writing down "KMLA" as a high school.
2.      Kling, Blair B. Partner In Empire: Dwarkanath Tagore And The Age Of Enterprise In Eastern India. Books from India or Oscar Publications. Delhi
3.      Sarao, K.T.S.. Urban centres and Urbanisation as reflected in Pali Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas. Books from India or Oscar Publications . Delhi
4.      DVD (Documentary) Meera Dewan. Cityscapes Delhi. http://www.synclinefilmstore.com/urbanisation/cityscapes-delhi/prod_280.html
5.      Kumar, Dharma, and Meghnand Desai, eds. The Cambridge Economic History of India Volume II c. 1757-1970. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1983.
6.      Veit, L.A. India's Second Revolution: The Dimensions of Development. New York, Mc-Graw Hill, 1976
7.      India : Ministry of Industry. Public Enterprise Survey: Annual Report. New Delhi: Bureau of Public Enterprise. Annually
8.      Ray, Jajat Kanta Ray, ed. Enterpreneurship and Industry in India, 1800-1947. Delhi : Oxford University Press, 1992.
9.      Sinha, B. Industrial Geography of India. Calcutta: World Press, 1972.
10.      Verma, H.S. Industrial Families in India. New Delhi: Concept, 1987.
11.      Adiseshiah, Malcolm S. Eighth Plan Perspectives. New Delhi : Lancer International, 1990. - "Planning From Below with Reference to District Development and State Planning." Economic and Political Weekly 6 (30), 1971: 1609-1618.
12.      Owen, W. Distance and Development: Transport and Communications in India. Washington, DC : Brookings Institute, 1968.



Bibliography (as of May 1st 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Bibliographies Used
a.      Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keyword India (site in German, most entries in English; http://www.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/hylib/iblk/)

II. Bibliographies Not Yet Used
b.      Mansingh Surjit, Historical Dictionary of India, Lanham Md.: Scarecrow 2003
c.      Republic of India, from WHKMLA : http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xindia.html
d.      British India, from WHKMLA : http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xbrindia.html

III. Printed or Electronic Sources Used
1.      "Calcutta : Not `the City of Joy'" ESS Environmental Software and Services GmbH AUSTRIA. .
2.      Chakraborty, A. "Migration and Urbanisation Problems in Calcutta." The Info Project. Mental Health and Society, 1978;5(1-2):72-78.
3.      "History of Calcutta." BangaliNET. .
4.      Kundu, Abanti. "Social Scientist, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Apr., 1983), Pp. 37-49." Urbanisation in India: a Contrast with Western Experience JSTOR. .
5.      Oppili, P. "How Urbanisation Watered Down the Natural Wealth." Tamil Nadu. The Hindu (Online Newspaper).
6.      Albequerqe, Teresa. Bombay, A History. Books from India or Oscar Publications. Delhi
7.      Pinto, Marino R. Metropolitan City Governance In India. Books from India or Oscar Publications. Delhi
8.      Huda, Manirul. Urbanisation in India. Books from India or Oscar Publications. Delhi
9.      Ganguli, D.S. Regional Economy of West Bengal: A Study in Urbanisation, Growth Potential and Optimisation of Industrial Location. Books from India or Oscar Publications. Delhi
10.      "CHAPTER 14 : Urban Development." ECONOMIC SURVEY OF DELHI. Delhi Planning Department. http://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/chapter_14.htm
11.      "Is Delhi Prepared? Page 2 of 4." GIS Development. .

