Influence of U.S. Aid - Comparison Turkey, ROK 1953-1980

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

December 2nd 2008
December 1st 2008
November 19th 2008
November 17th 2008
October 21st 2008
September 29th 2008
September 26th 2008
September 20th 2008
September 19th 2008
September 19th 2008
September 9th 2008
September 9th 2008
September 9th 2008
September 8th 2008
June 9th 2008
June 9th 2008
June 5th 2008
April 4th 2008

December 2nd 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

In introductions usually there is not so much to criticize. Just Chung-hee Park.
Korean names in western language texts are a problem. My policy : stick to the oriental order : Park Chung-hee. Just one exception to the rule : Syngman Rhee. He lived in the U.S. for many years and wrote his name this way. As he appears in many books with his name written this way, we should respect this; rearranging his name would only confuse readers not that familiar with Korean history and tradition.
This is perhaps the longest introduction anybody who posted a paper on my site has written. I wonder if you give away too much of the information, but if you want you can keep it that way. My policy : write the intro after all other chapters are written.

December 1st 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) about your notes : give the sources to your tables in notes. Do not give URLs in notes; they belong into your reference list (see notes number 4,7,9). Bruce Cumings, not Cummings (note 3).
(2) "Although it is sometimes said that the United States imperialists caused the Korean war to breakout, but anyway the United States support during the Korean War period certainly has increased even if the inflation of dollar is counted."
(a) do not use words like "anyway" in an analysis.
(b) the term "imperialist" is used by persons adhering to Marxist ideology. If you use such a term without using quotation marks, your readers will take you as a Marxist. Also, for a statement of that kind, I expect you to give a reference.
(3) Officially, the Republic of Turkey explained that the reason to voluntarily dispatch armies was the communism did not ensure the freedom of religion and it wanted to keep the Republic of Korea "free."
Why "free" in quotation marks ? Do you regard the ROK unfree ? If you want to distance yourself from the Turkish motivation for aiding Korea, put the entire statement into quotation marks ("communism did not ensure the freedom of religion and it wanted to keep the Republic of Korea free.") and give reference in a note
(4) The invasion was officially advertised by the North Korea as the war against Syngman Rhee, whom the North Korean people called the "traitor of Korean people."
give a reference
(5) Due to Singer (1977), the Turkish plan on economy was "the plan not to plan." Note required. If the Singer reference is a book, you have to give a page number.
Overall, this chapter is the most solid piece of work you have produced so far. Necessary corrections disregarded, you have written half of what you planned to do when you took on this project.

November 19th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Sorry, was very busy the last two days and only now I get to posting your file.
(1) The Republic of Turkey was established in 1923, after the War of Independence following the weakening and reduction in both the size and the power of the Ottoman Empire after the loss of the First Balkan War in 1912. The War began as a Turkish national movement, but later the nationalists who led the movement enlarged the scale and waged the war against the Entente power. Greece was defeated in the West Turkey and the Armenia was in the East, and the Treaty of Lausanne was signed in July 24, 1923.
This draft is much better than the previous one. However, when you start a sentence with "The War began", you do not say which war. So your reader has to imply the last war you mentioned - the First Balkan War of 1912. However, you think of the War of Independence.
(2) However, the Republic of Turkey right after the liberation was not in a quite favorable situation
What liberation ? It seems here you take over a term used by a Turkish historian, which does not make sense to non-Turks without further explanation.

Nove,ber 17th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) Chosun => follow spelling used in the Wikipedia, here Joseon
(2) However, the Republic of Korea was under the agency called USAMGIK for three years between the liberation and the establishment of republic
Here you contradict yourself; how can the Republic be under any foreign administration before it even was established ? Do NOT use the term Republic of Korea for any event/situation prior to August 15th 1948. You might occasionally use the phrase "what was to bcome the Republic of Korea"; perhaps easier : South Korea.
(3) During the five years before the Korean War, the growth rate of the Republic of Korea surpassed that of Turkey,
1945-1950. Here I would like to see some evidence; at least references in a footnote. Korea underwent strong inflation in that period; was it real growth, or 'simulated growth' due to inflation ?
(4) According to your table of contents, chapter II was on the period prior to World War II; the contents of chapter II.3 does not match that description.

