History of Inner Mongolia


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
CSB



Table of Contents


2nd Draft
1st Draft
Chapter 4
Working Table of Contents
Reference List, 1st Update
Reference List



2nd Draft (as of December 18th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment
I. Introduction
II. Translated Text
II.1 Qing Dynasty (12th Century-1911)
II.1.1 Jirim (Zhelimu) League
II.1.2 Josutu (Zhuosuotu) League
II.1.3 Juu Uda (Zhaowuda) League
II.1.4 Xilingol (Xilinguole) League
II.1.5 Ulanqab (Wulanchabu) League
II.1.6 Yeke Juu (Yikezhao) League
II.2 Republic of China: Warlord Period (1911-1928)
II.2.1 Suiyuan province
II.2.2 Xilingol (Xilinguole) League and Chahar areas
II.2.3 Juu Uda (Zhaowuda) League and Josutu (Zhuosuotu) League
II.2.4 Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier) and Xibuteha areas
II.2.5 Jirim (Zhelimu) League
II.2.6 Alxa (Alashan) banner and Ejina banner
II.2.7 Menggu regional autonomous organization
II.3. Japanese puppet state : Mengjiang (1936-1945)
II.4. The Communists Take Control (1945-1949)
II.4.1 History and Areal Changes which Took Place During the Period
II.4.1.1 Meng liberation qu
II.4.1.2 Areas under the jurisdiction of the autonomous regional government of Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier)
II.4.1.3 Areas under the jurisdiction of the autonomous government of Dongmeng
II.4.1.4 Areas under the jurisdiction of Inner Mongolian autonomy campaign league
II.4.1.5 The autonomous district of Inner Mongolia
II.5. PRC (1949-1976)
II.5.1 Before the abolishment of administrative areas and resume of provincial government (1949-1954)
II.5.2 After the abolishment of administrative areas and resume of provincial government (1954-1965)
III. Analysis
III.1 The Meng banner Regulations
III.2 Republic of China: Warlord Period (1911-1928)
III.3 Republic of China: Pre-war KMT Rule (1928-1937)
III.4 Japanese Puppet State Mengjiang (1936-1945)
III.5 The Communists Take Control (1945-1949)
III.5.1 Demchukdonggrub (Dewang or Demuchukedongluxi in Chinese)
III.6 PRC (1949-1965)
III.7 Present Day Issues
IV. Conclusion
Glossary


I. Introduction


            The history of Inner Mongolia is not just a history of events within a district. Because the region has long been a place of strategic importance, and its borders underwent a series of changes every time the Chinese regime changed, history of Inner Mongolia has to be understood along with the overall modern-day Chinese history. In this paper, the history of Inner Mongolia is discussed from the late Qing Dynasty to the present day. The format starts out with a translation of various Chinese primary sources, and then my analysis of the text I have.

II. Translated Text

II.1 Qing Dynasty (12th Century - 1911)
            The region of Inner Mongolia is one of the most profound origins of Chinese history, and also where the ancient northern ethnic minority groups used to live. According to documented records, there were about ten minority groups that acted around this are, and the most influential of them include the Xianbei, the Tujue, the Qidan, and the Nuzhen.
            It is from the 12th century that the Mongolian ethnicity began to come to rise. Temuzhen, the head of the Mongolian nobility, united the many scattered tribes within the Mongolian plateau, established a nobility-based government named "The Mongol Khan State" and was called "Genghis Khan". During the era of Genghis Khan, the Mongolian areas were divided as each nomadic noble's fief.
            After establishing an administrative sheng during the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongolian area was controlled according to various administrative units, for example a few administrative provinces. In the later half of the 15th century, Dayan-Khan once again united the northern and southern Mongolia, divided the territory into six "Wanhu"s, and four of them were scattered within Inner Mongolia. After the era of Dayan-Khan, Altan-Khan, his grandson and the head of state, became stronger; he took control of the whole western Inner Mongolia, and facilitated the farming, handmade, and trading industry in areas around Tumote by having a close political and economic relationship with the Ming Dynasty. He also established ¡°Dabansheng¡± Kukuhetun (Todays¡¯ Huhehaote (Huhehot)). Northern Mongolia during the Qing Dynasty was divided into six leagues and 49 Zhasake banners, and those areas were controlled according to heredity under the Wanggongs, These areas specifically included Jirim (Zhelimu) League, Josutu (Zhuosuotu) League, Xilingol (Xilinguole) League, Ulanqab (Wulanchabu) League, Yeke Juu (Yikezhao) League, and Juu Uda (Zhaowuda) League.

II.1.1 Jirim (Zhelimu) League
            There were ten banners under Jirim (Zhelimu) League, which are specifically Keerqin left wing middle banner (Daerhan banner), Keerqin right wing front banner (Bintuwang banner), Keerqin left wing back banner (Bowang banner), Keerqin right wing middle banner (Tuxietu banner), Keerqin right wing front banner (Zhasake banner), Keerqin right wing back banner (Zhenguogong banner), Guerleuosi front banner, Guerluosi back banner, Zhalaite banner, and Duerbote banner. Among them, the three banners of each wing of Keerqin middle banner were distributed accordingly to the general of Shengjing; the part of Guoerluosi front banner was given to the general of Jilin, and Guoerluosi back banner, Zhalaite banner, and Duerbuote banner were affiliated with the general of Heilongjiang. The areas that this meng covered are as follows: today's Xingan League, most parts of Tongliao-shi (city), northwestern part of Heilongjiang province, western part of Jilin province, and the northern boundary of Liaoning province. The place for Huimeng (there must have been some kind of a regional association or meeting every once in a while, which was called Huimeng. There also was a specific designation of where to meet in each meng) was Jirim (Zhelimu) within Keerqin right wing middle banner.

II.1.2 Josutu (Zhuosuotu) League
            There were, and still are, five banners under the administration of Josutu (Zhuosuotu) League: Keleqin right banner, Keleqin middle banner, Keleqin left banner, Tumote right banner, Tumote left banner (Mengquzhen banner). Generally speaking, the area covered today¡¯s northern Chifeng-shiand western Liaoning province. The place for Huimeng was Josutu (Zhuosuotu) within Tumote right banner (probably within today's Beipiao, Liaoning province). All five banners were under the control of Rehe's Dutong.
            Rehe is an important region to note; if the Mongolians ever happened to pass Rehe, then Beijing, which was not so far away from there, could be in serious danger. In other words, if the Mongolians happened to pass Rehe, the chances were great that the Mongolians may take over the capital, and therefore this area was of military importance.

II.1.3 Juu Uda (Zhaowuda) League
            There were eleven banners being controlled under the Juu Uda (Zhaowuda) League, which specifically are Balin banners (both left and right), Wongniute banners (both left and right), Zalaite banners (both left and right), Aohan, Naiman, Alakeerqin, Keshenketengjikeerke left banner. Xuantong third year (1911), Aohan banner was once again divided into left and right banners. The general scope of this meng included a large part of today's Chifeng-shi and northwestern Tongliao-shi. The place for Huimeng was in Juu Uda (Zhaowuda) of Wongniu left banner (Aohan banner; today's Wongniute banner). All eleven banners were under the control of Rehe¡¯s Dutong.

II.1.4 Xilingol (Xilinguole) League
            There were ten banners under the control of Xilingol (Xilinguole) League, which specifically are Wuzhumuqin, Haojite, Sunite, Abaga, Abahanaer - all had both left and right banners. The meng covered most parts of today¡¯s Xilingol (Xilinguole) League. The place of Huimeng was by Xilingol (Xilinguole)-river within Abaga left and right banners (today¡¯s Xilinhaote-shi). All ten banners were controlled by the Dutong of Chahar.

II.1.5 Ulanqab (Wulanchabu) League
            There were six banners under the administration of Ulanqab (Wulanchabu) League, and these specifically were Sizibu banner (Siziwang banner), Keerke right banner (Daerhan banner), Maomingan banner, Wulate front banner (Xigong banner), Wulate middle banner (Zhonggong banner), Wulate back banner (Donggong banner). This region covered today's Huhehaote-shi, region north of Baotou-shi's Mt. Yin, Houtao plain of Bayan Nur (Bayannaoer)-shi, a wide area except Dengkou county (also an administrative unit), and Ulanqab (Wulanchabu)-shi Siziwang banner. The place for Huimeng was Ulanqab (Wulanchabu) (presently probably the entrance area of Mt. Hong, to the north of Huhehaote-shi) within Guihua-cheng's Tumote. Ulanqab (Wulanchabu) League was under the supervision of the general of Suiyuan province, and the place was governed in peace (the policies implemented then must have been effective).

II.1.6 Yeke Juu (Yikezhao) League
            There were seven banners under the control of Yeke Juu (Yikezhao)meng, which specifically are Eerduosi left wing middle banner (Junwang banner), Eerduosi left wing front banner (Zhungaer banner), Eerduosi left wing back banner (Dalate banner), Eerduosi right wing middle banner (Etuke banner), Eerduosi right wing front banner (Wushen banner), Eerduosi right wing back banner (Hangjun banner), Eerduosi right wing front banner (Zhasake banner). This meng covered today's Eerduosi banner and Houtao, a region within Bayan Nur (Bayannaoer)-shi. The place for Huimeng was Yeke Juu (Yikezhao), Eerduosi left wing middle banner (Junwang banner) (Probably within today¡¯s Yijinhuolu banner). Yeke Juu (Yikezhao) League was supervised by the general of Suiyuan province, and the place was governed in peace


            After the long years of wars ended, the relationship between Inner Mongolia and the inner Chinese mainland, Mongolians and other ethnic minorities, especially the Han improved more and more; in the case of the Han, political, economic, and cultural transactions showed great improvement and the two groups became closer and closer.
            Ever since the Opium War of 1840, China started to have the characteristics of anti-annexation, anti-feudalism. Accordingly, Inner Mongolia became a region of dispute which many Imperialistic superpowers want to take. Inner Mongolians performed numerous resistance activities. For example, the "Duguilong" rebellion of western Inner Mongolia, "Wubogedehui" of eastern Inner Mongolia, Bailinga rebellion, and the Boxer Rebellion which swept over all of Inner Mongolia. During the Xinhai Revolution period, many Inner Mongolian youth participated in the activities of Sun Yat-Sen (Sun Yuan, or Sun Zhong-Shan) which tried to turn over the corrupt Qing Empire. 1921, with the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Inner Mongolia's resistance activities became a component of China's Neo-Democratic Revolution led by the CCP.
            Inner Mongolian people developed the history of the fertile lands in which they reside, developed a strong friendship among themselves, created their history and culture, and resisted against foreign invasions into their lands. They also contributed greatly to lifting the ban between ethnic minority groups. This was possible because Inner Mongolia had a long history as the first ethnic minority compound to be established before the establishment of The Democratic People's Republic of China.

II.2 Republic of China: Warlord Period (1911-1928)

II.2.1 Suiyuan special administrative area (qu)
            January, Minguo 3rd year (1914), the government of Zhonghuaminguo ratified the establishment of Suiyuan special administrative area, and changed the position of "general of Suiyuan province" to "Dutong of Suiyuan special administrative area". Suiyuan special administrative area supervised 12 counties of Guishui circuit, 6 banners of Ulanqab (Wulanchabu) League, 7 banners of Yeke Juu (Yikezhao) League, and all the banners of Tumote. June that year, 4 counties namely Fengzhen, Liangcheng, Xinghe, Taolin transferred into Chahar special administrative area. In August, Suiyuan circuit was established in Suiyuan special administrative area, and it supervised 8 counties of Guisui, Salaqi, Qingshuihe, Tuoketuo, Helingeer, Wuyuan, Wuchuan, and Dongsheng. Afterwards, Suiyuan circuit subsequently established 4 counties of Guyang, Baotou, Dashetai, Linhe, and Shezhiqus.
            January, Minguo 4th year (1915), Tumote-zongguanqi was established and was named Tumote special administrative area, and came under the direct supervision of the Dutong of Suiyuan special administrative area.

II.2.2 Xilingol (Xilinguole) League and Chahar
            June, Minguo 3rd year (1914), Chahar Dutong jurisdiction area was changed into Chahar special administrative area. Xinghe circuit was established under the special administrative area, and supervised Fengzhen, Liangcheng, Xinghe, Taolin (four counties affiliated with Suiyuan special administrative area), Zhangbei county(directly under Koubei circuit; was established in 1913, and is affiliated today with Zhangbei county) Dushi county(Reformed and re-established by Dushikou-ting(Government office); changed in 1915 into Guiyuan county, and presently under the control of Hebei province), and Duolun county(Reformed and re-established 1913 by Duoluner-ting). At the same time, Chahar special administrative area also supervised 10 banners of Xilingol (Xilinguole) League and 8 banners of Chahar-tribe.
            Minguo 7th year (1918), a part of Zhangbei, Xinghe, and Taolin and 5, 6, 7,8 tai(an administrative unit) under the jurisdiction of Chahar Dutong were merged, and newly established Shangdou county was put under the jurisdiction of Chahar special administrative area.
            Minguo 10th year (1921), a part of each of Fengzhen, Liangcheng, Taolin, Xinghe were put together to establish Jiningzhaoken-shezhiqu. Minguo 13th year (1924), this area¡¯s name was changed into Jining county, and was put under the jurisdiction of Chahar special administrative area.
            Minguo 6th year (1917), a part of each of Taipusi left wing Muqun, Taipusi right wing Muqun, Bordered Yellow Banner, and Plain Blue Banner were put together to establish Baochang-shezhiqu; Minguo 14th year (1925), this area was changed into Baochang county (today¡¯s Taipusi banner).

II.2.3 Juu Uda (Zhaowuda) League and Josutu (Zhuosuotu) League
            Minguo 3rd year (1914), the government of Zhonghuaminguo re-organized the former Rehe dutong and Rehe circuit (used to be under the direct jurisdiction of sheng) into quasi-1st class regional government, and named the region Rehe special administrative area. Rehe circuit was to supervise 14 counties including Chengde and Luanping, and Jingpeng-shezhiqu (changed into a xian in 1914). Among them, Chifeng, Suidong, Kailu, Linxi, and Jingpeng were established within present-day Inner Mongolian grounds, and Jianping, Jianchang (later changed to Chenglingyuan), and Pingquan county areas were put on the boundary of today¡¯s Inner Mongolia. Each qi of Juu Uda (Zhaowuda) League, Xilietulamakulun banner, Josutu (Zhuosuotu) League Kalaqin right banner, and Kalaqin middle banner were included in today¡¯s Inner Mongolian grounds, and other counties and banners were transferred into today¡¯s Liaoning province and Hebei province.
            After Minguo 13th year (1924), Lubei-shezhiqu was established in Zalute left wing banner, and in Minguo 14th year (1925), Lindong-shezhiqu was established in Balin left wing banner, and in Minguo 15th year (1926), Tianshan-shezhiqu was established in Alukeerqin banner. There were a total of 9 counties in Juu Uda (Zhaowuda) League.

