History of Conflict Between Korean Oriental Medical Science and Western Medical Science

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

Paper, 1st Draft : Oct. 4th 2008
Bibliography, 2nd Update : Oct. 4th 2008
Chapter 4 : May 30th 2008
Working Table of Contents, 1st Update : May 21st 2008
Bibliography, 1st Update : May 21st 2008
Working Table of Contents : May 16th 2008
Bibliography : March 27th 2008

Oct. 4th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

This paper provides a lot of insight in an area rather inaccessible to Westerners (including myself) because of the language barrier; respect.
You spent a lot of effort, and this effort of yours deserves a similar effort on my side to give you detailed comment. While there will be quite a number of points to fix, let me state that you are on the home stretch, the nd of the project is in sight.
(1) Factual errors
(a) III.2 Japan was at war with China from 1937 to 1945 and with the United States from 1937 to 1945.
with the U.S. from 1941 to 1945.
(2) Transcription of Korean names and terms. This is a messy topic, as there are a number of competing transcription systems, and then every Korean feels tempted to come up with his own creative transcription.
Use the transcription the Wikipedia (English edition) uses.
Your spelling : Choseon, Wikipedia Joseon; your spelling : Kim Young Sahm, Wikipedia Kim Young Sam, Your spelling Shilhak, Wikipedia Silhak. I list only samples; go systematically through your paper and check the spelling of Korean names.
(3) Organization
I accept that you shortened your originally ambitious table of contents; you have to try complete your paper in the next two months and you need to manage the time you have.
(a) Looking at your chapters III.2 and III.3, what you describe in III.3 happened before or simultaneously to II.2. As chapter II.2 is a one paragraph chapter, I suggest you merge both into one chapter.
(4) The terminology you choose
(a) IV.4 Efforts for Peace, IV.6 Peace implies a violent conflict; better Reconciliation
(b) The Latent Conflict between Korean and Western Medical Sciences
I do not like the usage of medical science in plural. the Korean Oriental and the Western (Interpretation, Brand) of Medical Science
(c) 6-Year Pharmacy Program Conflict give date(s)
(d) Japan saw its chance and forced Choseon to open. to open to international trade (year)
(d) Gapsin Coup : year
(5) Notes
a bibliography which goes over 9 A4 pages, yet less than 20 endnotes - an extreme imbalance. (a) Keep in mind, you read Korean and English; imagine your readers to be unable to read Korean, and to have little to no understanding of Korean history. Do not just use terms such as Joseon, Silhak, Gapsin Coup assuming that everybody can handle them (even worse, in your paper you use creative transcriptions making it more difficult for your reader to try find out what these terms stand for). The first time you use such a term, refer to Wikipedia article in a note. Congratulations, your reference list may grow by a page or two.
The same for persons such as Gojong (you spell him Ko Jong) and other persons.
(b) your notes (3), (14) do not give years. You have Shin 2003 and Shin 2004; which of the two is Shin refered to in note (3) ?
(6) General comment : The content of your paper is, as far as I am capable of judging, largely okay. You have to work on making it easier for your reader to understand and to place it in the historical-political context.

Oct. 4th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Junoh, you chose way too large an image size and font. Look into your log; unpractical. Reducing the image to 25 % makes them rather difficult to read. You get better results if you write on an image file format fitting the screen in the first place and choose an appropriate font. Also the files you create require less storing space (kb).

