The Straits (Bosphorus, Dardanelles) in British Foreign Policy 1827-1947

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Time Table
Working Table of Contents

Bibliography (as of December 17th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

Viault, Birdsall S. Modern European History. U.S.A: McGraw-Hill, 1990.
Anderson, Frank M., and Amos S. Hershey. Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914 (1918). G.P.O., 1918.
The Greek War of Independence
Hertslet, Sir Edward. The Map of Europe by Treaty. (4 vols, (vol. 4, 1875-1891), London, printed for Her Majesty's stationery oflSce by Harrison and Sons, 1891.) Official collection of important documents, with indexes, tables of contents, maps, etc. Treaty of Berlin, with abstract of protocols (minutes), lists of subjects, table of contents, and notes, pp. 2729-99.
Holland, T. E. (editor). The European concert in the Eastern question: A collection of treaties and other public acts. (Oxfonl. Olarendon Press, 1885.) Introduction and notes by editor.
Bnmswick, Benoit. Le traits de Berlin, annot^ et coniin^nt?. {Paris, 1878.)
Martens, G. Fr. de. Nouveau recueil general de traitfe et autres iictes relatifs aux rapport de droit international. II serie. Tome III. Leipzig.
De Clercq. Recueil des traites de la France. Vol. XII. Under nuspices of minister of foreign affairs. Paris, 1881. Contains protocols and Treaty of Berlin.
Albin, Pierre. Les grands traites politiques, recueil des principaux textes diplomatiques depuis 1815 jusqu'a nos jours. (Paris, Alcan, 1911.)
Testa. Baron I. de. Recueil de traites de la Porte ottomane. 10 vols. (Paris, 1864-1901.)
Noradounghian, G. Recueil d'actes intemationaux de I'empire ottoman. (Paris, 1897-191eS.)
British and Foreign State Papers. Vol. 69, 1877-1878. Compiled by librarian and keeper of the papers, Foreign Office. London, Wm. Ridgway. 1884. Contains protocols or minutes of the Congress in full, pp. 862-1078, and the treaty without maps or notes, pp. 749?768 (all in the official French version).
Archives diplomatiques. 2d series, vols. 5, 6. Paris, 1882-3, Vol. 6, pp. 1-320, contains correspondence of French representatives iv- garding the treaties of San Stefano and Berlin. The Treaty of Berlin is given, p. 284 ff.
Parliamentary Papers. (Blue books of the British Government. V There are more than 100 of these dealing with Turkey between 1876 and 1881.
Documents diplomatiques. Affaires d'orient. Congres de Berlin. Paris, 1878. Livres jaunes of the French Government. Documenti diplomatici. Libri verdi of the Italian Government. 1877 and 1878, Affari d'oriente.
Rose, J. H. The development of the European nations, 1870-1914. (Fifth edition, 2 vols, in 1. Xew York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1910.) A thoughtful and impartial history, with special attention to international relations. Written in 1905, extended bv three additional chapters to Xovember, 1914. Vol. I. pp. 264-298 deal with the Balkan settlement of 1878.
Miller, W. The Ottoman Empire, 1801-1913. (Cambridge, University Press, 1913.) A valuable and accurate compendium of the rise of the Balkan States. Internal affairs of Turkey relatively neglected. Some bias shown in favor of the Greeks. Pp. 382-898 discuss the Treaty of Berlin.
La Jonquiere, A., Vicomte de. Histoire de I'empire ottoman. (2 vols. 3rd ed.j Paris, Hachette, 1914.) Especially full account in the second volume of the period since 1870.