II.2.4 Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier) and Xibuteha
            Minguo 1st year (1912), people like Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier) Elute¡¯s supreme supervisor Shengfu proclaimed independence, and replaced the former Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier) Bingbei circuit with autonomous government of Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier). Hulun government office under direct jurisdiction, Lunbinfu, and Jilalin-shezhiqu were abolished. Budutong-yamen continued to control Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier), and with the ¡°8 banner¡± system of Qing Dynasty maintained, every right except the railroads were subjected to Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier) regional autonomous government.
            Minguo 4th year (1915), the government of Zhonghuaminguo prescribed Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier) as a ¡°special area¡± with Zhonghuaminguo central government directly in charge and under the directions of the general of Heilongjiang province. The same year, Xibuteha gongshu¡¯s (name for general government and municipal offices) yamen established Buxi-shezhiju, and put the area under the direct jurisdiction of Longjiang circuit.
            Minguo 8th year (1919), Chanbaerhu-bu(department) was established in Suolun left wing.
            Minguo 9th year (1920), Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier) special area was abolished, and the division and supervision of the area were put into action. Deputy Dutong was assigned to professionally supervise Mengqi¡¯s(Suolun left wing banner, Chanbaerhu¡¯s 2 banners, Elute¡¯s 1 qi, Xinbaerhu¡¯s left and right 2 banners, and Elunchun 1 qi) matters. Along with that, an official post which takes care of negotiations and other miscellaneous matters (under the direct jurisdiction of Heilongjiang province) was established. Hulun county, Lubin county, Shiwei county, Qiqian-shezhiju were established and were put under the direct jurisdiction of Heilongjiang province.
            Minguo 10th year (1921), Qiqian-shezhiju was changed into Qiqian county.
            Minguo 11th year (1922), Mongolians who moved into Xini-riverside¡¯s Buliyate established Buliyate banner. On the same year, they established Buxi county.
            May, Minguo 14th year (1925), Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier) direction office was changed into Daoyin government and municipal offices. The office had four separate government and municipal offices established and affiliated to the Daoyin government and municipal offices. On the same year, Xibuteha¡¯s general government and municipal office was divided and established into Xibuteha-shezhiju, and the general government and municipal office¡¯s function was restricted to taking care of only the respective qi¡¯s livelihood and other such matters; in other words, the general function of the office was abolished.
            February, Minguo 15th year (1926), Jijinhejiken-ju and Zhalantunjiken-ju were merged and changed into Yalu-shezhiju. March next year, Manchu-li was changed into a shi, and shi¡¯s zhenggongsuo (a form of government office; an office which takes care of the administrative matters of the respective area) was established.
            During the years of Zhonghuaminguo, Xibuteha¡¯s each banner and county, and Zhalaite banner was put under the supervision of Longjiang circuit, and Hulunbuir (Hulunbeier) area¡¯s each county was put under the supervision of Hulun circuit (newly established in 1925). All these offices and areas were put under the supervision of Heilongjiang province.

II.2.5 Jirim (Zhelimu) League
            Minguo 1st year (1912), there were 10 banners under Jirim (Zhelimu) League, and all of them were within the territories of Dongbeishan province. Among them, Keerqin left wing¡¯s front, middle, and back banners and Keerzin right wing¡¯s front, middle, and back banners (total 6 banners) were affiliated with Fengtian province. Guoerluosi back banner, Zhalaite banner, and Duerbote banner all were affiliated with Heilongjiang. Guoerluosi front banner was affiliated with Jilin province.
            Minguo 2nd year (1913), Shuangshan county was established in Keerzin left wing middle banner area and was affiliated with Fengtian province Changtufu.
            Minguo 4th year (1915), Kaihua county was established in Keerqin right wing middle banner¡¯s grounds and Fengtian province¡¯s Taochang also became affiliated with Taochang circuit.
            Minguo 6th year (1917), Kaihua county was changed into Zhanyu county, and later was merged with Kaitong county to form Tongyu county.
            Minguo 7th year (1918), Tongliao county was newly established in Keerqin left wing middle banner, and was affiliated with Fengtian province Taochang circuit.
            Minguo 15th year (1926), Qianan-shezhiju was newly established in Guoerluosi front banner.

II.2.6 Alxa (Alashan) Huoshuote banner and Ejinajiutuerhute banner
            During the years of Zhonghuaminguo regime, Alxa (Alashan) banner and Ejina banner were affiliated with and supervised by Zhonghuaminguo government Mengcangyuan. Under Alxa (Alashan) banner were 8 Sumus and 36 Bages, and a yamen were stationed within Yuanyingcheng (today¡¯s Bayanhaote). A military administration structure of Zuohe-bage was established under Ejina banner.



1st Draft (as of October 7th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment
History of Inner Mongolia

I. Introduction
II. Qing Dynasty
II.1 Meng-Qi Regulations
II.2 Regional Information
II.2.1 Zhelimu-Meng
II.2.2 Zhuosuotu-Meng
II.2.3 Zhaowuda-Meng
II.2.4 Xilinguole-Meng
II.2.5 Wulanchabu-Meng
II.2.6 Yikezhao-Meng
1. Republic of China
1.1 Suiyuan Special Administrative Area
1.2 Xilinguole-Meng and Chahar
1.3 Zhaowuda-Meng and Zhuosuotu-Meng
1.4 Hulunbeier and Xibuteha
1.5 Zhelimu-Meng
1.6 Alashanhuoshuote-Qi and Ejinajiutuerhute-Qi
III. Under the KuoMinTang (KMT, People's National Party) : 1928-1937
III.1 Suiyuan-Sheng
III.2 Xilinguole-Meng and Chahaer Area
III.3 Zhaowuda-Meng and Zhuosuotu-Meng
III.4 Hulunbeier and Xibuteha Areas
III.5 Zhelimu-Meng
III.6 Alashan-Qi and Ejina-Qi
III.7 Menggu Regional Autonomous Organization
IV. Japanese Puppet State : Mengchiang (Early 1930es-Early half of 1940es)
IV.1 History and Areal Changes which Took Place during the Period
IV.1.1 Meng Liberation Qu
IV.1.2 Areas under the Jurisdiction of the Autonomous Regional Government of Hulunbeier
IV.1.3 Areas under the Jurisdiction of the Autonomous Regional Government of Dongmeng
IV.1.4 Areas under the Jurisdiction of the Inner Mongolian Autonomy Campaign League
IV.1.5 The Autonomous District of Inner Mongolia
IV.2 Demchukdonggrub (Dewang)
V. Period 1945-1949 (Communists Gaining Control of the Region)
V.1 History of Areal Changes in the Early Years of CCP
V.2 Wulanfu and the Cultural Revolution's Influence on Inner Mongolia
VI. Present Day Issues
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Glossary of Terms
IX. Reference List
IX.1 Primary Sources (in Chinese)
IX.2 Secondary Sources (in English or Korean)

I. Introduction
            The history of Inner Mongolia is not just a history of events within a district. Because the region has long been a place of strategic importance, and its borders underwent a series of changes every time the Chinese regime changed, history of Inner Mongolia has to be understood along with the overall modern-day Chinese history. In this paper, the history of Inner Mongolia is discussed from the late Qing Dynasty to the present day.

II. Qing Dynasty
            The region of Inner Mongolia is one of the most profound origins of Chinese history, and also where the ancient northern ethnic minority groups used to live. According to documented records, there were about ten minority groups that acted around this are, and the most influential of them include the Xianbei, the Tujue, the Qidan, and the Nuzhen.
            It is from the 12th century that the Mongolian ethnicity began to come to rise. Temuzhen, the head of the Mongolian nobility, united the many scattered tribes within the Mongolian plateau, established a nobility-based government named "The Mongol Khan State" and was called "Jingghis-Khan". During the era of Jingghis-Khan, the Mongolian areas were divided as each nomadic noble¡¯s fief.
            After establishing an administrative sheng during the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongolian area was controlled according to various administrative units, for example a few administrative shengs. In the later half of the 15th century, Dayan-Khan once again united the northern and southern Mongolia, divided the territory into six "Wanhu's, and four of them were scattered within Inner Mongolia. After the era of Dayan-Khan, Altan-Khan, his grandson and the head of state, became stronger; he took control of the whole western Inner Mongolia, and facilitated the farming, handmade, and trading industry in areas around Tumote by having a close political and economic relationship with the Ming Dynasty. He also established "Dabansheng" Kukuhetun (Todays¡¯ Huhehaote (Huhehot)). Northern Mongolia during the Qing Dynasty was divided into six mengs and 49 Zhasake-qis, and those areas were controlled according to heredity under the Wanggongs, These areas specifically included Zhelimu-meng, Zhuosuotu-meng, Xilinguole-meng, Wulanchabu-meng, Yikezhao-meng, and Zhaowuda-meng.

II.1 The Meng-Qi Regulations
            The Manzhou ethnicity who established the Qing Dynasty were sedentary people who well-understood the nature of the Mongolians, and therefore their control of Mongolia was destined to be more secure and careful. By controlling the movement of the nomads by dividing the region into mengs and qis, the Qing Dynasty could prevent the Mongolians from coming together. The basic unit of the Mongolian social structure during the Qing Dynasty was Hosho. Each Hosho was given its boundaries, and the nomads included in there were given restrictions as to where they can travel to. Because of such rigid regulations, there was almost no chance of uprisings; however, because the nomads¡¯ feet were tied to the ground, there came a lack of cattle and consequently less production, which means poverty. There were two choices for the Mongolians under these circumstances?either obey or resist, and most chose the former.

II.2 Regional Information

II.2.1 Zhelimu-Meng
            There were ten qis under Zhelimu-meng, which are specifically Keerqin-left-wing-middle-qi(Daerhan-qi), Keerqin-right-wing-front-qi (Bintuwang-qi), Keerqin-left-wing-back-qi (Bowang-qi), Keerqin-right-wing-middle-qi (Tuxietu-qi), Keerqin-right-wing-front-qi (Zhasake-qi), Keerqin-right-wing-back-qi (Zhenguogong-qi), Guerleuosi-front-qi, Guerluosi-back-qi, Zhalaite-qi, and Duerbote-qi. Among them, the three qis of each wing of Keerqin-middle-qi were distributed accordingly to the general of Shengjing; the part of Guoerluosi-front-qi was given to the general of Jilin, and Guoerluosi-back-qi, Zhalaite-qi, and Duerbuote-qi were affiliated with the general of Heilongjiang. The areas that this meng covered are as follows: today¡¯s Xingan-meng, most parts of Tongliao-shi(city), northwestern part of Heilongjiang-sheng, western part of Jilin-sheng, and the northern boundary of Liaoning-sheng. The place for Huimeng(there must have been some kind of a regional association or meeting every once in a while, which was called Huimeng. There also was a specific designation of where to meet in each meng) was Zhelimu within Keerqin-right-wing-middle-qi.

II.2.2 Zhuosuotu-Meng
            There were, and still are, five qis under the administration of Zhuosuotu-meng: Keleqin-right-qi, Keleqin-middle-qi, Keleqin-left-qi, Tumote-right-qi, Tumote-left-qi (Mengquzhen-qi). Generally speaking, the area covered today¡¯s northern Chifeng-shiand western Liaoning-sheng. The place for Huimeng was Zhuosuotu within Tumote-right-qi (probably within today¡¯s Beipiao, Liaoning-sheng). All five qis were under the control of Rehe's Dutong.
            Rehe is an important region to note; if the Mongolians ever happened to pass Rehe, then Beijing, which was not so far away from there, could be in serious danger. In other words, if the Mongolians happened to pass Rehe, the chances were great that the Mongolians may take over the capital, and therefore this area was of military importance.

II.2.3 Zhaowuda-Meng
            There were eleven qis being controlled under the Zhaowuda-meng, which specifically are Balin-qis (both left and right), Wongniute-qis (both left and right), Zalaite-qis (both left and right), Aohan, Naiman, Alakeerqin, Keshenketengjikeerke-left-qi. Xuantong third year (1911), Aohan-qi was once again divided into left and right qis. The general scope of this meng included a large part of today¡¯s Chifeng-shi and northwestern Tongliao-shi. The place for Huimeng was in Zhaowuda of Wongniu-left-qi (Aohan-qi; today's Wongniute-qi). All eleven qis were under the control of Rehe's Dutong.

II.2.4 Xilinguole-Meng
            There were ten qis under the control of Xilinguole-meng, which specifically are Wuzhumuqin, Haojite, Sunite, Abaga, Abahanaer - all had both left and right qis. The meng covered most parts of today's Xilinguole-meng. The place of Huimeng was by Xilinguole-river within Abaga left and right qis (today's Xilinhaote-shi). All ten qis were controlled by the Dutong of Chahaer.

II.2.5 Wulanchabu-Meng
            There were six qis under the administration of Wulanchabu-meng, and these specifically were Sizibu-qi (Siziwang-qi), Keerke-right-qi (Daerhan-qi), Maomingan-qi, Wulate-front-qi (Xigong-qi), Wulate-middle-qi (Zhonggong-qi), Wulate-back-qi (Donggong-qi). This region covered today's Huhehaote-shi, region north of Baotou-shi's Mt. Yin, Houtao plain of Bayannaoer-shi, a wide area except Dengkou-xian (also an administrative unit), and Wulanchabu-shi Siziwang-qi. The place for Huimeng was Wulanchabu (presently probably the entrance area of Mt. Hong, to the north of Huhehaote-shi) within Guihua-cheng's Tumote. Wulanchabu-meng was under the supervision of the general of Suiyuan-sheng, and the place was governed in peace (the policies implemented then must have been effective).

II.2.6 Yikezhao-Meng
            There were seven qis under the control of Yikezhaomeng, which specifically are Eerduosi-left-wing-middle-qi (Junwang-qi), Eerduosi-left-wing-front-qi (Zhungaer-qi), Eerduosi-left-wing-back-qi (Dalate-qi), Eerduosi-right-wing-middle-qi (Etuke-qi), Eerduosi-right-wing-front-qi (Wushen-qi), Eerduosi-right-wing-back-qi (Hangjun-qi), Eerduosi-right-wing-?-qi (Zhasake-qi). This meng covered today's Eerduosi-qi and Houtao, a region within Bayannaoer-shi. The place for Huimeng was Yikezhao, Eerduosi-left-wing-middle-qi (Junwang-qi) (Probably within today¡¯s Yijinhuolu-qi). Yikezhao-meng was supervised by the general of Suiyuan-sheng, and the place was governed in peace.

            The Qing Empire regulated the movement between mengs and qis, and also regulated transactions between the Mongolians and the Hans. However, after the long years of wars ended, the relationship between Inner Mongolia and the inner Chinese mainland, Mongolians and other ethnic minorities, especially the Hans improved more and more; in the case of Hans, political, economic, and cultural transactions showed great improvements and the two groups became closer and closer. Ever since the Opium War of 1840, China started to have the characteristics of anti-annexation, anti-feudalism. Accordingly, Inner Mongolia became a region of dispute which many Imperialistic superpowers want to take. Inner Mongolians performed numerous resistance activities. For example, the ¡°Duguilong¡± rebellion of western Inner Mongolia, "Wubogedehui" of eastern Inner Mongolia, Bailinga rebellion, and the Boxer Rebellion which swept over all of Inner Mongolia. During the Xinhai Revolution period, many Inner Mongolian youth participated in the activities of Sun Yat-Sen (Sun Yuan, or Sun Zhong-Shan) which tried to turn over the corrupt Qing Empire. 1921, with the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Inner Mongolia's resistance activities became a component of China's Neo-Democratic Revolution led by the CCP.
            Inner Mongolian people developed the history of the fertile lands in which they reside, developed a strong friendship among themselves, created their history and culture, and resisted against foreign invasions into their lands. They also contributed greatly to lifting the ban between ethnic minority groups. This was possible because Inner Mongolia had a long history as the first ethnic minority compound to be established before the establishment of The Democratic People's Republic of China.

1. Republic of China

1.1 Suiyuan Special Administrative Area (Qu)
            "January, Minguo 3rd year (1914), the government of Zhonghuaminguo ratified the establishment of Suiyuan special administrative area, and changed the position of "general of Suiyuan-shen"¡± to "Dutong of Suiyuan special administrative area". Suiyuan special administrative area supervised 12 xians of Guishui-dao, 6 qis of Wulanchabu-meng, 7 qis of Yikezhao-meng, and all the qis of Tumote. June that year, 4 xians namely Fengzhen, Liangcheng, Xinghe, Taolin transferred into Chahaer special administrative area. In August, Suiyuan-dao was established in Suiyuan special administrative area, and it supervised 8 xians of Guisui, Salaqi, Qingshuihe, Tuoketuo, Helingeer, Wuyuan, Wuchuan, and Dongsheng. Afterwards, Suiyuan-dao subsequently established 4 xians of Guyang, Baotou, Dashetai, Linhe, and Shezhiqus.
            January, Minguo 4th year (1915), Tumote-zongguanqi was established and was named Tumote special administrative area, and came under the direct supervision of the Dutong of Suiyuan special administrative area."