October 21st 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) I keep enjoying your creative use of the article, skipping it where it belongs ("In 1930s" => in the 1930s) and using it where it does not belong ("In the World War II").
(2) The Republic of Turkey was established in 1923, after the War of Independence following the weakening of the Ottoman Empire during the Balkan War in the late 1910s.
Tell me more about that Balkan War in the late 1910s. I do know the First Balkan War (1912) and the Second Balkan War (1912-1913), but both did not happen in the late 1910s. What is called the "War of Independence" in Turkey did not directly follow the Balkan Wars, but World War I. Your statement is extremely sloppy.
(3) The revolution did not only provide Turkey with republican system and firm boundaries but also declare the World that the Turkey could work as an independent nation
What revolution ? This sentence implies that the revolution was explained in the preceding paragraphs. It was not.
(4) Later when the Turkey was liberated at the age of 42 and when he became the president of the country, he didn¡¯t stop modernizing the country and adopting the democratic ideas.
When the Turkey was liberated = you refer to the bird who was saved from being served at Thanksgiving. Here you see that using an article where it does not belong really interferes with the meaning of the sentence.
It seems to have been a 42 year old bird, so the guys who were deprived of that dinner were saved a disappointment.
When Turkey was liberated while Mustafa Kemal was 42.
(5) I like your paragraph on Etatism.
(6) Mustafa Kemal Ataturk died in 1938 and the Turkish government had to find the one to replace his heroic leadership
. Heroic refers to Ataturk's performance during the wars; since 1923 he strove to keep Turkey out of the war. Inonu in 1938 lead a Turkey not at war, he kept it out of WW II, so heroic seems not fitting an adjective in this sentence.
(7) In the World War II, Inonu tried to stand as a quasi-neutral country skewed to the allied forces, willing to take the minimum damage possible.
To my knowledge Turkey was neutral. Please explain quasi
(8) The first one is the Marshal Plan of the United States adopted after the World War II.<
Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan

September 29th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) B. Syngman Rhee's Administration and Division of Korea
It kind of implies that you blame Syngman Rhee for the partition of your country. Turn the order around to avoid confusion : From the Partition of Korea to the Administration of Syngman Rhee.
(2) , since the total population of South in 1948 was only 20,041,000 and about one fifth of its population was missing
Again your sentence is confusing. The way you write one can interprete - (a) 20 million, of whom 4 million were missing, or (b) 20 million, with another 20 % of the prewar population missing. It is important that you learn to express yourself without ambiguities.
(3) The United States will lose democracy in mainland Asia if it loses Korean peninsula, so it was putting its best effort to keep Korea democratic.
As the North Korean state calls itself "Democratic People's Republic of Korea", you may want to be more specific.
Was the democratic system applied in the Republic of Korea U.S. property ?
(4) South Korea was abundant of agricultural resources
exaggerated; ROK imports today 80 % of the food it consumes. You state Average rice production for 1945 to 1963 was 9.3 percent below that for 1940-1944. , so you contradict yourself.
(5) The liberated Korea, for five years before the Korean War and three years as an independent nation, underwent severe economic depression and hardship,
Liberated Korea - all, north or south ? Keep in mind, NK was liberated too. Better : South Korea, from 1945b to 1948 under US military administration, since 1948 as the independent Republic of Korea ...