Bareilles, Bertrand. Les Turcs, ce que fut leur empire, leurs comedies politiques. (Paris, Perrin, 1917.) Chapter 6 gives direct information about the Treaty of Berlin from the report of the Turkish delegate, Catheodory Pasha.
Debidour, A. Histoire diplomatique de I'Europe, 1814-1878. 2 vols. (Paris, Alcan, 1916.)
D'Avril, A. N^gociations relatives au traite de Berlin et aux arrangements qui ont suivi. (Paris, Leroux, 1887.)
Choublier, M. La question d''Orient depuis le traite de Berlin. (Paris, 1897.)
Duggan, Stephen Pierce Hayden. The Eastern Question? a study in diplomacy. (New York, Columbia University Prefes, 1902.)
Sosnosky, Theodor von. Die Balkanpolitik Oesterreich-Ungarns seit 1866. (Berlin, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1913.) 2 vols.
Bamberg, F. Geschichte der orientaliscen Angelegenheit im Zeitraume des Pariser und Berliner Friedens. (Berlin, G. Grote, 1892).
Beer, Adolf. Die orientalische Politik Oesterreichs seit 1774. (Prag, 1883.)
Guarini, G. B. La Germania e la questione d'oriente fino al congresso di Berlino. (Rome, Loescher, 1898.) 2 vols.
Bonghi, R. II congresso di Berlino e la crisi d'oriente. (2nd ed. Milan, Treves, 1885.)
The Nation (New York), in vols. 26 and 27, contains many articles by E. L. Godkin and others on the affairs in Turkey and the congress and Treaty of Berlin. See vol. 26 : 37, 53, 194, 237, 398 ; vol. 27 : 6, 50, 65, 108, 159, 234.
Campbell. The resettlement of the Turkish dominions. Fortnightly Review, April, 1878. N. S., vol. 23, pp. 543-60.
Dicey, E. England's policy at the Berlin Congress. Nineteenth Century, vol. 3, p. 779.
Vambery, A. Russia and England: Batoum and Cyprus. Fortnightly Review. Vol. 46, p. 372.
Blennerhasset, R. Austria and the Berlin treaty. Fortnightly Review, November, 1908. Vol. 90, pp. 751-64.
Hahn, S. Diplomatic im Orient seit Beendigung des Russisch-tTürkischen Krieges. Unsere Zeit. (Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus, 1880.) Vol. 2, pp. 40, 240.
Ciimming, A. N. Secret History of the Treaty of Berlin. Nineteenth Century, July, 1905. Vol. 58, pp. 83-90.
M. K. Waddington at the ministry of foreign affairs and the Berlin congress. Scribner's, February, 1914. Vol. 56, pp. 203-220
Series in Hertslet, Map of Europe by Treaty, v. 4. Maps to illustrate Treaty of San Stef ano alone are to be found after pp. 2674 (Montenegro); 2676 (Serbia); 2680 (Bulgaria); 2788 (Russo-Turkish frontier in Asia).
Page 2766, map of Bulgaria showing the boundaries as proposed by the Treaty of San Stefano and as fixed by the Treaty of Berlin. Stanford's Geographical Establishment ; c. 26f m. to 1 inch ; names of places taken from Austrian staff map.
Page 2774, Eastern Roumelia (Stanford's, e^c).
Page 2782, Montenegro (ditto).
Page 2786, Serbia (ditto).
Page 2790, Bessarabia, Dobrudja, Danube Delta, Isle of Serpents, etc. (ditto).
Page 2794. Russo-Turkish frontier in Asia (ditto, except scale, which is c. 33 J m. to 1 inch).
Page 2798, Turkey in Europe, to illustrate Treaty of Berlin (ditto, except scale, 90 m. to 1 inch).
Page 2798 (immediately following previous map), map showing territory restored to Turkey by Congress of Berlin (ditto).
Page 2798, map illustrating Treaty of San Stefano and Treaty of Berlin.
Rose, Development of European Nations, I, 284. (Stanford's, London, 133 m. to 1 inch.)
Map illustrating treaty of Berlin in Europe and Asia, in Miller, Ottoman Empire, 398. (Cambridge, University Press, 1913), c. 140 m to 1 inch.