1.2 Xilinguole-Meng and Chahaer
            "June, Minguo 3rd year (1914), Chahaer Dutong jurisdiction area was changed into Chahaer special administrative area. Xinghe-dao was established under the special administrative area, and supervised Fengzhen, Liangcheng, Xinghe, Taolin (four xians affiliated with Suiyuan special administrative area), Zhangbei-xian(directly under Koubei-dao; was established in 1913, and is affiliated today with Zhangbei-xian) Dushi-xian(Reformed and re-established by Dushikou-ting(Government office); changed in 1915 into Guiyuan-xian, and presently under the control of Hebei-sheng), and Duolun-xian(Reformed and re-established 1913 by Duoluner-ting). At the same time, Chahaer special administrative area also supervised 10 qis of Xilinguole-meng and 8 qis of Chahaer-tribe.
            Minguo 7th year (1918), a part of Zhangbei, Xinghe, and Taolin and 5, 6, 7,8 tai(an administrative unit) under the jurisdiction of Chahaer Dutong were merged, and newly established Shangdou-xian was put under the jurisdiction of Chahaer special administrative area.
            Minguo 10th year (1921), a part of each of Fengzhen, Liangcheng, Taolin, Xinghe were put together to establish Jiningzhaoken-shezhiqu. Minguo 13th year (1924), this area¡¯s name was changed into Jining-xian, and was put under the jurisdiction of Chahaer special administrative area.
            Minguo 6th year (1917), a part of each of Taipusi-left-wing-Muqun, Taipusi-right-wing-Muqun, Xiangbai-qi, and Zhenglan-qi were put together to establish Baochang-shezhiqu; Minguo 14th year (1925), this area was changed into Baochang-xian (today¡¯s Taipusi-qi)."


1.3 Zhaowuda-Meng and Zhuosuotu-Meng
            "Minguo 3rd year (1914), the government of Zhonghuaminguo re-organized the former Rehe dutong and Rehe-dao (used to be under the direct jurisdiction of sheng) into quasi-1st class regional government, and named the region Rehe special administrative area. Rehe-dao was to supervise 14 xians including Chengde and Luanping, and Jingpeng-shezhiqu (changed into a xian in 1914). Among them, Chifeng, Suidong, Kailu, Linxi, and Jingpeng were established within present-day Inner Mongolian grounds, and Jianping, Jianchang (later changed to Chenglingyuan), and Pingquan-xian areas were put on the boundary of today¡¯s Inner Mongolia. Each qi of Zhaowuda-meng, Xilietulamakulun-qi, Zhuosuotu-meng Kalaqin-right-qi, and Kalaqin-middle-qi were included in today¡¯s Inner Mongolian grounds, and other xians and qis were transferred into today¡¯s Liaoning-sheng and Hebei-sheng.
            After Minguo 13th year (1924), Lubei-shezhiqu was established in Zalute-left-wing-qi, and in Minguo 14th year (1925), Lindong-shezhiqu was established in Balin-left-wing-qi, and in Minguo 15th year (1926), Tianshan-shezhiqu was established in Alukeerqin-qi. There were a total of 9 xians in Zhaowuda-meng."


1.4 Hulunbeier and Xibuteha
            "Minguo 1st year (1912), people like Hulunbeier Elute¡¯s supreme supervisor Shengfu proclaimed independence, and replaced the former Hulunbeier Bingbei-dao with autonomous government of Hulunbeier. Hulun government office under direct jurisdiction, Lunbinfu, and Jilalin-shezhiqu were abolished. Budutong-yamen continued to control Hulunbeier, and with the ¡°8-qi¡± system of Qing Dynasty maintained, every right except the railroads were subjected to Hulunbeier regional autonomous government.
            Minguo 4th year (1915), the government of Zhonghuaminguo prescribed Hulunbeier as a ¡°special area¡± with Zhonghuaminguo central government directly in charge and under the directions of the general of Heilongjiang-sheng. The same year, Xibuteha gongshu¡¯s (name for general government and municipal offices) yamen established Buxi-shezhiju, and put the area under the direct jurisdiction of Longjiang-dao.
            Minguo 8th year (1919), Chanbaerhu-bu(department) was established in Suolun-left-wing.
            Minguo 9th year (1920), Hulunbeier special area was abolished, and the division and supervision of the area were put into action. Deputy Dutong was assigned to professionally supervise Mengqi¡¯s(Suolun-left-wing-qi, Chanbaerhu¡¯s 2 qis, Elute¡¯s 1 qi, Xinbaerhu¡¯s left and right 2 qis, and Elunchun 1 qi) matters. Along with that, an official post which takes care of negotiations and other miscellaneous matters (under the direct jurisdiction of Heilongjiang-sheng) was established. Hulun-xian, Lubin-xian, Shiwei-xian, Qiqian-shezhiju were established and were put under the direct jurisdiction of Heilongjiang-sheng.
            Minguo 10th year (1921), Qiqian-shezhiju was changed into Qiqian-xian.
            Minguo 11th year (1922), Mongolians who moved into Xini-riverside¡¯s Buliyate established Buliyate-qi. On the same year, they established Buxi-xian.
            May, Minguo 14th year (1925), Hulunbeier direction office was changed into Daoyin government and municipal offices. The office had four separate government and municipal offices established and affiliated to the Daoyin government and municipal offices. On the same year, Xibuteha¡¯s general government and municipal office was divided and established into Xibuteha-shezhiju, and the general government and municipal office¡¯s function was restricted to taking care of only the respective qi¡¯s livelihood and other such matters; in other words, the general function of the office was abolished.
            February, Minguo 15th year (1926), Jijinhejiken-ju and Zhalantunjiken-ju were merged and changed into Yalu-shezhiju. March next year, Manzhou-li was changed into a shi(ã¼), and shi¡¯s zhenggongsuo(a form of government office; an office which takes care of the administrative matters of the respective area) was established.
            During the years of Zhonghuaminguo, Xibuteha¡¯s each qi and xian, and Zhalaite-qi was put under the supervision of Longjiang-dao, and Hulunbeier area¡¯s each xian was put under the supervision of Hulun-dao (newly established in 1925). All these offices and areas were put under the supervision of Heilongjiang-sheng."


1.5 Zhelimu-Meng
            "Minguo 1st year (1912), there were 10 qis under Zhelimu-meng, and all of them were within the territories of Dongbeishan-sheng. Among them, Keerqin-left-wing¡¯s front, middle, and back qis and Keerzin-right-wing¡¯s front, middle, and back qis (total 6 qis) were affiliated with Fengtian-sheng. Guoerluosi-back-qi, Zhalaite-qi, and Duerbote-qi all were affiliated with Heilongjiang. Guoerluosi-front-qi was affiliated with Jilin-sheng.
            Minguo 2nd year (1913), Shuangshan-xian was established in Keerzin-left-wing-middle-qi area and was affiliated with Fengtian-sheng Changtufu.
            Minguo 4th year (1915), Kaihua-xian was established in Keerqin-right-wing-middle-qi¡¯s grounds and Fengtian-sheng¡¯s Taochang also became affiliated with Taochang-dao.
            Minguo 6th year (1917), Kaihua-xian was changed into Zhanyu-xian, and later was merged with Kaitong-xian to form Tongyu-xian.
            Minguo 7th year (1918), Tongliao-xian was newly established in Keerqin-left-wing-middle-qi, and was affiliated with Fengtian-sheng Taochang-dao.
            Minguo 15th year (1926), Qianan-shezhiju was newly established in Guoerluosi-front-qi."


1.6 Alashanhuoshuote-Qi and Ejinajiutuerhute-Qi
            "During the years of Zhonghuaminguo regime, Alashan-qi and Ejina-qi were affiliated with and supervised by Zhonghuaminguo government Mengcangyuan. Under Alashan-qi were 8 Sumus and 36 Bages, and a yamen were stationed within Yuanyingcheng (today's Bayanhaote). A military administration structure of Zuohe-bage was established under Ejina-qi."

III. Under the KuoMinTang (KMT, People's National Party) 1928-1937

III.1 Suiyuan-Sheng
            "After June, Minguo 16th year (1927), dao-1st-class system was abolished.
            On September, Minguo 17th year (1928), Suiyuan special administrative area was changed into Suiyuan-sheng, and the capital of the sheng (Shengdao) was established in Guisui-xiancheng. At the same time, Fengzhen, Liangcheng, Taolin, Xinghe, and later-established Jining-xians which were originally affiliated with Chahaer special administrative area were put under the supervision of Suiyuan-sheng.
            Minguo 18th year (1929), Linhe-shezhiju was changed into Linhe-xian.
            Minguo 19th year (1930), Woye-shezhiju was established on cultivated grounds of Yikezhao-meng¡¯s western Etuoke-qi area, east of the Huang-river.
            Minguo 20th year (1931), Dashetai-shezhiju was changed into Anbei-shezhiju.
            On April, Minguo 23rd year (1934), Mongol autonomous regional political committee (simply put: Bailingmiao political committee) established Wulanchabu-meng Daerhan-qi Bailingmiao, and each meng and qi within the Suiyuan-sheng area same under the supervision of Bailingmiao political committee. Tumote-qi changed its name into Tumote special qi.
            February, Minguo 25th year (1936), regional political committees of each meng and qi within Suiyuan-sheng¡¯s territories (simply put: Suijingmeng political committee) were established in Guisui, and these committees supervised 4 qis?Wulanchabu-meng, Yikezhao-meng, Tumote-qi, and Suidong-qi.
            October, Minguo 26th year (1937), a large part of Suiyuan was taken over by the Japanese army. Although Suiyuan-sheng government had to move to Shanxibei, areas like Wuyuan-xian, Linhe-xian, and Anbei-shezhiju (northwestern area) of Hetao-district, most of Yikezhao-meng, and Dongsheng-xian were preserved.
            February, Minguo 28th year (1938), Suiyuan-sheng government moved from Shanbeilin-district to Shanba-zhen(one of the administrative units of China; the unit is smaller than a xian, and the unit includes a considerable amount of population and therefore, a considerable amount of economic and industrial transactions are made).
            Minguo 31st year (1942), Suiyuan-sheng government changed Shanba-zhen to Shanba-shi¡¯s () and adopted it as a temporary capital of the sheng. Anbei-shezhiju was also changed to Anbei-xian, and Yanjian-xian was divided and separated from Wuyuan-xian. Langshan-xian and Micang-xian were divided and separated from Linhe-xian.
            August, Minguo 34th year (1945), after China won the Sino-Japanese war, Suiyuan-sheng government was restored in Guisui, and because of the newly e stablished Huhehaote-shi, Mengjiang puppet state was changed into Guisui-shi, and the place was acknowledged as the sheng-capital. Also, the system of Guisui-xian was restored, and Guisui-shi was to divide its lands and rule them separately. In areas taken over by the KMT, the original xian regimes before the Sino-Japanese war were restored."


III.2 Xilinguole-Meng and Chahaer Areas
            "On September, Minguo 17th year (1928), Chahaer special area was changed into a sheng and dao-1st-class system was abolished. At the same time, 5 xians that originally belonged to Chahaer special area - Fengzhen, Liangcheng, Xinghe, Taolin, and Jining - were affiliated with Chahaer-sheng. 10 qis of Xilinguole-meng and each qi and xian of Chahaer-left-wing area (except for those taken under control of the Japanese, and those areas led by the CCP) were put under the jurisdiction of Chahaer-sheng
            On March, Minguo 23rd year (1934), after the Zhonghuaminguo KMT government established Huade-shezhiju, the government put it under the jurisdiction of Chahaer Dutong.
            Minguo 25th year (1936), this place was changed into Xinming-shezhiju, and on May the same year, Mongol puppet state government was established in Huade. Accordingly, Huade was changed into Dehua-shi, and came under the direct jurisdiction of Mongol puppet state government.
            On March, Minguo 26th year (1937), 4 qis of Chahaer-right-wing-qi (Zhenghuang-qi, Zhenghong-qi, Xianghong-qi, and Xianglan-qi; also called Suidong 4 qis) came under the jurisdiction of Suijingmeng political committee.
            Minguo 34th year (1945), after China won the Sino-Japanese war, Dehua-shi was restored to Huade-xian. Currently, Inner Mongolia¡¯s Duolun-xian, Shangdou-xian, and Huade-xian all belong to the jurisdiction of Chahaer-sheng. Xinghe-xian came under the jurisdiction of Shanbei-sheng Yanbei area, and later came under the jurisdiction of Jinchaji-bianqu (CCP¡¯s base of operations during the Chinese civil war period and Sino-Japanese war years).
            On August, Minguo 34th year (1945), Chahaer-sheng newly established the office of Chabei-zhuanyuan (a person specially dispatched by a sheng or shezhiju¡¯s "people's committee" to take care of matters of zhuanqus(a special district)).
            Minguo 36th year (1947), Huade-shezhiju (initially established by northern Chahaer) was changed to Xinming-xian(restored to Huade-xian in 1949). At the same time, Chahaer-sheng again established 4 administrative directing area (a government department which inspects other government organizations), and directed Baochang to become affiliated with the 1st area, and Huade and Shangdou to become affiliated with the 2nd area"


III.3 Zhaowuda-Meng and Zhuosuotu-Meng
            "On September, Minguo 17th year (1928), the government of Minguo changed Rehe special district into a sheng, and abolished the dao-1st class system. Zhaowuda and Zhuosuotu (partial) all became affiliated with Rehe-sheng; they are now all within Inner Mongolian territories. Afterwards, Rehe-sheng newly established xians like Lindong, Tianshan, Lubei, and Dingcheng within the grounds of Zhaowuda-meng and areas of Kalaqin-middle-qi."

III.4 Hulunbeier and Xibuteha Areas
            "Minguo 18th year (1929), Yalu autonomous district was changed into Yalu-xian.
            Minguo 34th year (1945), after China won the Sino-Japanese war, the Guomin government newly established
            After Minguo 34th year, Zhelimu-meng¡¯s Zhalaite-qi (which used to belong to Heilongjiang-sheng) was transferred into Nenjiang-sheng."


III.5 Zhelimu-Meng
            "Minguo 17th year (1928), after Dongbei surrendered, Fengtian-sheng was changed to Liaoning-sheng. Qianan-shezhiju was elevated in status to Qianan-xian, and was put under the jurisdiction of Jilin-sheng.
            Minguo 34th year (1945), after China won the Sino-Japanese war, the government of Guomin newly established Liaobei-sheng in the northern part of Liaoning-sheng, and put some Inner Mongolian qis and xians before controlled by Liaoning-sheng (more specifically 6 qis of Keerqin and 2 xians-Tongliao, Tuquan)under Liaobei-sheng's jurisdiction."


III.6 Alashan-Qi and Ejina-Qi
            "October, Minguo 17th year (1928), North-South Guomin government newly established Ningxia-sheng in the initially separate xians of Gansu-sheng¡¯s Ningxia-dao, and put Alashan-qi and Ejina-qi under the jurisdiction of Ningxia-sheng. However, the governments of these two qis were controlled by and transferred into Guomin government¡¯s Mengjiang business committee."

III.7 Menggu Regional Autonomous Organization
            "April, Minguo 23rd year (1934), the regional autonomous government committee of Mongolian areas was established in Wulanchabu-meng Daerhan-qi¡¯s Bailingmiao; this committee was put under the direct jurisdiction of the administration of Guomin government, and the committee took care of matters of areas including Wulanchabu-meng, Yikezhao-meng, Tumote special qi, Alashan-qi, Ejina-qi, and Chahaer?.
            July, Minguo 25th year (1936), Guomin government decided to formally get rid of the Mongol autonomous regional political committee.
            On February, Minguo 25th year (1936), Suijingmeng government committee was established in Guisui (today¡¯s Huhehaote-shi). This government committee was abolished on September 19th, Minguo 38th year (1949).