September 26th 2008

In response to yesterday's presentations
(1) In case you find yourself in the situation of having to do a presentation under strict time limitation : Do not try to tell the entire story; pick a specific part of it and keep focussed. Do not try to speak at double speed; it is more difficult to follow your presentation than that of others. If you want to be sure that your message gets across, use normal speed.
(2) ROK - threatening of DPRK; Turkey - threatening of the Soviet Union.
What you mean - the ROK was threatened by the ROK; Turkey was threatened by the USSR.
What you said : the ROK posed a theat to the DPRK, Turkey posed a threat to the USSR.
(3) 1945 Republic of Korea independent from Japan
That is new to me. As I understand, the ROK was granted independence in 1948. If you are of a different opinion, give references.
(4) In 1950 Korea went through the World War you mean the Korean War, not in 1950 but from 1950 to 1953.

September 20th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Reorganization of the chapter okay.
(1) For instance, in the course of Imperial Citizen Forming, students learnt how to bow to Shinto Shrine, the polytheistic and tradition religion of Japan, instead of Korean history
What you write about Shinto is correct, but sentence "instead of Korean history" confusing. Shoud students bow to Korean history ? What do you try to say ?
(2) The government was set upon the United States support in August 15th, 1948, while the people of Korea didn¡¯t even understand what democracy means. at a time when many Koreand did not understand what democracy meant.
(3) described as "complete lack of everything : labor force, funding, technology, education, and so forth," this is a quote, so give a reference
(4) Republic of Korea, relatively, wasn¡¯t so bright; Syngman Rhee was a student of United States,
The Republic of Korea can not be described as bright or not bright. Regarding Syngman Rhee, what do you want to say ? He had studiede the way the United States, as a state, worked, or he had studied in the United tates ?
(5) However, United States weren¡¯t providing South Korea with as much aid as it gave during the period of Park later,
the US did not provide the ROK under the administration of Syngman Rhee aid to a level compatible to that given to the ROK under the administration of Park Chung Hee ..
Remember, there are lots and lots of Parks in Korea
(6) In 1948, announced the production goal of 9 millions of pig iron; chemical fertilizer 332,000; salt 158,000; cotton 1,400; and rayon yarn 1,440
Who announced this ? Why do you compare the production of pig iron, fertilizer, salt cotton and yarn in NK with the production of graphite in SK ? Comparison seems arbitrary to me.
(7) The action severely damaged the South was the Soviet policy of cutting down the power supply going to the South; ..
When ? give your source.
(8) Chung-hee Park => Park Chung Hee
(9) This caused the inflation, but the desperate economic status of Republic of Korea couldn¡¯t help the rise of the value of Korean won in the currency market.
I am confused; be more specific. What period (from when to when) do you refer to ? In that period, the Won rose from what level to what level ? I wonder who, in those days, actually wanted to transfer hard US currency into the currency of an unstable country as South Korea was in 1948.
(10) What made the situation worse was the population; the population of the Republic of Korea doubled that of the Democratic People¡¯s Republic of Korea,
not doubled, was about double the size ..
(11) The Republic of Korea couldn¡¯t adopt all these possible laborers into manufacture, and the larger population did not help the economy of South Korea