IV. Sources Accessed or Certain to be Accessed
1.      Calcutta: society and change 1690-1990 / Roy, Samaren. - Calcutta : Rupa, 1991. - 220 p. & Ill.; ISBN 81-7167-054-7
2.      Regional disparities and regional development planning of West Bengal / By Sachi G. Dastidar ; Shefali S. Dastidar. - Calcutta : Firma KLM Private, 1991. - VIII,180 p. & ill.., maps, bibliography pp. 159-177
3.      Spatial strategies and infrastructure planning in the metropolitan areas of Bombay and Calcutta / Richardson, Harry W., 1984; ISBN 0-566-00650-2; in : Spatial, environmental and resource policy in the developing countries / ed. by Manas Chatterjee, Peter Nijkamp (u.a.). - Aldershot/Hampsh. (u.a.) : Gower, (circa 1984), pp. 113-139 : 3 maps., 7 Tab., bibliography.
4.      The Bombay Urban Development Programme, Mumbai, India / Desai, Padma Ashit, 2001; In: Third World Planning Review (Liverpool), 23 (2001) 2, pp. 137-154
5.      Bombay/Mumbai: the postmodern city / Kamdar, Mira, 1997; In: World Policy Journal (New York/N.Y.), 14 (Summer 1997) 2, pp. 75-88.
6.      Peri-urban dynamics : case studies in Chennai, Hyderabad und Mumbai / ed. by Veronique Dupont [u.a.] Centre de Sciences Humaines. - New Delhi, 2006. - 109 p. & Ill., maps, bibliography.; (CSH Occasional Paper; No. 17)
7.      B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave MacMillan 2003
has tables on population of major cities pp.39-47; such as Bangalore, Cacutta, Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Karachi, Lahore, Madras
8.      Digital South Asia Library : Imperial Gazetteer (25 volume encyclopedia issued 1908-1931 9.      Imoperial Gazetteer of India, 1908-1931, posted by DSAL, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer
10.      Historical Maps of India, links by Ian Poyntz, http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~poyntz/India/maps.html
11.      Diwakar A., M.H Qureshi. Demographic processes of urbanisation in Delhi. POPLINE Document Number: 241558

V. Sources Regarded Relevant, but May Not be Accessed
1.      "Centre for Urban Economic Studies." University of Calcutta. Maybe I can contact them, and ask for information. Careful about writing down "KMLA" as a high school.
2.      Kling, Blair B. Partner In Empire: Dwarkanath Tagore And The Age Of Enterprise In Eastern India. Books from India or Oscar Publications. Delhi
3.      Sarao, K.T.S.. Urban centres and Urbanisation as reflected in Pali Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas. Books from India or Oscar Publications . Delhi
4.      DVD (Documentary) Meera Dewan. Cityscapes Delhi. http://www.synclinefilmstore.com/urbanisation/cityscapes-delhi/prod_280.html



Bibliography (as of April 18th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. extracted from Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keyword India (site in German, most entries in English; http://www.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/hylib/iblk/)

a.      Calcutta: society and change 1690-1990 / Roy, Samaren. - Calcutta : Rupa, 1991. - 220 p. & Ill.; ISBN 81-7167-054-7
b.      Regional disparities and regional development planning of West Bengal / By Sachi G. Dastidar ; Shefali S. Dastidar. - Calcutta : Firma KLM Private, 1991. - VIII,180 p. & ill.., maps, bibliography pp. 159-177
c.      Spatial strategies and infrastructure planning in the metropolitan areas of Bombay and Calcutta / Richardson, Harry W., 1984; ISBN 0-566-00650-2; in : Spatial, environmental and resource policy in the developing countries / ed. by Manas Chatterjee, Peter Nijkamp (u.a.). - Aldershot/Hampsh. (u.a.) : Gower, (circa 1984), pp. 113-139 : 3 maps., 7 Tab., bibliography.
d.      The Bombay Urban Development Programme, Mumbai, India / Desai, Padma Ashit, 2001; In: Third World Planning Review (Liverpool), 23 (2001) 2, pp. 137-154
e.      Bombay/Mumbai: the postmodern city / Kamdar, Mira, 1997; In: World Policy Journal (New York/N.Y.), 14 (Summer 1997) 2, pp. 75-88.
f.      Peri-urban dynamics : case studies in Chennai, Hyderabad und Mumbai / ed. by Veronique Dupont [u.a.] Centre de Sciences Humaines. - New Delhi, 2006. - 109 p. & Ill., maps, bibliography.; (CSH Occasional Paper; No. 17)

2.      "Calcutta : Not `the City of Joy'" ESS Environmental Software and Services GmbH AUSTRIA. .
3.      "Centre for Urban Economic Studies." University of Calcutta. .
4.      Chakraborty, A. "Migration and Urbanisation Problems in Calcutta." The Info Project. Mental Health and Society, 1978;5(1-2):72-78.
5.      "History of Calcutta." BangaliNET. .
6.      Kundu, Abanti. "Social Scientist, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Apr., 1983), Pp. 37-49." Urbanisation in India: a Contrast with Western Experience JSTOR. .
7.      Oppili, P. "How Urbanisation Watered Down the Natural Wealth." Tamil Nadu. The Hindu (Online Newspaper).