            On July, Minguo 25th year (1936), KMT central political conference decided to establish an autonomous regional political committee in each Mongolian meng and qi within Chahaer¡¯s grounds."


IV. Japanese puppet state: Mengchiang (Early 1930s-Early half of 1940s)
            In KMT's perspective, the CCP was definitely a challenging party which could overthrow the then-present regime in which the KMT was in full control. The party leaders including Chiang Kai-shek, however, agreed upon the fact that China's national security was more important than civil disputes and decided to cooperate with each other to go against the Japanese. Such efforts are again reflected in the history of Inner Mongolia because the northern part of China was the route by which the Japanese were invading, and therefore there were several areas in Inner Mongolia which were taken over by the Japanese during this period. After the second Sino-Japanese War came to an end, the area itself also seemed to show how the KMT and CCP became temporary allies, with the area divided into different sections, either taken over by the KMT or the CCP. As the CCP gained gradual support from the workers and other social classes which have long been suffering through extreme poverty, however, there were some people in the KMT who actually voluntarily gave away their sections in Inner Mongolia to the CCP prior to possible invasion.

IV.1 History and Areal Changes which Took Place During the Period

IV.1.1 Meng Liberation Qu
            "After China won the Sino-Japanese war, Suimeng liberation qu¡¯s Suimeng government was transferred into Shansui-bianqu administrative office.
            On November, Minguo 37th year (1948), after the second Suicha war ended, Fengzhen, Jining, Taolin, Liangcheng, and Longsheng (xians), Guisui, Helin, Wudong (newly established), four incomplete xians of Qingshuihe, and Zhenghong, Zhengshuang, Xianghong, Xianglan (qis) were put under the jurisdiction of Suimeng liberation qu¡¯s Suimeng government. On October 30th the same year, the government of Baotou-shi was established.
            On March, Minguo 38th year (1949), Suimeng government established mengqi-offices of four qis (Chahaer right-wing¡¯s Zhenghuang, Zhenghong, Xianghong, Xianglan) in Jining.
            On September, Minguo 38th year (1949), according to the decision made by the people¡¯s government of Huabei, Suimeng-qu was changed into Suiyuan-sheng, and Suimeng government was changed into people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng. Shengzhisuo (a name of a government office in a sheng; this is where the offices of the regional government¡¯s high-ranking officials were) was established in Fengzhen. The basic location of the organization, the areas that the organization controlled, and the structure of the regime didn¡¯t change."


IV.1.2 Areas under the Jurisdiction of the Autonomous Regional Government of Hulunbeier
            "On October, Minguo 34th year (1945), the autonomous government of Hulunbeier-sheng was established.
            On March the following year, the autonomous government of Hulunbeier-sheng changed its name to the temporary autonomous regional government of Hulunbeier.
            On October, the central committee of CCP¡¯s Dongbei division and Dongbei administrative committee ratified the regional autonomy of Hulunbeier, and changed the regional government¡¯s name into the autonomous regional government of Hulunbeier. The areas that this government controlled at that time include the following:"


IV.1.3 Areas under the Jurisdiction of the Autonomous Government of Dongmeng
            "On January, Minguo 35th year, the people¡¯s autonomous government of Dongmeng-qu was established, and Xingan, Zhelimu, Zhaowuda, Zhuosuotu mengs were changed into shengs after the foundation of the government. On late April that same year, Zhelimu-sheng government was put under the control of Liaoxi-qu administrative office.
            On November, Minguo 34th year (1945), Xingdong administrative office was established, and zhisuo (name of government office) was founded in Zhalandun. Along-qi, Buxi-qi, Butehe-qi, Bayan-qi, and Xizhaer-qi were transferred and put under the jurisdiction of this newly founded government. On January the following year, after the people¡¯s autonomous government of Dongmeng-qu was established, this newly founded government was put under the control of Xingdong administrative office. On March, Xingdong established Nawenmuren-sheng government, and at the same time abolished Xingdong administrative office. Buxi-qi changed its name to Molidawa-qi."


IV.1.4 Areas under the Jurisdiction of Inner Mongolian Autonomy Campaign League
            On September, Minguo 35th year (1946), the organization of Inner Mongolian autonomy campaign league moved from Zhangjialou to Xilinguole-meng Beierbiao (today¡¯s Xilinhaote-shi).
            On November, Minguo 35th year (1946), the regional administrative office of Chaxi was formally established in Beizimiao Gegencang. On May, Minguo 36th year (1946), the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia was established and then soon abolished. After the Inner Mongolians autonomy campaign league was established, the democratic government of Chahaer-meng, Xilinguole-meng, Nawenmuren-meng, Zhelimu-meng, and the autonomous regional government of Hulunbeier were established consecutively.
            On March, Minguo 35th year (1946), the democratic government of Chahaer-meng was established, and its zhisuo was founded in Daoyinghairihan. This government was put under the jurisdiction of the democratic government of Chahaer-sheng, and also controlled 9 qis including the following:
            On April, Minguo 35th year (1946), the democratic government of Xilinguole-meng was established, and its zhisuo was founded in Beiermiao. This government was put under the jurisdiction of the democratic government of Chahaer-sheng, and also controlled 10 qis¡¯ democratic governments, including:
            On May, Minguo 35th year (1946), the people¡¯s autonomous government of Dongmenggu and the system of shengs under its jurisdiction were abolished. On June, Xingan-meng government was established, and was put under the jurisdiction and control of the newly founded Xingan-sheng government. Both governments¡¯ offices were founded in Wangyemiao.
            On June, Minguo 35th year, Nawenmuren-sheng was changed to Nawenmuren-meng, and the meng government was founded in Zhalandun; this meng was put under the jurisdiction of Xingan-sheng government. Also, under the newly changed meng were Buxiha-qi, Along-qi, Bayan-qi, and Molidawa-qi. Xizhagaer-qi was transferred into Xingan-sheng.
            On October, Minguo 34th year (1945), Yalu-xian government (controlled and managed by the KMT) was established in Zhalandun, and was assigned to manage the former Buteha-qi area. During the late April of Minguo 35th year (1946), Yalu-xian government was quickly abolished.
            On June, Minguo 35th year (1946), Zhaowuda-sheng and Rebei-zhuanshu were abolished, and the temporary government of Zhaowuda-meng was established. Also, this area was transferred into Rehe-sheng government and was thus controlled by the latter. Not only that, this government received the supervision of Inner Mongolian autonomy campaign league¡¯s Zhaowuda-meng division. The areas included are the following: . May the following year, the temporary committee of affairs in Zhaowuda-meng was changed into Zhaowuda-meng government, and this was put under the jurisdiction of Rehe-sheng government.
            On June, Minguo 35th year (1946), Zhelimu-sheng government was changed to Zhelimu-meng government, and was transferred into the jurisdiction of Liao?. On December the same year, Haobei-sheng government was established, and Zhelimu-meng was put under the jurisdiction of Liaobei-sheng.
            On May, Minguo 35th year (1946), the people¡¯s autonomous government of Dongmenggu was abolished, and at the same time, the system of shengs that used to belong to its jurisdiction was also abolished. Xingan-sheng government was established in Wangyebiao, and that government had Dongbei administrative committee and 4 mengs under its jurisdiction. On May, Minguo 36th year (1947), after the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia was established, Xingan-sheng¡¯s systems were also abolished.
            On November , Minguo 35th year (1946), the autonomous regional administrative committee of Hulunbeier was founded."