September 19th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) The title of the chapter you posted is "Korea, Colonial Period under Japan". However, you go into post 1948. Separate the latter part into a separate chapter; as is it looks disorganized.
(2) Due to this law, 5,400,000 Koreans were conscripted and sent abroad. Later in 1946, 1,460,000 Koreans were able to get back to their home country, but still about 4 million Koreans were left in Japan, Manchuria, and even in Central Asia.
With regard to Central Asia, do you refer to the Koreans living in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan ? Their ancestors emigrated from Korea to the Russian Far East at their own will; they were not conscripted and sent abroad by the Japanese / Koreans who collaborated with the Japanese.
(3) Shinto is not a god, but a polytheistic religion
(4) After the departure of Japan, Japan is a country and can not depart
(5) Not only economically but also politically Korea was showing little ability even to control itself;
The Koreans did establish an administration; read about Cho Man Sik. Only the US and Soviet authorities did not recognize it. Be careful not to alienate Korean patriots among your readers.
(6) The government was set upon the United States support in August 15th, 1948, while the people of Korea didn't even understand what democracy or president is while many Koreans neither understood democracy nor new what a president was
(7) While Kim Il Sung established Democratic People's Republic of Korea in 1948 and provided tranquility to the nation Sorry, this statement reads as if it were North Korean propaganda. The word tranquility does not fit to many countries in 1948, and I definitely would not use it to describe NK.
(8) South Korea, embracing the value of democracy and capitalism, was slow in dealing with the chaos. Reformulate. Chaos is too negative, too absolute.
(9) He oversaw, or stimulated, some massacres in which leftists and communists were killed, footnote : source
(10) While DPRK was becoming stronger every day due to the full support of Soviet Union again DPRK propaganda
(11) While DPRK was becoming stronger every day due to the full support of Soviet Union, ROK wasn't, and it was trying not to recover from the economically desperate situation but was to make itself "fully democratic" one. This led to the break-out of Korean War That is a careless and dangerous statement to make. So the attempt of the Rhee administration to establish an (engineered) democracy caused the Korean War ? Then why did the UN General Assembly blame the North Koreans and called upon the free nations to send troops to help the invaded ? (12) General remark : Your paper sufferes from a serious problem in your choice of verbage, a lack of sensitivity. You tend to exaggerate, to make radical statements which I am not sure if you mean them. This chapter can be regarded in parts as NK propaganda, in other sections as exaggerated, in other sections as written by an amateur who only partially understands what he is writing about.

September 19th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(19) author ? title of overall page ?
(24) url
(25) I assume you found this as a quote in another publication. Lankov does ONLY belong in your reference list if you had access to the book or scan, not if you only found it quoted in somebody's footnote. In such a case you can refer to it in a footnote : Lankov 2002 p.55 quoted after ....
I can not open your docx file, reformat and resend

September 12th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log


September 12th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Okay. Only one point - Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961, Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

September 9th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) Bay of Pigs, Invasion : History of Cuba,
This page has an author; quote him. In case of English-language publications on the history of Cuba, be careful : What perspective (Miami's exile Cubans ? Pro Castro ?)
(2) Bal, Idris, Turkish Foreign Policy In Post Cold War Era, Universal Publishers, 2004
place of publication ?

September 8th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) In your earlier table of contents you did not have a chapter on the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Neither Turks nor Koreans were involved in that invasion, so I do not see any logical reason why you want to include this chapter in your narrative.
Your paper should focus on the economic development of the two countries in question, and how US aid stimulated or failed to stimulate development.
(2) I wonder why you place the Turkish intervention on Cyprus (1974) into the 1953-1960 column, prior to the Cuban Missile Crisis
(3) 5.II.C Indirect efforts on Korea - are those implied effects those of the US withdrawal of her missiles from Turkey ?

The second table of contents seems to lack focus; you seem to have associations I can not follow. Perhaps you should post a table of contents which includes a sentence or short paragraph per chapter in which you express what you want to say there.

June 9th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Send the image as a separate image file.
When I asked for a sample chapter, I has something longer in mind - chapter 2 includes, according to your working table of contents, two more sections missing here.
The Korean peninsula suffered the whole term of WWII as a colony of Japan. Japanese exploitation of Korea almost devastated the Korean economy.
I would hope for a more specific description of the situation : were there any wartime damages (as results of air raids etc.) ? What about displaced persons ? The infrastructure probably was largely intact, but there may have been food shortage. How did the exodus of the Japanese residents affect the economy ? Korea's economy used to produce for the Japanese market; how did the collapse of the Japanese market, and the loss of Japan as a supplier of goods, affect Korea ? Be more specific.
In your paper you use Korea when you mean "Republic of Korea". This may be self-evident for you, but requires an explanation for international readers.
Be careful with the usage of abbreviations; I do not know what CPI means.
Orphans were running through the streets where the electricity and water was barely not pumped.
How do you pump electricity ?