Chapter 1 (as of December 17th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

The Greek War of Independence
            The Greek war of Independence, waged by Greek, had an object of liberating themselves from Ottoman Empire. After the Fall of Byzantine Empire in 1453, Greeks lost their sovereignty; since then, the Ottoman Empire ruled Greece. However, during the 18th and 19th century, Greek nationalism rose, along with spreading philhellenism in many European countries. Moreover, Ottoman Empire's power was declining, being considered as "sick men of Europe". All these factors led into the Greek War of Independence. In 1814, the Greek Nationalists formed a secret organization called "Filiki Eteria (Friendly Society), which took a leading role in the rebellion. Alexander Ypsilantis was elected as the head of the Filiki Eteria, in 1920. On 8 March 1821, the revolution broke out; Ypsilantis proclaimed all the Greeks and Christians to rise up against the Ottomans.
            One of the major events in the Greek war of Independence is the Battle of Navarino, fought on 20 October 1827. It was fought in Navarino Bay, on Peloponnese Peninsula, in the Ionian Sea. The naval force of Ottoman and Egyptian was defeated by combined British, French and Russian naval force. The main cause for the participation of three Great Powers in the Greek War of Independence was Russia's ambitions of expansion in Black Sea region.
            Russia was strongly pro-Greek for two reasons; Russia was the center of Orthodox Christians, and thus the "protector" of Balkan Peninsula. Moreover, giving aid in Greek's independence would weaken Ottoman Empire, which would ultimately ease Russia's expansion towards the south. Britain feared that Russia's sole intervention in the Greek War of Independence would lead into not only the successful revolution but furthermore the disintegration of Ottoman Empire due to the sweeping Nationalism after Greek Independence. This would lead into the worst scenario for Britain; Russia establishing hegemony over Balkans and Ottoman Empire, successfully expanding to South, obtaining ice-free Port and growing in power. Moreover, Russia could threaten India, a colony of Britain Empire.
            Britain intervention in the war was mainly for checks; even though Greece successfully achieved independence from Ottoman Empire, Britain would support the integrity of Ottoman Empire, preventing its dissolution. Russia would not be able to establish its hegemony for checking powers of Britain. Britain Empire aimed to prevent Russian expansionist plans by intervening in the matter, adding a pro-Greek force in the battle. Adding to these causes was the Philhellenism, a spreading trend in European countries. The Greek War of Independence was finally concluded by the Treaty of Constantinople in 1832, which Britain, France, Russia participated on one side, and Ottoman Empire on the other. The treaty of Constantinople officially created modern Greece as an independent state which was free from Ottoman Empire rule.

Time Table (as of November 7th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

Year Greece Ottoman Empire Russia
1821-1829 War of Independence (Greek Revolt) War of Independence (Greek Revolt)
1822 Britain : George Canning Minister of Foreign Affairs
1827 London Treaty ? UK, France, Russia Called upon Greece and Ottoman Empire to cease hostilities. (Refusal of Ottomans : Caused United Force to win and create independent Greek state)
1839-1876 Tanzimat Reforms
1828-1829 Russo-Ottoman War Russo-Ottoman War
1829 Treaty of Adrianople
1832 Treaty of Constantinople
1832 London Conference of 1832
1833 Treaty of Hunkar Iskelesi
1841 London Straits Convention
1854-1856 Crimean War
1864 Ionian Islands returned
1877-1878 Russo-Ottoman War
1878 Bulgarian Independence
1897 Graeco-Turkish War
1897 Cretan Crisis
1903 IMRO Crisis
1908 Balkan Crisis
1912 First Balkan War
1912-1913 Second Balkan War
1914-1918 World War I World War I World War I
1915 Battle of Gallipoli
1915-1916 Dardanelles Campaign Dardanelles Campaign Dardanelles Campaign
1919 Paris Peace Conference Paris Peace Conference Paris Peace Conference
1922-1923 Conference of Lausanne
1923 Treaty of Lausanne
1919-1923 Turkish War of Independence
1936 Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits

Working Table of Contents (as of June 9th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Introduction
II. History of the Straits (Dardanelles, Bosphorus)
III. Background of Involved Countries
     1. Ottoman Empire
     2. British Empire
     3. Russian Empire
IV. Period 1827-1840
     1. Russo-Turkish War 1828-1829
     2. Treaty of Hunkiar-Iskelesi
V. Period 1841 ? 1913
     1. London Straits Convention 1841
     2. Crimean War 1853-1856
     3. Treaty of Paris 1856
VI. World War I (1914 ? 1918)
     1. Battle of Gallipoli 1915-1916
     2. Treaty of Sevres 1920
VII. Interbellum, 1919-1939
     1. Treaty of Lausanne 1923
     2. Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits 1936
VIII. World War II
IX. Conclusion