IV.1.5 The Autonomous District of Inner Mongolia
            On April 23rd, Minguo 36th year (1947), Inner Mongolian autonomy campaign league was abolished, and the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia was founded.
            On May 3rd the same year, the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia¡¯s first government committee meeting decided May 1st as the memorial day of the establishment of the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia, and decided to use the former flag of Inner Mongolian autonomy campaign league as the government¡¯s flag. When the government was first established, it took care of areas including Hulunbeier, Nawenmuren, Xingan, Xilinguole, and Chahaer-mengs, 30 qis, 1 xian, and 3 shis. On December 1st, Wangwemiao was changed into Wulanhaote-shi.
            On May 1st, Minguo 36th year (1947), the democratic governments of Chahaer-meng, Xilinguole-meng, and Nawenmuren-meng were put under the jurisdiction of the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia.
            On May, Minguo 36th year (1947), Xingan-sheng and the democratic government of Xingan-meng were abolished. On November the following year, a new government of Xingan-meng was established in Wulanhaote, and this was put under the jurisdiction of the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia.
            On September, Minguo 36th year (1947), the affairs committee of eastern Zhuosuotu-meng was established, and this organization was to be managed by the CCP Reliao regional committee. On January, Minguo 37th year (1948), this committee was abolished.
            On January, Minguo 37th year (1948), the autonomous regional government of Hulunbeier was abolished, then the government of Hulunbeier was established, and was put under the formal jurisdiction of the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia. The following areas were included in its jurisdiction and management:
            On January 1st, the self-defense army of Inner Mongolia changed its name to the people¡¯s liberation army of Inner Mongolia, and a new military district of Inner Mongolia was established. Wulanfu (Ulanhu) was assigned as both a military commander and a member of the government committee, and Asigen, Wangzaitian, and Katieshuangheer were assigned as deputy commanders.
            On January 15th, 1948, the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia gave out orders to abolish the autonomy of Hulunbeier areas, changed the area into Hulunbeier-meng, and assigned Eletiebatu as the meng¡¯s leader. Hulunbeier-meng took charge of areas including Hailaer-shi, Banzhouli-shi, Zhalainuoer-shi, Yakesi-jie and Xinbaerhu left-qi, Xinbaerhu right-qi, Eerguna-qi, Chenbaerhu-qi, and Suolun-qi. The same month, the self-defense army of Hulunbeier was transferred into the liberation army of Inner Mongolia and became its independent ninth regiment.
            On January 15th, 1948, commander Yaoji of Suimeng military area and the third dummy troops¡¯ leader Kangjianmin led their forces to take control over KMT¡¯s eighth administrative office; they also exterminated over 2000 forces of Zhuwumei (the leader of Hequ-xian) at Zhunkeer-qi¡¯s Changtan-zhen. Zhuwumei fled.
            On January 25th, 1948, the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia assigned Wuluxieletu as the leader of Nawenmuren-meng.
            On January 28th, 1948, the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia announced a document titled , and at the same time also announced and .
            On January 29th, 1948, the 11th cavalry of the liberation army of Inner Mongolia raided Tuogetaomiao (used to be where the KMT¡¯s Xilinguole-meng government was) and took over the place.
            On February 1st, 1948, as CCP¡¯s Inner Mongolian affairs committee¡¯s regional labor campaign committee of Huna was abolished, CCP¡¯s Inner Mongolian affairs committee of Nawenmuren and the regional labor campaign committee of Hulunbeier was newly established, and Xiafuren and Jiyatai respectively became the secretary of those two committees.
            On March 5th, 1948, Guobingkun, Zhaoguochong, Gaozhengpei, Zhourenshan ?according to orders given from above?changed the armed forces of Yikezhao-meng into the liberation army of Inner Mongolia¡¯s detached troops of Yikezhao-meng. Wangyuefeng was assigned as the troops¡¯ commander, and Zhourenshan was assigned the member of the government committee.
            On March 22nd, 1948, Xibei field army¡¯s Shansui military unit liberated Suidong Fengzhen-xiancheng.
            On April 3rd, 1948, Shanchahe field army and Shansui military unit each attacked Liangcheng-xiancheng once.
            On April 11th, 1948, the 4th and 6th regiment of Chenbeisuide frontal command post forces led by commander Zhangdazi and the 1st and 2nd detached troops of Yikezhao-meng attacked Zhungeer-qi¡¯s Shenshan (a major strategic position of the KMT) and caught few KMT members such as Qiyongchuan (a major general and commander of defense forces). Shenshan continued to be a region of importance and a strategic position of Yikezhao-meng, and this post was to take care of matters of eastern Yikezhao-meng.
            On April 23rd, 1948, the troops of Beichareliao liberation qu liberated Duolun-cheng, a strategic military location at the north of Chahaer.
            On July 16th, 1948, commander Helong of Shansui military district and its member of government committee Lizhangquan proclaimed orders to change the directing organization of Suimeng military district into Yanmun military district, and put the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 6th divided district under its jurisdiction.
            On August 1st, 1948, military force included within Suimeng military district was expanded to become the 8th zongdui of Xibei field army. The structure and organization of the military was preserved as it was, and the zongdui¡¯s commander position was given to Yaoji, and Gaokelin became a member of the government committee.
            On August 24th, 1948, CCP¡¯s Xibei division abolished the labor committee of Liaosui and newly established the labor campaign committee of Liaoxia. The labor committee of Yixi had regions including Etuoke, Wushen, Hanglin, Alashan, Taole, Huinong, Shizuishan, Pingluo, and Dengkou under its jurisdiction.
            From September 14th to October 31st, 1948, Huabei field army¡¯s Yangdezi and Luolui qingbingtuan (only lightly equipped military forces), and Yangchengwu, Lijiangquan¡¯s forces started the Chasui war. During this war, the following areas were liberated: . Also, the CCP contained Huabei¡¯s KMT forces in order to achieve total victory during the Liaoshan war.
            On September 20th, 1948, Shansui administrative office assigned Yangzilin and Yanxiufeng as the chairman and deputy chairman of Suimeng government, respectively.
            On September, 1948, the 1st military unit of people¡¯s liberation army¡¯s Shansui defense forces and three military units of Shanchabei liberated Tuoketuo-xiancheng.
            On September, 1948, Fengzhen was once again liberated.
            On October 22nd, Zhuosuotu-meng zongdui merged with the 4th military unit of Zhaowuda-meng Menghan allied forces to form the 10th cavalry, and Kongpei became the leader of this cavalry.
            On October 23rd, 1948, the Suimeng frontline troops of Huabei field army liberated Baotou-shi. Lizhimin was appointed as the chief of the military control committee, and Liweizhan was appointed as the mayor of Baotou-shi. The ¡°Huabei zhaozong¡± (means ¡°an organization that eradicates bandits¡±) troops led by deputy commanders Dengbaoshan and Fengqinzai were pushed out from Baotou to Shanba. On November 4th, the committee of military officers of Baotou-shi announced its abolishment.
            On November 5th, 1948, Qizhizhong (both the leader of the defense forces of Yikezhao-meng Zhunkeer-qi and the chief of the forces of committee of affairs of Zhunkeer-qi) and his troops rebelled in their original army posts and thus joined the people¡¯s liberation army.
            On November 14th, 1948, the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia ordered the establishment of Xingan-meng government, and Zheergele was appointed to lead the meng. On November 21st, Xingan-meng government was founded in Keerqin right-wing front-qi.
            On November 27th, 1948, Huabei field army moved east from Baotou in order to win the Pingjin war by concentrating military forces on that location, and with CCP Baotou-shi committee following it away from Baotou, Baotou-shi was once again captured.
            On November, 1948, more than 1100 cavalry forces of the KMT were eradicated during the Liaoshan war. In Suhebateer, the troops led by people such as Luobusang and Jinbaochang were divided into different sections and attacked first Zhelimu-meng and Chahaer-meng, and then into Xilinguole-meng and Chahaer-meng. Later in December, Inner Mongolia¡¯s CCP labor campaign committee and the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia decided to establish a ? in Beizimiao, and Wangzaitian, Kuibi, and Baomingde were appointed to positions of commander, member of government committee, and the chief staff officer, respectively. The commanding post summoned the 4th cavalry and, with the assistance of nomads and the security troops, decided to deploy a combat against bandits.
            On November, 1948, the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia decided to abolish Xizhagaer-qi and put the respective area under the jurisdiction of Xike front-qi (today¡¯s Keerqin right-wing-front-qi).
            On December 25th, 1948, Shansui military district, following the orders from CCP central military committee, appointed Yaochu as Suimeng military district¡¯s commander, and Gaokelin as a member of the government committee. This area was to be put under the direct jurisdiction of Shansui military district.
            In 1948, the organization of Chifeng was restored to its former status, and this area was managed by Rehe-sheng¡¯s Rezhong-zhuanshu.
            On April, Minguo 38th year (1949), Hulunbeier-meng was merged with Nawenmuren-meng, and changed its name to HulunbeierNawenmuren-meng (shortly called Huna-meng). The meng government was established in Hailaer, and Eerqinbatu was appointed as its leader. At the same time, Molidawa-qi was merged with Bayan-qi and the two combined was named Molidawa-qi, and Zhalainuoer-jie was merged with Manzhouli-shi to become one area under the jurisdiction of Manzhouli-shi. Areas under jurisdiction and management were 2 shis, 1 jie, and 8 qis; the specific names of these locations are the following:
            On May, Minguo 38th year (1949), Zhaowuda-meng (which used to belong to Rehe-sheng) and Zhelimu-meng (which used to belong to Liaobei-sheng) were transferred into the jurisdiction of the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia.
            On January 18th, 1949,
            On January 19th, 1949, CCP Liaobei-sheng division committee appointed Renzhiyuan as the secretary of CCP Zhelimu-meng division labor campaign committee, and Liushiqin as the leader of Zhelimu-meng.
            On February 16th, 1949, some division of the liberation army of Inner Mongolia retrieved Wulanhua, a major strategic location of northern Suiyuan.
            On February, 1949, Demuchukedongluxi participated Xibei military committee meeting in Lanzhou along with Alashan-qi Dalizhaya Wangye(a title given by the king to a lord during feudalism period). Mabupang and Mahongkui were asked to participate with them in organizing an "autonomous government of Mongol", and this is historically named as "autonomy of Ximeng"
            On March 30th, 1949, the 1st and 2nd battalion of Menghan detachment forces (Yikezhao-meng) attacked Dongsheng-xiancheng; the 16th body of KMT's defense forces lost the battle and fled, and Menghan detachment forces entered and stationed in Dongsheng.
            On March 21st, 1949, the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia decided to put Wulanhaote-shi and Tuquan-xian under the management of Xingan-meng.
            On March, 1949, CCP central committee¡¯s Huabei division started to discuss the issue of Suiyuan with KMT representatives in Suiyuan. Delegates of the Huabei division included Lijiangquan, Zhangyouyu, and Panjiwen, and representatives from the KMT Suiyuan division included Wangkejun, Yanyouwen, and Zhoubeifeng.
            On April 15th, 1949, CCP Huna-meng committee was established, and Gaolinming was appointed to the position of secretary
            On April 13th, 1949, Demuchukedongluxi and Dalizhaya established ¡°the committee for the preparation of an autonomous Mongol¡± in Dingyuanying, Alashan-qi; Alatanwagi was appointed as a member of the chief of the committee, and Demuchukedongluxi and Dalizhaya were appointed as deputy chief members. After the meeting, the three of them boarded the plane and flew away to fly over to Guangzhou KMT government; they petitioned and got their requests accepted.
            On May 1st, 1949, CCP Dongbei division decided to change the current status of Zhaowuda-meng?to have the Zhaowuda-meng which used to belong to Rehe-sheng transferred into the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia.
            On May 19th, 1949, KMT Suiyuan military division¡¯s new committee for revolutionary regime was established in Guisui-shi, and Dongqiwu was appointed as the chief of the committee. The committee for revolutionary regime firstly reformed the personnel system, and conducted the merger and abolition of all the sheng-level organizations. In addition, the committee changed the original Suiyuan-sheng executive entrainment body into a revolutionary institute and gradually trained executive members higher than a department level of sheng and xians. Afterwards, the committee organized the army to fulfill the principle of "Eliticism" and sought to bring about social security. The committee played a great role in assisting peaceful uprisings.
            On May 28th, 1949, had a signing ceremony. Dongbiwu, the chairman of the people¡¯s government of Huabei and Dongqiwu, the chairman of KMT Suiyuan-sheng government (proxy vote representing Kangbaoan) each signed the contents of the conference.
            On May, 1949, five cavalries of the people¡¯s liberation army of Inner Mongolia were formally transferred into the people¡¯s liberation army of China. At the same time, the Inner Mongolian military area of the people¡¯s liberation army of China was established, and Wulanfu was appointed both as commander and a member of the government committee.
            On May, 1949, the 8th military unit of the people¡¯s liberation army of China and the military area of Suimeng were united to form the military area of Suiyuan-sheng. Yaoji was appointed as commander, and Gaokelin was appointed as a member of the government committee.
            On June 8th, 1949, the representatives of KMT and CCP in the negotiation committee of Suiyuan () signed (simply ).
            On June 9th, 1949, Wulanfu, Kuibi, Liwuchun, Wangzaitian, Wangyilun, and Wangduo were appointed to members of the Inner Mongolian Communist labor campaign committee¡¯s management committee according to the ratification by CCP central organization.
            On June 13th, 1949, the people¡¯s government of Huabei proclaimed orders to change Suimeng-qu into Suiyuan-sheng and the government of Suimeng to the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng, and at the same time appointed the former chairman of the government of Suimeng (Yangzhilin) as the chairman of the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng.
            On June 14th, 1949, CCP central committee decided to changed the CCP Suimeng-qu committee into CCP Suiyuan-sheng committee, and appointed Gaokelin as secretary, and Suqianyi as vice secretary.
            On July 2nd, 1949, Zhasake-qi of Yikezhao-meng was liberated. On July 17th, 1949, the military area of Yikezhao-meng was formally established in Zhasake-qi. Wangyuefeng was appointed as commander, and Gaozhengpei was appointed as a member of the government committee.
            On July 27th, 1949, the KMT Executive Council decided to have Dongqiwu serve both as the vice general of the military government of Xibei and as the chief of Baotou directing office.
            On July, 1949, CCP labor campaign committee of both Yidong (areas to the east of Yikezhao-meng) and Yixi (areas to the west of Yikezhao-meng) were merged with the CCP committee of Yikezhao-meng and Gaozhengpei was appointed as secretary, and Zhourenshan as deputy secretary.
            On August 4th, 1949, the people¡¯s government of Huabei appointed Lisen as the chief of the national labor campaign committee of the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng.
            On August 5th, 1949, Junwang-qi, Yikezhao-meng was liberated
            From August 5th to August 10th, 1949, Demuchukedongluxi established the autonomous government of Mongol at the so-called great meeting of Mongol held in Dingyuanying, Alashan-qi, and Demuchukedongluxi and Dalizhaya each took the position of deputy chairmen of the provisional government.
            On August 13th, 1949, Mabupang, the chairman of KMT¡¯s Qinghai-sheng division, stole Qingghis-Khan¡¯s coffin, his portrait, and shaolingjing(a type of mirror) and ran away from Beixinglongshandongshanda great Buddha¡¯s temple of Yuzhong-xiancheng, Gansu-sheng. On September, these articles were moved to Taersi, Qinghai-sheng.
            On the forenoon of September 19th, 1949, a signing ceremony (arranged by executives of Suiyuan military area led by Dongqiwu and 39 regional representatives) was held in the auditorium of the bank of Baotou Suiyuan-sheng¡¯s Baotou division; a telegram notifying that these people will from then on sever their connections with the KMT and rebel was sent to chairman Maozedong, general commander Zhude, commander of Hebei military area Nielongzhen, and Baoyibo, a member of the government committee. Suiyuan area was liberated without much blood and war, and this event is historically called ¡°the peaceful uprising of September 19th¡±.
            On September 23rd, 1949, Alashan special qi Zhasake Dalizhazhi, Xielizuobatumengke, and qi¡¯s military government officialas sent telegrams to chairman Mao stating that they will sever their connections with the KMT, and thereby accomplished peaceful uprisings. Dalizhaya, Demuchukedongluxi, and a special envoy from the U.S all served as deputy chairmen of ¡°the autonomous government of Mongol¡± established in Dingyuanying, Alashan. Therefore, Dalizhaya¡¯s uprising had a critical impact on the Ximeng autonomy and made it end very soon. Demuchukedongluxi was put in predicament due to this event, and on November 29th, he hid in the people¡¯s republic of Mongolia of Guaizihu, Alashanqi, but was caught by Mongolians.
            September 27th, 1949, Tawangzhabu (then serving as commander of the defense forces of Zhasake, Ejina-qi) sent a telegram to Chairman Mao and general commander Zhude the following telegram as a representative of the people of Ejina-qi: ¡°From this day on, we are to sever our relationship with Guangzhou¡¯s KMT government and follow the orders of CCP¡¯s central people¡¯s government. We hope that the CCP central people¡¯s government will soon dispatch a person to lead us at the spot.¡±
            On September, 1949, Guisui-shi executed a census which reported that in areas including Tumote left-qi, Tuoketuo-xian, Guisui-shi, and its suburban regions, the total population is 427842; among them, there were 242464 male populations and 185378 female populations."

IV.2 Demchukdonggrub (Dewang)
            "Demchukdonggrub was an heir of the Khan family which used to control the Inner Mongolian regions. From his childhood, Demchukdonggrub was educated as a Khan and was constantly reminded that he was the only hope that the Inner Mongolians could rely on in recovering independence of Inner Mongolia from China. Because of such background, Demchukdonggrub developed his notion of "Pan-Mongolianism", which aimed to acquire an independent piece of land for the Mongolians or merge Inner Mongolia with the already established Republic of Mongolia.
            Such efforts, however, were in vain. Demchukdonggrub tried contacting several large parties such as the Soviet Union and Mongolia, the KMT, and the CCP, but none of the parties showed sincere attitudes to help out this last Khan. The Soviet Union at first did consider the S.O.S with great interest, but they had already spent too much money and time in gaining independence for the already independent Republic of Mongolia. Also, the Soviet Union showed worries toward Inner Mongolia's ethnic components; the Han population had already occupied a considerable percentage of the total population and therefore if the Chinese government used such statistics as justification for national sovereignty, there was not much to be said. The other parties that Demchukdonggrub asked for help were more opportunistic compared to the Soviet Union. Because Inner Mongolia was an area of military importance, the KMT and the CCP both wanted occupation of the area and did not really consider the independence or well-being of the Mongolians in Inner Mongolia. After much struggle and difficulties, Demchukdonggrub was betrayed by one of his own men and was turned in to the CCP by the end of the second Sino-Japanese War.

V. Period 1945-1949 (Communists gaining control of the region)
            When the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia was first established, only 5 qis including Hulunbeier, Nawenmuren, Xingan, Xilinguole, and Chahaer were put under its jurisdiction, and the total size of land was about 54km2. After the whole Dongbei area was liberated, this area was included in the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia along with Zhelimu-meng of Liaobei-sheng and Zhaowuda-meng of Rehe-sheng (1949).
            In 1952, after the organization of Chahaer-sheng was abolished, Duolun, Baocang, and Huade xians (districts where the Hans and Mongols live together) were also included in the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia. In 1954, the organization of Suiyuan was also abolished, and the former area taken over by Suiyuan was also included in the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia; the former Wuluncha-shi and Yikezhao were changed into mengs, and Guisui-shi was changed to Huhehaote-shi. Both Huhehaote-shi and Baotou-shi were also transferred into the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia. In early 1956 when the organization of Rehe-sheng was abolished, Chiheng and other 6 qis and xians were included in Zhaowuda-meng, and Wudan-xian was included in Wengniute-qi. In the same year, the autonomous Mongolian province of Baoyanhaote (which belongs to Gansu-sheng) and the autonomous qi of Ejina were also included in the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia, and Bayanhaoer-meng was established. Since then, a united autonomy of the Inner Mongolian region was accomplished, an administrative district like that in the present day was established. This region included shis of 4 qus (Huhehaote-shi, Baotou-shi, Wuhai-shi, and Chifeng-shi) and 8 mengs (Hulunbeier-meng, Xingan-meng, Wilinguole-meng, Wulanchabu-meng, Yikezhao-meng, Bayanhaoer-meng, and Alashan-meng). Under that were 101 qi and shiqus, and among them, 52 were named by qis, 17 were named by xians, 16 were named by shis, and 16 were named by qus. The autonomous qi of Elunchun, Ewenke tribe, Molidawa Daweer tribe were also included in here.
            The autonomous district of Inner Mongolia is where the Mongolians are self-governing the matters of their district. There are many Han people and various other ethnic minority groups in this area. According to statistics of late 1996, there are a total of 49 ethnic minority groups living in there, and their total population is 23,065,500, a number that may have significant influence in the region; Mongolians, Hans, Mans, Huis, Daweers, Chaoxians, Ewenkes, and Elunchuns are some large ethnic groups included in Inner Mongolia. The percentage of ethnic minority population in the region is 20.2%; among them, the Mongolians take up the largest portion with 37,790,000 people (16.4% of total population residing within the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia).
            "After 50 years of great changes and tragic history, the population and the standard of living of the region as advanced to a great degree. On the other hand, the policy of planned childbirth was thoroughly implemented throughout the region, and therefore could curb an excessively rapid rate of population increase; in other words, the population increase rate of the region has continuously accommodated the development of economy.
            In 1996, the natural rate of population increase of the region was 0.966%, which was a number 4.34¢¶ less than 1990. The autonomous district of Inner Mongolia became a sheng with the least amount of population increase."