June 9th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Overall it looks okay. Two remarks : (1) Periodization. 1971 as indicator of change - does it apply for both ROK and Turkey ? Would it be better to use different years for the ROK and Turkey to indicate the change ? (2) Turkey being a 'U.S. Protectorate'. If you want to use such a term, justify it; Turks may regard it offensive. International readers may regard the term much more applicable to the ROK; Turkey accepted only money to beef up its defense; the ROK was saved by a United Nations force which included Turks.

June 5th 2008

Update : check Truman Library, Public Papers, search for Turkey (75 entries 1945-1953)
Jorrit Kamminga, The Political History of Turkey's Opium Licensing System for the Production of Medicines : Lessons for Afghanistan (Senlis Council 2006),
Kemal Kirisci, Turkey and the United States : Ambivalent Allies, (Meria 1998)
p.792 No.1294, U.S. Government Foreign Grants and Credits, by Type and Country, 1946-1964 data for both Turkey, S Korea in : US Foreign Commerce and Aid
Planning and the Foreign Trade Regime in the 1960s
Anne O. Krueger, The Importance of Economic Policy in Development : Contrasts between Korea and Turkey March 1987 You may purchase this paper on-line in .pdf format from ($5) for electronic delivery. offered by National Bureau of Economic Research
Michael M. Gunther, The U.S.-Turkish Alliance in Disarray, World Affairs Dec. 1st 2005,, posted by High Beam Encyclopedia
Ilter Turan, The United States and Turkey. Limiting Unilateralism (2005)
Eric Toussaint, The World Bank's Support for Dictatorship in Turkey (2006), posted by CADTM
Ali M.S. Fatemi, Turkey's Membership in EU - Pros and Cons 2005
Opium History 1940-1979, by Alfred W. McCoy
Brian W. Beeley, On the Geography of Development in Turkey (1995)
U.S. Intervention in the Middle East, from Information Clearing House
Book : Leo Tansky, U.S. and U.S.S.R., Aid to Developing Countries, A Comparative Study of India, Turkey and the U.A.R., NY : Praeger 1967, 192 pp. reviewed here; ; abebooks has it from 3 $ upward.
Book : Monteagle Stearns, U.S. Policy towards Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, 1992

April 4th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Most items in your list either KMLA library or my personal library have. Eddy Sherwood is about Protestant mission, as far as I remember, the title being somewhat misleading. The titles interesting me most are Kim and Sachs.

You miss :
WHKMLA, Turkey and ROK index pages,;
Sim, Chi Kyu, A Comparison of the Economic Development of the Republic of Korea and the Philippines since Independence (KMLA 2008),

Chi Kyu does a good job in describing the Korean side of the story. What you need to do is find sources on the Turkish side.

Library of Congress, Country Studies, ROK and Turkey volumes,,
USAID Country pages : Turkey (no Korea page)
Articles Truman Doctrine, Turkish-American Relations, Economic History of Turkey, from Wikipedia
Truman Doctrine, from Avalon Project primary source
The Sources of Long-term Economic Growth for Turkey, 1880-2005, by Altug, Filiztekin and Pamuk,
Agricultural Output and Productivity Growth in Turkey since 1880, by S. Pamuk,
FAS : U.S. Military Aid and Arms Sales to Turkey Fiscal Years 1980-1999
Kemal Kirisci, Turkey and the United States: Ambivalent Allies, Meria 1998,
U.S. Embassy, Ankara, Information Resource Center
Foreign Aid : An Introductory Overview of US Programs and Policy
Truman Library, search Turkey
Eisenhower Library
Kennedy Library
you find the other presidential libraries

Go through the bibliography in Heper, Historical Dictionary of Turkey in search for more titles
Go through this bibliography Datenbasis "Internationale Beziehungen und L?nderkunde" (IBLK) search for Turkey, Türkei (copy & paste into search engine),this bibliography has many, mostly English language entries published since 1970.

Create an updated version of your bibliography, including websites, publications covering the Korean part of the matter; divide it into two parts :
books / websites you have accessed;
books, essays etc. you consider accessing