May 30th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) IV. Korean Medical Science Under the Oppression of the Japanese Rule (1910-1945)
May I suggest to throw out 'the Oppression of'. You give a detailed analysis, you provide your reader with a huge amount of information he is not familiar with. It is better to reserve your judgment for after you concluded presenting the (neutral) facts, i.e. your conclusion. The use of value-containing terms in the title chapter is a red flag, indicating to your reader "the author is biased".
(2) Korea opened its door to the world in 1876 after the Treaty of Kanghwa Island with Japan.
began opening its door .. with signing the Treaty of Kanghwa Island with Japan
(3) as Japan started colonizing Korea.
In the English language, the word colony is used in several definitions. One definition (ancient Greek colonies) - half of the citizens of a Greek city take their families on a ship, sail out, find a suitable spot elsewhere, and there they establish a new city. The word "to colonize" rather refers to a process like that, less to establishing a colony in the period of Imperialism. I suggest you rephrase : "as Japan began to implement colonial rule". Inform, do not confuse.
(4) In Kwangjaiwon, a national hospital, Japan held an examination testing the knowledge of western medical science, without notice, to kick out the Korean oriental doctors.
In Kwangjaiwon, the national hospital in Seoul, until 1904 patients were treated by Korean doctors trained in oriental medicine. When the Japanese took over the administration of Kwangjaiwon, they held an unannounced examination testing the knowledge of the hospital's doctors in western medical science.
In spoken language, the term 'kick out' may be acceptable. Not in written language.
(5) a few oriental medicine practitioners opened Dongje School to promote oriental medical science
You use terms such as Kwangjaiwon and Dongje School as if you assume everybody knows them. As you do write in English, assume that your reader does not know Korea well and even might have difficulty trying to find the country on a world map. Give the location of such institutions the first time you mention it; in case of Dongje school you might give the years of operation.
(6) To make matters worse, in 1914, with the introduction of Eui Sang Policies, official education and new licenses of Korean oriental doctors were banned
Footnote in which you explain Eui Sang Policies. I do assume policies regarding the authority of oriental doctors, phasing them out altogether.
(7) Since there was no input of new Korean oriental doctors, the number of the people in the occupation decreased drastically.
Since no new Korean oriental doctors were granted a license to practise, .. The numbers you give to not justify the term you use; replace 'drastically' by 'gradually'.
(8) The Japanese had promised the Koreans better medical service, but it was not living up to its promise.
The Japanese administration ..
(9) Japan was constantly engaged in wars, as it intended to build a powerful empire in Asia, and therefore there was a greater demand for western medicine and doctors.
You do not examine Japan's policies, but you have a blurry fixed prejudice and you start trying to analyse from a stereotype basis. Japan fought a war with Russia 1904-1905, occupied Russian territory (without fighting) 1917-1926, invaded Manchuria in 1931, Inner Mongolia in 1936, was at war with China 1937-1945. Between 1905 and 1937 Japan did not pursue a policy justifying your statement. The problem is 'constantly'. Rephrase.
(10) Chung, Keun-Yang, a graduate of medical school of Kyeong Seong University, immediately refuted Jang's claims
I assume Kyeong Sung University now is known under a new name. Give that new name, and the location.
(11) Notes : if your notes refer to printed publications, give the respective page numbers you refer to.
(12) I can't find Chung 2008 in your reference list. Check, and update reference list if necessary.
(General) Yours is an attitude problem. Double-check what you write for terminology leaving no room for exceptions, such as 'constantly', and for terminology which gives away your prejudice. If such statements appear in a conclusion, based on presented evidence, they are acceptable; in the course of the discussion of the facts, the development, they are not.
Write your paper imagining your reader to be a Japanese, and try convince him that you are right; do not alienate him before he even started to look at the facts you present, before he checks your argumentation for validity.

May 21st 2008 . . . go to Student's Log


May 21st 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Junoh, I understand this is a working bibliography. However, at least you should indicate the language the text is written in. Simply email me the number and language for publications not in Korean, and we fix that. Inform, do not confuse.

May 16th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

As expressed earlier, my qualification to advise you on your topic is limited by my inability to read your sources. The working table of contents I posted differs slightly from that you emailed me, as you twice tried to divide one chapter into one subchapters. Subchapters only make sense if there are at least two. Continue to work with the working table of contents as posted.

March 27th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Your bibliography looks okay.

I do not share the concerns you express regarding the disconnected periods. It does not matter if there was no conflict in the years 1945-1991. You may want to include a chapter of rather curious nature : There was a professor of medicine at SNU who was abducted to NK during the Korean War; he claimed there would be another system in the human body next to the blodd curculation system and the nerve system; this third system would transmit "Ki". The North Koreans celebrated him, by printing postage stamps featuring him and his system. I give you the name after I checked a NK stamp catalogue.
Kim Bong Han; NK issued a series of postage stamps honouring him on June 30th 1966 (Michel numbers 700-707); he was celebrated for discovering the "Kyungrak Substance" in the living body. There have been medical conferences in Japan which failed to confirm his discovery. Perhaps this embarrassment caused the North Koreans to erase him from their collective memory; North Korean stamp catalogues issued in the 1990es do no longer list this issue.