V.1 History of Areal Changes in Early Years of CCP
            "On November, 1949, Jining-zhuanshu of Suiyuan-sheng was established in a central place of Jining-xian, and took care of matters of 6 xians, including Fengzhen, Xinghe, Longsheng, Taolin, and Wudong. At the same time, Helin (Suinan)-zhuanshu of Suiyuan-sheng was established in Helingeer-cheng. On August, 1950, Helin-zhuanshu was abolished, and Liangcheng-xian was put under the management of Jining-zhuanshu, and Qingshuihe, Tuoketuo, and Helin xians were put under the management of Baotou-zhuanshu.
            On November, 1949, the autonomous district of Ejina-qi was established, the district government was stationed in Laoximiao, and was put under the jurisdiction of Jiuquan-zhuanshu of Gansu-sheng; the district government was now assigned to take care of matters within the areas originally taken care of by Jiuquan-zhuanshu.
            On February, 1951, this government office was put under the jurisdiction of Ningxia-sheng.
            From December, 1949 to June, 1950, the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia was moved from Wulanhaote to Jiangjiakou-shi.
            From October to December, 1949,
            On October 1st, 1949, Suiyuan military district¡¯s Suinan division was established. Zhangwenqing and Linluntian were appointed to positions of commander and member of government committee, respectively.
            On October 1st, 1949, Suiyuan military district¡¯s Suidong division was established. Huanghewu and Shenxinfa were appointed to positions of commander and member of government committee, respectively.
            On October 23rd, 1949, CCP Ningxia-sheng committee decided to establish CCP Alashan-qi labor campaign committee. Yunxiangsheng was appointed to the committee¡¯s secretary. Along with it, three battalions of ? were dispatched to Dingyuanying (today¡¯s Bayanhaote-zhen) in order to station and defend the area.
            On October, 1949, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng established two zhuanshus in Suidong and Suinan. Suidong-zhuanshu took charge of 6 xians?Jining, Fengzhen, Xinghe, Longsheng, Taolin, and Wudong; Xingqingkui was appointed to the position of deputy zhuanyuan (person in charge of a zhuanqu dispatched by the committee of a sheng or an autonomous qu) of Suidong-zhuanshu. Suinan-zhuanshu took charge of four xians?Tuoketuo, Reingeer, Liangcheng, and Qingshuihe; Yanggelin was appointed to the position of deputy zhuanyuan of Suinan zhuanshu. These two zhuanshus started to formally take care of regional matters since November 15th.
            On November 5th, 1949, Qitianyang (defense commander of KMT Zhungeer-qi) sent a telegram to Chairman Mao, general commander Zhude, and chairman of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia Wulanfu saying that he would like to sever his relationship with the KMT and transfer into the people¡¯s liberation army
            On November 23rd, 1949, chairman Wulanfu of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolian government requested premier Zhouenlai of the central people¡¯s government executive policy council to grant the movement of Inner Mongolian government from Wulanhaote-shi to Jiangjiakou-shi for a more effective management of western Inner Mongolia.
            On November 24th, Zhouenlai replied to this request, granting the movement. Afterwards, the government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia gradually moved to Jiangjiakou-shi. The moved office started to take care of matters since December 23rd, and the entire process of moving ended on June 25th, 1950.
            On November 26th, 1949, the autonomous government committee of Yikezhao-meng was established, and Eqierhuyaketu was appointed the chief of the committee.
            On November 29th, 1949, the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia appointed Jieergeluo as the director of the bureau of Inner Mongolian duties and at the same time ordered him to resign from his position as the leader of Xingan-meng.
            On November, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan managed 2 mengs, 4 zhuanshus, 2 shis, 22 xians, 18 qis, 9 qus, 1 zhen, 2 government and municipal offices, and 1 organization entrainment office. The following are their specific names:
            On December 2nd, 1949, the 4th convention of CCP people¡¯s government committee appointed Fuzuoyu as the chairman of Suiyuan military government committee, and Gaokelin, Wulanfu, Dongqiwu, and Sunlanfeng as vice chairmen. Dongqiwu was appointed as the chairman of the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan, and Yangzhilin, Kuibi, and Sunlanfeng were appointed as the vice-chairmen. On December 27th, Suiyuan military government committee held a meeting celebrating the establishment of itself in Guisui-shi, and asked chairman Dengbaoshan of the people¡¯s government of Gansu-sheng to participate.
            On December 2nd, 1949, the central people¡¯s government decided to change the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia into the people¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia; Wulanfu and Hafenga were appointed as chairman and vice-chairman, respectively. On December 8th, 1949, Shansuning-bianqu¡¯s Yikezhao-meng state affairs committee was changed into the people¡¯s autonomous government of Yikezhao-meng; Gaozhengpei was appointed as chief, and this government was put under the management of the government of Suiyuan-sheng.
            On December 13th, 1949, CCP central committee decided to abolish the Communist Inner Mongolian labor campaign committee and establish CCP central Inner Mongolian division. This organization was managed by CCP central Huabei division; Wulanfu was appointed as secretary, Wulanfu, Kuibi, Liuchun, Wangyilun, Wangzaitian, Wangduo, and Gaozhengpei were appointed as members of the government committee, and Jiyatai, Keligeng, and Temuermagen were appointed as candidate members of the government committee. The newly established division took care of matters of CCP¡¯s northeastern region committee (also newly established), and Liuchun and Wangyilun were appointed as secretary and vice-secretary, respectively.
            On December 16th, 1949, CCP Suiyuan-sheng committee, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng, and organizations formerly managed by Suidong military government moved from Fengzhen to Guisui-shi for the sake of adaptation to new circumstances and needs. More than 8000 people of various social status came out to the train station to welcome them.
            On December 21st, 1949, Wulanfu and Fuzuoyi, people in charge of Suiyuan-sheng military government committee, heard Gaozhengpei, Lizhenhua, and Chenreshan¡¯s reports and published . In this discourse, they agreed to autonomy of these two areas, abolished Dalate-qi¡¯s organization entrainment office, and decided to establish a united people¡¯s government of Talate-qi. Also, they abolished Talate-qi¡¯s organization entrainment office and changed the area of Taolimin so that it would from then on be under the jurisdiction of two qis - Etuoke and Hangjin. Also, they transferred Dongsheng-xian (which used to be under the jurisdiction of Suiyuan-sheng government) to the autonomous people¡¯s government of Yikezhao-meng.
            On December 31st, 1949, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng and the former KMT Suiyuan-sheng government formally merged together and became the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng. Central people¡¯s government appointed Dongqiwu as the new government¡¯s chairman, and Yangzhilin, Kuibi, and Sunlanfeng as deputy chairmen on December 2nd. 22 members including () became members of the government committee.
            On December 31st, 1949, the directing office of Suiyuan-shi (where the KMT was stationed at) and the organization of Suiyuan military district were formally merged together to form Huabei Suiyuan military district. Fuzuoyi was appointed as the commander, Baoyibo as a member of the military district government, Wulanfu, Dongqiwu, Yaoji, and Sunlanfeng as the military district¡¯s vice-commander, Gaokelin, Yangyefeng, and Wangkejun as deputy members of the military district government, and Peizhouyu was appointed as the vice-chief of government.
            On December, 1949, the directing office of eastern Inner Mongolian military district, and Liuchang was appointed as the head of the office. On March, 1953, this office was abolished.
            In 1949, CCP Suiyuan-sheng committee made a resolution concerning the matters at Mongolia> and decided to establish CCP Mongolia labor campaign committee; this committee was to receive orders from the sheng committee, take care of matters concerning Mongolia labor campaign, and cooperate with the sheng committee in order to better understand the CCP¡¯s policy on Mongol labor campaign. At the same time, CCP Suiyuan-sheng committee decided to establish Suiyuan-sheng government Mongol labor campaign committee and manage matters of each meng
            In 1949, the people¡¯s autonomous government of Inner Mongolia managed 6 mengs, 3 xian-level shis, 21 qis, and 4 xians. Specific names of these regions are the following: ().
            On January, 1950, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng abolished four offices of Suidong and merged the central qi of four eastern qis (center: Zhenghong-qi), Xianghong, and Xianglan to form the united qi of Xianglan-Xianghong. The autonomous district of Inner Mongolia was established in Xiguitu-qi.
            On March, 1950, Baotou-zhuanshu of Suiyuan-sheng was established in Baotou.
            On September, 1950, this was changed into Suizhong-qu-zhuanshu, and was changed once more on November, 1950 to Sa-xian-zhuanshu. On November, 1952, this zhuanshu was abolished, and five xians including Baotou, Guisui, Salaqi, Guyang, and Wuchuan were managed by Jining-zhuanshu.
            On March, 1950, Suiyuan-sheng Shanba-zhuanshu was established in Shanba-zhen, and changed its name into Suixi-zhuanshu on September. Later on December, this zhuanshu got another name?Shanba-zhuanshu. At that time, 8 xians and 1 zhen were included; the following are the specific names of the regions: ().
            On March, 1950, Alashan Huoshuote-qi was changed into the autonomous district of Huoshuote-qi, Alashan, and was managed by Ningxia-sheng. Later on August, 1951, this qi changed its name into the autonomous district of Alashan. On November, 1952, Dingyuanying (which was located in the areas governed by the autonomous district of Alashan) changed its name into Bayinhaote.
            On August, 1950, Suiyuan-sheng Wulanchabu-meng was changed into the autonomous district of Wulanchabu-meng, and the district government moved from Wulanhua-zhen to Baotoukundunlunzhao. On December, the government again moved to Baotou-shiqu. On October, 1951, the government changed its name into ............
            On January 17th, 1950, Suiyuan military government committee ratified and decided that Yikezhao-meng and Wulanchabu-meng would be granted an autonomy of ethnic minorities within the area, and that the government would dispatch about 1000 ethnic minority officials. Also, the committee decided to abolish Dongsheng-xian, Dalate-qi organization entrainment office, Taolimin office, and Bailingmiao office (they all were established by the KMT); Dongsheng and Silichangtangu were put under the jurisdiction of the autonomous district of Yikezhao-meng, and this district was managed by the autonomous district of Wulanchabu-meng along with Wulanhua-qu and Wudangzhao-qu. In addition, the committee announced that all qis of Hedongtai-zhandi will unite with their respective meng governments. On May 8th, the central people¡¯s government committee of state affairs ratified this document.
            On January 18th, 1950, Suiyuan military government committee established the people¡¯s government of Guisui-shi and appointed Wuliren as deputy mayor.
            On January 23rd, 1950, the people¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia decided to create Xiguitu-meng (today¡¯s Yakezhaosi-shi) in Wuna-meng.
            On January, 1950, Suiyuan military district¡¯s Hetao division was established, and Yangweiyuan and Shenxinfa were appointed as commander and member of government committee, respectively. On September, 1951, this organization was abolished, and Suiyuan military district¡¯s Yikezhao-meng division was established; at this time, Wangyuefeng and Gaozhengpei were appointed as commander and a member of the government committee, respectively.
            On January, 1950, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng decided to abolish the office of Suidong-mengqi and newly drew up the organization of the central qi. Chahaer right-wing Zhenghong-qi was adopted as a central region, and was managed by the people¡¯s government of the sheng. The central qi managed all government affairs of the qi, and also managed three other qis?Zhenghong-qi, Xianghong-qi, and Xianglan-qi.
            On January 1950, premier Zhouenlai met Wulanfu and Liuchun in Beijing and pondered the issue of borderline of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia. Premier Zhouenlai dealt with this issue in following ways, according to directions from the CCP central committee and Chairman Mao: he had areas that historically have been included in Inner Mongolia included in present-day Inner Mongolia, and decided to establish an autonomous district of Inner Mongolia with its eastern and western regions united together. Keeping in mind Wulanfu¡¯s suggestion that Guisui-shi is suitable as the location of the central administrative office (because historically it has always been the center of Inner Mongolia), the central administrative office of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia was established in Guisui-shi.
            On January, 1950, CCP central committee Inner Mongolia division Tongzhenbu (a name of government organization) was established, and Wangzaitian was appointed as the head of the department.
            On February 1st, 1950, Suiyuan military government committee passed a bill naming a region in Guisui-shi the autonomous district of Hui tribe (because that is where the Huis were living, gathered together), and established the people¡¯s government of the qu.
            On February 13th, 1950, the people¡¯s government of Baotou-shi was established, and was put under the direct jurisdiction of Suiyuan-sheng. On February 10th, the central people¡¯s government office of state affairs appointed Zhengtianxiang as the mayor of Baotou-shi.
            On March 8th, 1950, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng appointed Eqierhuyaketu as the deputy chief of Yikezhao-meng people¡¯s autonomous state affairs committee.
            On March 20th, 1950, CCP regional committee of Suixi and Shanba-zhuanshu were established at the same time. Shenxinfa and Xingqingkui were appointed as the secretary of the regional committee and the zhuanshu¡¯s zhuanyuan, respectively.
            On March 21st, 1950, CCP people¡¯s government state affairs office gave orders to the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng that Guisui-xian would be returned to the management of Baotou-zhuanshu.
            On March, 1950, all areas of Yikezhao-meng were liberated. In early May, the entire process of deciding and organizing various government organizations was completed. There were 8 qis, one central district, 2 people¡¯s governments under qi¡¯s direct jurisdiction, 76 government offices (gongshu), 335 people¡¯s governments of administrative villages, and 1615 natural villages.
            On April 1st, 1950, people¡¯s autonomous government of Wulanchabu-meng was established in Wulanhua-zhen, and Biligebatuer was appointed as deputy chief. In late April, Hansijin was appointed as the secretary of Wulanchabu-meng committee.
            On April 7th, 1950, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng ratified the process of changing Wulanchabu-meng¡¯s Donggong, Zhonggong, and Xigong qis into Wulate back, middle, and front qis.
            On April 10th, 1950, the central people¡¯s government state affairs office informed the people¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia through a letter that ().
            On April 20th, 1950, the 28th meeting of the central people¡¯s government state affairs office ratified ().
            On May, 1950, the central people¡¯s government state affair office ratified the following: Baocang, Huade (except for three qus), and Duolun xians of Chahaer-sheng and Pilin area of southern Taipusi left-qi, Chahaer-meng (Houxindifangzi-village and Nuozi-villiage of Guiyuan-xian) will be put under the jurisdiction of Chahaer-meng.
            On June 1st, 1950, Changtan-qu of Hequ-xian, Shanxi-sheng was put under direct jurisdiction of Yikezhao-meng with a new name?Silichangtan-qu.
            On July 27th, 1950, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng created This regulation was composed according to the general rules of about 10 xians within zhuanqus (one of the administrative units of People¡¯s Republic of China; between the level of sheng and xian), and this regulation caused the abolition of Helin-zhuanshu and newly establish Jining, Baotou, and Shanba zhuanqus. Jining-zhuanqu was to manage 7 xians, Baotou-zhuanqu 8 xians, and Shanba-zhuanqu 6 xians and 1 zhen. Yikezhao-meng was to manage 7 qis, 1 xian, and 2 qus under its direct jurisdiction; Wulanchabu-meng was to manage 6 qis and 2 qus under direct jurisdiction; five new qus were established in Baotou-shi, and ?. The regulation put specific restrictions on the number of people, horses, and cars within each administrative unit level, and decided that from August 1st, the government will give out up-keeps according to this restriction number. People left over after this re-organization created documents and waited for measures to be taken, and sometimes aided in chores such as distributing things to eat for each community cafeteria unit.
            On August 11th, 1950, the people¡¯s autonomous government of Yikezhao-meng and the people¡¯s autonomous government of Wulanchabu-meng were changed into the people¡¯s autonomous district government of Yikezhao-meng and the people¡¯s autonomous district government of Wulanchabu-meng. Also, the initial location of the government of Yikezhao-meng was Zhasake-qi, but later it was moved to Dongsheng-xian; the government managed Dalate, Zhungeer, Hangjin, Junwang, Zhasake, Etuoke, and Wushen (7 qis) and Dongsheng-xian. The initial location of Wulanchabu-meng was Wulanhua, but later it was moved to Baotou-shi; the government managed Siziwang, Daerhan, Maomingan, Wulate front, Wulate middle, and Wulate back (6 qis).
            On August 30th, 1950, the people¡¯s autonomous district government of Inner Mongolia appointed Hanhuilu as the leader of Chahaer-meng.
            On August, 1950, Suiyuan-sheng military district Baotou defense department was established, and Wanglei and Chendengmin were appointed as commander and member of government committee, respectively. On September, 1951, this department was abolished and Suiyuan-sheng military district Xialaqi division was established; this time, Liuhuaxiang and Zhaozhanshan were appointed as commander and member of government committee, respectively. However, this was also abolished on December, 1952, and was changed into Jining military division.
            On September, 1950, the central people¡¯s government state affairs committee ratified the following: Jining, Baotou, and Shanba zhuanyuan offices (a branch office established in each sheng or autonomous districts in order to manage matters of xians or shis)would be changed into Suidong, Suizhong, and Suixi zhuanshus, and Libinsan, Zhoujun, and Xingqingkui were appointed as zhuanyuans. Helin-zhuanyuan office was abolished, and the xians originally managed by the office were transferred into Suidong and Suizhong zhuanyuan offices. In other words, Suiyuan-sheng managed 2 mengs, 3 zhuanyuan offices, 2 shis under its direct jurisdiction, 22 xians, 17 ?, 1 zhen, 10 qus under shi¡¯s jurisdiction, and 4 qus under meng¡¯s jurisdiction. More specifically, the regions were the following:
            On October 20th, 1950, the people¡¯s autonomous government of Yikezhao-meng and area offices under its jurisdiction all moved from Xinjiejin to Dongsheng-xiancheng.
            On October, 1950, Inner Mongolia military disctrict¡¯s Xilinguole military division, Chahaer military division, Zhaowuda military division, Zhelimu military division, Xingan military division, and Huna military divison were established. The following are the commanders of each division:. The following are the members of the government committee appointed for each division:.
            On November 12th, 1950, CCP central committee Huabei division ratified the establishment of CCP regional committee of Xingan-meng and appointed Linweilan as secretary.
            On November 27th, 1950, the central people¡¯s government unified the regional names of all the zhuanshus in the country. The people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng decided to change Suizhong zhuanyuan office into Salaqi-xian zhuanyuan office, and had the name of Jining-qu changed once again into Shanba-qu zhuanyuan office.
            On December 5th, 1950, the central people¡¯s government state affairs committee appointed Wulanfu as the chief of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia¡¯s finances committee.
            On December 8th, 1950, Siguaigoukuang-qu was managed by the people¡¯s autonomous district government of Wulanchabu-meng, and Wangdnagzhao-qu was abolished. ?.
            On December, 1950, the central people¡¯s government organized Suiyuan revolutionary military unit into 22 soldier units, trained them, and then ordered them to participate in the second front of the Korean War.
            On April, 1951, two qis of Molidawa were abolished, and Elunchun-qi was established. On July, Tongliao-xian was abolished, and Tongliao-shi was established. On November, Suiyuan-sheng Yikezhao-meng was changed into the autonomous district of Yikezhao-meng.
            On January, 1951, Suiyuan-sheng military district Wulanchabu-shi military division was established, and Biligebatuer and Hansijin were appointed to commander and the member of government committee, respectively
            On January, 1951, Manzhouli-shi military government committee was established, and this was put under the direct jurisdiction and was managed by Dongbei division and Dongbei military district. On October 2nd, the Dongbei division appointed Xunguangting to three positions at the same time?the chairman of Manzhouli-shi military government committee, the defense commanding department of Manzhouli-shi, and a member of the government committee.
            On March 15th, 1951, the first people¡¯s representative convention of Suiyuan-sheng was held in Suiyuan-sheng with 350 participating representatives. The major topics of discussion at this convention were the Korean War, a sustainable suppression of upheavals, strengthening social security, applying land reforms and increasing production levels. The meeting was held for seven days and ended on the 21st. Suqianyi was appointed to position of chairman of the first people¡¯s representative convention negotiation committee, and Yangzhilin, Yaoji, Kuibi, and Sunlanfeng were appointed as vice chairmen. Under the negotiation committee were land reform committee, finances committee, culture and education committee, etc. that assisted the government in taking care of various matters.
            On April 7th, 1951, the central people¡¯s government state affairs committee ratified the suggestion to change all regional names coined by Zhangjieshi, and ordered each meng, shi, zhen, xian, and qi governments to come up with suitable names.
            On June 8th, 1951, the CCP central committee ratified appointing Douguerzhabu as the secretary of labor campaign committee.
            On July 17th, 1951, the CCP people¡¯s government state affairs ratified changing Tongliao-xian into Tongliao-shi and putting it under the jurisdiction of Zhelimu-meng.
            On August 20th, 1951, Suiyuan-sheng military district was changed into Suiyuan military district, but the people leading the community didn¡¯t change.
            On October 6th, 1951, Xibei military government committee ratified changing Dingyuanying(the place where Alashan-qi office used to be stationed at; was constructed in 1730, and was a place given as a gift to ?) into Bayanhaote.
            On February, 1952, Keerqin right-wing back-qi was abolished, and this region was transferred into Keerqin right-wing front-qi and Zhaaite-qi. On May, Elunchun-qi was abolished, and the autonomous qi of Elunchun was established. After the central district allied-qi was abolished, this area was transferred into the western district allied-qi, and Longsheng-xian was changed into Zhuozi-xian. On June, the people¡¯s autonomous district government of Inner Mongolia moved from Jiangjiakou-shi to Guisui-shi.
            On October, 1952, Suiyuan-sheng¡¯s Daerhan-qi and Maomingan-qi merged together to form an allied qi of Daerhan-Maomingan; Wulante middle-qi and Wulante back-qi were merged together to form an allied qi of Wulante middle-back.
            On May 6th, 1952, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng decided to change Longsheng-xian¡¯s name into Zhuozi-xian, starting from May 1st.
            On May 12th, 1952, the CCP central committee agreed to Huabei division¡¯s and ratified it. The following are the specific solutions suggested in this document:
            a.) Have the people¡¯s autonomous district government of Inner Mongolia, CCP central government Inner Mongolia division, and first-level Inner Mongolia military district management organization stationed in Guisui-shi.
            b.) Agree to Dongqiwu¡¯s request to resign (he used to be the chairman of the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng), have Wulanfu take his position, and appoint Yangzhilin, Kuibi, and Sunlanfeng as vice chairmen
            c.) Have the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng follow orders from two groups?the central government state affairs committee and the people¡¯s autonomous district government of Inner Mongolia. The focus of management will, however, be different for these two groups; the general affairs of the sheng and matters concerning autonomous, non-ethnic qus will be managed according to the central government state affairs committee¡¯s discretion; affairs involving ethnic minorities of each meng and qi will be managed according to the people¡¯s autonomous district government of Inner Mongolia¡¯s discretion.
            d.) ??? On May 31st, 1952, Hulunbeier Nawenmuren-meng¡¯s Elunchun-qi was abolished, and the autonomous qi of Elunchun was established.
            On June 6th, 1952, the central government state affairs committee ratified the abolition of Xingan-meng Keerqi back-qi and having the areas originally managed by the qi into Keerqin right-wing qi and Zhalute-qi. The allied qi of central areas of Xilinguole-meng was also abolished, and the areas it used to manage were transferred into the allied qi of western areas.
            On June 27th, 1952, the people¡¯s autonomous district government of Inner Mongolia organization moved from Jiangjiakou-shi to Guisui-shi. Wulanfu and other military members of the CCP led the process; the CCP army with Suqianyi, Yangzhilin, Kuibi, Sunlanfeng, Yaoji, and other representatives of various social backgrounds received warm welcome. Afterwards, all departments and division organizations of the people¡¯s autonomous district government of Inner Mongolia were moved to Guisui-shi.
            On July 5th, 1952, the central people¡¯s government state affairs committee ratified Dongqiwu¡¯s request to resign (he used to be the chairman of the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng), had Wulanfu take his position, and appointed Yangzhilin, Kuibi, and Sunlanfeng as vice chairmen.
            On July 26th, 1952, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng executed its policy of encouraging a land development project for wastelands.
            On August 1st, 1952, Inner Mongolia military district and Suiyuan military district were formally merged together, and this was transferred into Mengsui military district. Wulanfu was appointed as both a commander and a member of the government committee, Wangzaitian, Liuhuaxiang, and Hubingquan were appointed as vice commander, Suqianyi was appointed as vice member of government committee, and Tingmao was appointed as chief of the politics department.
            On August 25th, 1952, CCP central committee ratified merging CCP Suiyuan-sheng committee and CCP central committee Inner Mongolia division to form CCP central Mengsui division, and had Wulanfu and Suqianyi appointed to positions of secretary and deputy secretary, respectively. People who were formerly members of CCP central Suiyuan-sheng committee became the newly formed division¡¯s members. The people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng was reserved and wasn¡¯t changed, and Wulanfu held office of the chairman of the sheng government concurrently. On September 5th, CCP central Inner Mongolia division and CCP Suiyuan-sheng committee decided to abolish Suiyuan-sheng committee¡¯s organizations and formally established CCP central committee Mengsui division.
            On September 12th, 1952, CCP central committee Mengsui division appointed Yangjingwei and Lizhenhua as secretary and deputy secretary of Yikezhao-meng committee, respectively.
            On September 18th, 1952, Suidong area and Suizhong area were merged to form CCP regional committee of Jining. Zhaozhangshan was appointed as the committee¡¯s secretary.
            On October 31st, 1952, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng appointed Lizhi as the mayor of Baotou-shi.
            On October, 1952, ? was established in Zhalandun. On August, 1953, this organization was moved to Xiguitu-qi Yakesi.
            On October, 1952, Wulate back-qi and middle-qi were merged to form the allied qi of Wulate middle-back qis, and the qi government was stationed in Hailiutu. Daerhan and Maomingan qis were merged to form the allied qi of Daerhan-Maomingan, and the qi government was stationed in Bailingmiao.
            On November 27th, 1952, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng decided to abolish Salaqi-xian zhuanyuan office, and the people who used to work there were moved to Pingdiquan-zhen to work in Jining zhuanyuan office. The following are the areas that this office used to manage: ?.
            On April, 1953, three mengs including Huna, Xingan, and Zhelimu were abolished, and these were merged to become the eastern area management office of the people¡¯s autonomous government of Inner Mongolia. This office was put under the jurisdiction of Zhaowuda-meng. On May the same year, four shis including Wulanhaote, Hailaer, Manzhouli, and Tongliao were elevated to di status-shis.
            On September, 1953, the stationing area of Jining-sheng Ejina-qi¡¯s people¡¯s autonomous district government was moved from Laoximiao to Sayihantiaolai (Jianguoying). On November, 1954, Ningxia-sheng was merged with Gansu-sheng, and this consequently let the autonomous qu of Ejina-qi to be managed by Jiangye zhuanyuan office. On November 30th of that same year, this zhuanyuan office changed its name into Jiuquan zhuanyuan office. On March, 1955, this region changed its name into the autonomous qi of Ejina.
            On October, 1953, Shanba zhuanyuan office Micang-xian changed its name into Hangjin back-qi, and Yanjiang-xian changed its name into Dalate back-qi.
            On January 23rd, 1953, the people¡¯s autonomous government of Inner Mongolia decided to abolish some mengs in the eastern area including Huna, Xingan, and Zhelimu, and reserved Zhaowuda-meng so that it would be transferred into eastern administrative office of Inner Mongolia. On February 1st, the eastern administrative office of Inner Mongolia was established in Wulanhaote-shi; Wangduo was appointed as the chief of the office, and Zhaoyunsi and Naqinshuangheer were appointed as the vice-chiefs.
            On May 10th, 1953, the central people¡¯s government state affairs committee decided to elevate Tongliao-shi, Wulanhaote-shi, Hailaer-shi, and Manzhouli-shi to the level of shis under direct jurisdiction of the people¡¯s autonomous government of Inner Mongolia; specific government instructions were to be given through eastern administrative office of Inner Mongolia.
            On September 4th, 1953, the people¡¯s autonomous government of Inner Mongolia ratified changing Beizimiao (where the Xilinguole-meng government office was stationed at) into Xilinhaote, and established the people¡¯s government of Xilinhaote-meng.
            On September 15th, 1953, the people¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng decided to abolish the former system of Baotou-xian, and had the areas governed by this xian transferred into Baotou-shi, Wulate front-qi, Dalate-qi, and Siguaikuang-qu. At the same time, CCP Baotou area labor campaign committee was established; this committee was to receive orders from the shi¡¯s people¡¯s government and govern eastern areas of Dengkou, western areas of Kundoulunhexian, northern areas of Shanjiao, and southern areas of Huanghenanan. This committee was also to govern areas within the former 4th qu of Baotou-xian.
            On September 28th, 1953, Salute-qi of Zhaowuda-meng was to be directly instructed by eastern administrative office.
            On September 28th, the issue of ¡°the coexistence of qis and xians¡± in Shanba zhuanqu, Yikezhao-meng, Tumote-qi, and Guisui-xian was resolved. According to the ratification by the Central People¡¯s government Zhengwuyuan, the People¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng issued the following orders: have the unified regional regime structure within Hetao-qi (related to Yikezhao-meng¡¯s Hanglin-qi and Dalate-qi) abolished altogether, and have the administrative area merged with the regional xian¡¯s administrative grounds, and set new territorial lines. Micang-xian was changed into Hanglin-back-qi, Yanjiang-xian was changed into Dalate-back-qi, and the two qis were put under the jurisdiction of the autonomous district of Yikezhao-meng. Also, the administrative area of Yikezhao-meng¡¯s government¡¯s Shanba office and Shanba zhuanshu were controlled as one unit.
            On November 1st, 1953, the People¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia and the People¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng were formally controlled under the same office. This was done according to a suggestion made to the CCP central Mengsui division, and after going through a thorough preparation process by the two governments and after being passed in the association of various governments¡¯ committee, the Central People¡¯s government ratified the proposal¡¯s procedures on October 2nd. On that same day, and were pubslished; the two governments were also to unify their ting, ju, judicial offices and other such administrative offices.
            On December 15th, 1953, the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia and the People¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng held an administrative meeting in association, and decided to establish a committee in charge of safe transportation of Chingghis-Khan¡¯s coffin, with Wangzaitian as the manager of the process. On 1954 (March 21st according to Lunar calander), Chingghis-Khan¡¯s burial grounds were moved quickly from Qinghaitaersi to Yijinhuoluo¡¯s newly established burial grounds of Chingghis-Khan.
            On January, 1954, the area which used to be under the direct jurisdiction of Suiyuan-sheng¡¯s Tumote-qi was changed so that it would come under the control of Jining-zhuanyuan office, and at the same time, Guisui-xian was abolished and its former areas were also re-designated as a part of Tumote-qi.
            On March, 1954, Suiyuan-sheng and the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia were merged together, and the former Suiyuan-sheng was abolished. The former areas of Suiyuan-sheng used to include the following: Guisui-shi, Baotou-shi, the autonomous district of Wulanchabu-meng, the autonomous district of Yikezhao-meng, Jining-zhuanyuan office, the central qi of four qis of Suidong, Shanba-zhuanyuan office. They were transferred into Inner Mongolian grounds. At the same time, Guisui-shi was designated as the capital of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia. On April the same year, Guisui-shi was changed into Huhehaote-shi, the autonomous district of Yikezhao-meng was changed into Yikezhao-meng, and the autonomous district of Wulanchabu-meng was changed into Wulanchabu-meng.
            On March, 1954, after Suiyuan and Inner Mongolia were merged together, Jining-zhuanyuan office and the central qi of the four qis of Suidong were abolished altogether, and a new administrative area of Pingdiquan was established. At the same time, Zhenghong-qi, which used to be the central qi of the four qis of Suidong, was changed into Chahaer-right-wing-back-qi, Zhenghuang-qi was changed into Chahaer-right-wing-front-qi, Xianglan-Xianghong allied qis and Taolin-xian were merged together to form Chahaer-right-wing-middle-qi. Also, Guyang-xian, which used to belong to Jining-zhuanyuan office, was transferred into the grounds of Wulanchabu-meng.
            On May, 1954, the Eastern administrative government was abolished, the former Zhelimu-meng was re-established, the former Huna and Xingan-meng governments were merged to form Hunabeier-meng, and Wulanhaote, Hailaer, Manzhouli, and Tongliao cities were changed into xian-level cities.
            On April, 1954, Jining-sheng autonomous district of Inner Mongolia was established, the autonomous district of Alashan was changed into Alashan-qi, and Jining-sheng autonomous district of Inner Mongolia came to control areas of Alashan-qi and Dengkou-xian.
            On September, 1954, because Jining-sheng was abolished, Gansu-sheng and Jining-sheng autonomous district of Mongolia merged together and changed their names into Gansu-sheng autonomous district of Mongolia as one unit. On March, 1955, Gansu-sheng autonomous district of Mongolia simplified its name into Gansu-sheng autonomous zhou(province) of Mongolia (* in Chinese, the former name is longer than the latter). On November, 1955, Gansu-sheng autonomous zhou of Mongolia changed its name into Gansu-sheng Bayinhaote autnonomous zhou of Mongolian ethnicity
            On June, 1954, Shanba-zhuanyuan office changed its name into Hetao administrative district.
            On January 7th, 1954, because Guyang-xiancheng of Jining-zhuanqu (Guyang-xian) was put under the jurisdiction of Wulanchabu-meng for the reasons below: the area was originally situated within the grounds of the People¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Wulanchabu-meng, Guyang-xian guanshu area has been partially overlapped with the qi in which Wulanchabu-meng was located in and mining areas around it, and Jining-zhuanshu was relatively far away from the respective area. Therefore, the above change was made in order to promote more effective management and in order to promote a stronger ethnic relationship. The changes were ratified by the Central People¡¯s government.
            From January 11th to 17th, 1954, Suiyuan-sheng¡¯s third session of the first meeting among the people¡¯s delegates of various classes was held in Guisui-shi. There were over 400 participants in this meeting. Huabei administrative committee¡¯s deputy chairman Zhangsu was invited to this meeting, and he gave an important speech regarding the merge of Mengsui (Inner Mongolia and Suiyuan) and the abolishment of Suiyuan-sheng. The managers in charge of Suiyuan-sheng party government, including Wulanfu, Yangzhilin, Suqianyi, Sunlanfeng, etc. also participated the meeting and made speeches regarding related issues. Things decided in this meeting include the following: Suiyuan-sheng and the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia would be merged, and Suiyuan-sheng would be abolished, and these issues were formally decided upon. Jining-zhuanqu was changed into Pingdiquan administrative district, Shanba-zhuanqu was changed into Hetao administrative district; Yikezhao-meng and the autonomous district of Wulanchabu-meng were changed into Yikezhao-meng and Wulanchabu-meng administrative office, respectively; four eastern qis and Taolin-xian were to be abolished so that they would become three qis, which included Chahaer-right-wing-front-qi, Chahaer-right-wing-middle-qi, Chahaer-right-wing-back-qi, and the three qis were put under the management of Pingdiquan admininstrative area¡¯s guanshu. The above two administrative areas and two mengs¡¯ administrative offices were all distinguished as first-class regimes under the management of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia. On the 18th, Central People¡¯s government Zhengwuyuan¡¯s 204th conference agreed to the document submitted from the formerly mentioned meeting, entitled . On February 28th, published an editorial entitled .
            On January 22nd, 1954, the People¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia and the People¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng held a united forum, in which its members realized the and the recommendation made by the chairman of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia, Wulanfu, to have Suqianyi, Yangzhilin, Kuibi, Wangzaitian, Sunlanfeng, and Wangyilun distinguished as the district¡¯s deputy chairmen. The following changes were also decided upon in this forum: the personnel management office of Inner Mongolia would be changed into the personnel management office of the People¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia, the former department of culture and education was changed into department of education, the bureau of educational management was established, the former department of trade was changed into department of commerce, the bureau of foreign trade was established, the former bureau of food supplies was changed into department of food supplies, and other governmental structures like committee on ethnic issues were established. The above changes were reported to and ratified by the Central People¡¯s government Zhengwuyuan.
            On March 5th, 1954, the People¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia decided to abolish Taolin-xian, Yanjiang-xian, Guisui-xian, the central qi of four eastern qis, Xianghuang-Xianghong allied qis, and Zhenghuang-qi of Suiyuan-sheng; Chahaer-right-wing¡¯s front, middle, and back qis were established along with Dalate-back-qi; the offices of these newly established areas were stationed in the following qis: Tuguiwula, Kebuer, Tumuertai, and Taerhu.
            On March 6th, 1954, Suiyuan-sheng and the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia were formally merged together, and Suiyuan-sheng and the People¡¯s government of Suiyuan-sheng were abolished as well. Areas under the direct jurisdiction of the former Suiyuan-sheng were all put under the management of the People¡¯s government of Inner Mongolia. Suiyuan military committee and Suiyuan-sheng¡¯s meeting among the people¡¯s delegates of various classes were abolished altogether on the same day, and the committee for preparation of necessary negotiations of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia was established.
            On March 15th, 1954, the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia welcomed the entrance of 29 delegates, with Keligeng as the delegation¡¯s ambassador, who were in charge of Chingghis-Khan¡¯s coffin. The coffin was to come from Qinghai-sheng. On April 3rd, Chingghis-Khan¡¯s coffin was transported to the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia. On 23rd the same month, chairman Wulanfu paid respect to Chingghis-Khan on the behalf of the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia, along with the 29 delegates; the coffin was delivered to Yijinhuoluo-qi. On October 30th, Chingghis-Khan mausoleum was newly established in Yijinhuoluo Huhengaobao (¡°Aobao¡± is a material which Mongolians have traditionally used in memorial ceremonies).
            On March 15th, 1954, CCP Central Mengsui division was changed into CCP Central Inner Mongolia division, and Wulanfu and Suqianyi were named the secretary and deputy secretary, respectively
            On March 25th, 1954, Mengsui military district was changed into Inner Mongolia military district, and Wulanfu was appointed to general and member of government committee.
            On April 1st, 1954, the People¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia sent a letter to the CCP personnel management office, which read: the 207th conference of Zhengwuyuan passed a request to the Central People¡¯s government committee to ratify the appointment of Suqianyi, Kuibi, Wangzaitian, Sunlanfeng, and Wangyilun to position of deputy chairmen; ratify the dismissal of Fuzuoyi from position of Suiyuan military government committee chairman, 4 people including Gaokelin from position of deputy chairmen, 15 people including Zhangqin from position of members of the government committee; also ratify the dismissal of Wulanfu from position of chairman of Suiyuan-sheng, Suqianyi and 3 others from position of deputy chairmen, Wangjiangong and 33 others from members of government committee. At the same time, the Central People¡¯s government appointed some people to positions within the People¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia.
            On April 20th, 1954, the Central People¡¯s government issued the following orders: seeing that the autonomous district¡¯s capital ¡°Guisui¡± is an inappropriate name which hinders ethnic unity, and after hearding suggestions from members of each and every level within the district¡¯s society and going through the ratification by Central People¡¯s government Zhengwuyuan, from April 25th, have the former Guisui-shi change its name into Huhehaote-shi; ¡°Huhehaote¡± in Mongolian means ¡°the blue castle¡±.
            On April 30th, 1954, the Central People¡¯s government Zhengwuyuan ratified the abolishment of the administrative office of eastern autonomous district of Inner Mongolia, integration of Xingan-meng and Huna-meng so that the unified unit would be named Hulunbeier-meng, with its people¡¯s government at Hailaer-shi and with 17 qi and xian administrative units included within its grounds. Also, the formerly abolished Zhelimu-meng was restored, with its administrative systems being the same and its people¡¯s government located in Tongliao-shi. The people¡¯s government of Zhaowuda-meng was established in Lindong. The above three mengs¡¯ people¡¯s governments were all categorized as first-class systems of regime, and were all put under direct jurisdiction of the People¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia. Wulanhaote-shi, Hailaer-shi, Manzhouli-shi, and Tongliao-shi were also put under the direct jurisdiction of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia.
            On May 21st, 1954, the People¡¯s government of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia decided to change Wulanhaote, Hailaer, Manzhouli, and Tongliao shis into xian-level shis, and have them managed by Hulunbeier and Zhelimu-meng.
            On June 19th, 1954, the Central People¡¯s government decided to unify Suiyuan-sheng and the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia, and abolish Suiyuan-sheng. Also, the government decided to have Suiyuan-sheng Yikezhao-meng and Wulanchabu-meng abolished, and instead establish Pingdiquan and Hetao administrative areas, respectively. The offices of these areas were stationed at Dongsheng-xian, Guyang-xian, Pingdiquan-zhen, and Shanba-zhen.
            On June 26th, the first conference of the people¡¯s representatives of Yikezhao-meng was opened, where Wangyuefeng was elected as the meng leader. From this day on till June, 1954, the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia was composed of 7 mengs, 2 administrative districts, 2 di-level shis, 4 xian-level shis, 24 xians, 47 qis, 1 autonomous qi, 8 areas under shi jurisdiction, 1 mining area, and 2 zhens.
            On July 30th, 1955, the second conference of National People¡¯s representatives decided to have the original Rehe-sheng¡¯s Chifeng, Ningcheng, Wudan xians, Aohan, Kalaqin, and Wengniute qis to be included within Yikezhao-meng of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia, and move the meng¡¯s central office from Lindong to Chifeng.
            On December 22nd, 1955, the autonomous district¡¯s people¡¯s committee, based on Guowuyuan¡¯s messages, decided that from December 1st on, Manzhouli and Jining¡¯s respective customs houses would be led by Hulunbeier-meng and the people¡¯s administrative committee of Pingdiquan, respectively. The departments of the two customs houses would be managed by the people¡¯s committee of Hulunbeier-meng and the people¡¯s committee of Pingdiquan, which would thoroughly overlook the minutes decided upon the customs houses and report them to upper-level offices.
            On February, 1956, Pingdiquan administrative district¡¯s Pingdiquan-zhen was abolished, the former area was changed into Jining-shi, and was managed by Pingdiquan administrative district. On March, Wengniute autonomous qi was aolbished, and Wengniute-qi was established; Wudan-xian was abolished, and was merged with Wengniute-qi. On June, the eastern allied qis were abolished, and eastern Wuzhumuqin-qi, western Wuzhumuqin-qi were established; the western allied qis changed its name into Abaga-qi. On September, Taipusi-left-qi, Zhengxiangbai-allied-qis, and Shangdouxianghuang-allied-qis were changed into Taipusi-qi, Zhengxiangbai-qi, Shangdouxianghuang-qi, respectively, and Yucang-xian was merged with Taipusi, Zhengxiangvai, and Zhenglan; Mingantai-right-allied-qis was abolished, and Zhenglan, Zhengxiangbai qis were merged together; Shiguai-mining area was abolished and separately put into Guyang-xian and Baotou-shi. On November, Baotou-shi Shiguai-mining area was established. On October, 1957, Jining-xian was abolished, and the respective territory was put into Jining-shi, Chahaer-right-wing-front-qi, and Chahaer-right-wing-back-qi.
            On April, 1956, Gansu-sheng Bayanhaote-autonomous zhou of Mongolia¡¯s Bayinhaote-zhen was changed into Bayanhaote-shi (xian-level).
            On June, 1956, Bayannaoer-meng was established, and Gansu-sheng Bayanhaote-autonomous zhou of Inner Mongolia and Ejina-autonomous-qi were included within the boundaries of Bayannaoer-meng, and the meng¡¯s people¡¯s committee was located in Bayanhaote-shi. Ejina-autonomous-qi was given another name of Ejina-qi. Bayannaoer-meng at that time included Alashan-qi, Ejina-qi, Dengkou-xian, and Bayanhaote-shi (xian-level shi). Zhaowuda-meng¡¯s meng office was moved from Balin-left-qi to Chifeng-zhen.
            On February 23rd, 1956, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Pingdiquan-zhen and the establishment of Jining-shi (xian-level).
            On March 9th, 1956, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Wengniute-autonomous qi of Inner Mongolia, the establishment of Wengniute-qi, the abolishment of Wudan-xian, and have the former Wudan-xian areas be included within the grounds of Wengniute-qi.
            On April 3rd, 1956, Guowuyuan ratified having Gansu-sheng Bayanhaote Mongolians¡¯ autonomous zhou (the level of an autonomous zhou is between an autonomous district and autonomous xian) and Ejina autonomous qi become a part of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia, and change their names by merging them and re-naming the unit as Bayannaoer-meng.
            On June, 1956, the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia¡¯s Bayannaoer-meng was established, Gansu-sheng Bayanhaote¡¯s autonomous zhou of Inner Mongolia and Ejina-autonomous qi were included in the newly founded administration, and the people¡¯s committee of Bayannaoer-meng was located in Bayanhaote-shi. Ejina-autonomous zhou was also given the name of ¡°Ejina-qi¡±. Bayannaoer-meng included Alashan-qi, Ejina-qi, Dengkou-xian, and Bayanhaote-shi (xian-level shi). Zhaowuda-meng included Balin-left-qi and Chifeng-zhen.
            On September 11th, 1956, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Baochang-xian, having the former administrative areas merged and included within Taipusi-qi, Zhenglan-qi, Zhengxiangbai-qi; the abolishment of Mingantai left allied qis and have its former administrative areas included within Zhengxiangbai-qi and Zhenglan-qi; having the former Taipusi-left-qi changed into Taipusi-qi; having the Zhenghaixiangbai-allied-qis changed into Zhengxiangbai-qi; having the Shangdouxianghuang-allied-qis changed into Shangdouxianghuang-qi.
            On September 14th, 1956, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Shiguaigou-mining area, and have its former regime included within Guyang-xian and Baotou-shi. On November 20th, Baotou-shi¡¯s district of Shiguaigou was established.
            On Nobermber, 1956, the autonomous disctrict of Inner Monoglia¡¯s areas were divided into different villages (xiangs), with the process completed in April. There were a total of 2236 villages left after the process, which meant a number decreased by 43% compared to the state previous to the division.
            On January 1st, 1957, Hulunbeier-meng established 10 ethnic villages.
            On January, 1957, Xilinguole-meng¡¯s Erlian-qi was raised to a xian-level administration. On July 19th, Erlian-qi was changed into Erlianhaote, and was included within Xilinguole-meng.
            On March 8th, 1957, the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia¡¯s party committee, according to the wishes of the people, had Suolun, Tonggusi, and Yakute ethnic groups restore their original names, which, as a unified unit, used to be called the Ewenke people, and also granted autonomy of the region. At the same time, a report was made, requiring that from that day on, the area¡¯s designation through forms of conversation, documents, announcements, administrative documents, and reports would all use ¡°Ewenke¡±. On August 1st, Ewenke autonomous qi was formally established.
            On April 22nd, 1957, the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia¡¯s first People¡¯s Representative Conference¡¯s fourth meeting was opened in Huhehaote. The agenda of this meeting was . The specific process of the meeting was this:
            1.) There was a request for the meeting to change and amend ¡°the construction regulations of the meeting of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia¡¯s people¡¯s representative of all levels and other people¡¯s committees¡±, and according to the 49th regulation among the respectively established new rules, requested (through document form) for the meeting of National People¡¯s Representatives to ratify the things decided upon; gradual abolishment of Hulunbeier-meng, Zhelimu-meng, Zhaowuda-meng, Chahaer-meng, Xilinguole-meng, Wulanchabu-meng, Yikezhao-meng, the administrative area of Pingdiquan, and the administrative area of Hetao¡¯s first-level regime.
            2.) Every meng and 1st-level regime of administrative areas were to be abolished, have the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia, according to its work demand, request the Guowuyuan (through document form) to ratify the following; recognizing the former administrative areas of each mengs, establish meng offices, have the respective office¡¯s manager become the meng leader; also, zhuanyuan offices were to be established with the former leader of the regions as zhuanyuans. Meng offices and zhuanyuan offices became the branch offices of the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia, with the duty to research in depth about the work that needed to be done within each qi, xian, and shi.
            3.) Meng and administrative areas¡¯ regimes were to be abolished, with meng offices and zhuanyuan offices established, but this process was to be first tried and researched in Zhelimu-meng and Pingdiquan administrative areas, and then gradually expanded to other regions if effective.
            4.) This method would be postponed and put into action later on in Bayannaoer-meng.
            On May 17th, the People¡¯s Republic of Mongolia¡¯s consul in the People¡¯s Republic of China was formally established in Huhehaote, with the consul being Cebogema Dashen.
            On September, 1957, Guowuyuan ratified the decision early made by the administrative district of Pindiquan¡¯s second meeting of the people¡¯s representatives to abolish the administrative district of Pingdiquan¡¯s 1st-level regime and establish an autonomous district of Inner Mongolia¡¯s branch office for the people¡¯s committee. On October 8th, Jining-xian was abolished, and its former territories were separately included in Jining-shi, Chahaer-right-wing-front-qi, Chahaer-right-wing-back-qi, and Xinghe-xian.
            On April, 1958, some areas original under the jurisdiction of Wulanchabu-meng, including Wulate-front-qi and Wulate-middle-back-allied-qis, were changed so that they would be included in Bachannaoer-meng instead of Hetao administrative area; Hetao administrative area was abolished; Langshan-xian and Shanba-zhen were abolished, and were merged into Hanglinhou-qi; Anbei-xian was abolished and its administrative areas were put under Wulate-front-qi; Bayannaoer-meng¡¯s administrative office location moved from Bayanhaote-shi to Dengkou-xian Sanshenggong-zhen (today¡¯s Bayangaole-zhen). Pingdiquan administrative area was also abolished, and regional offices under the area were included in Wulachabu-meng; Wudong-xian was abolished and its areas were merged into Siziwang-qi, Chahaer-right-wing-middle-qi and Zhuozi-xian and Wuchuan-xian; Wulanchabu-meng¡¯s administrative office location was moved from Guyang-xian to Jining-shi. In addition, Salaqi-xian was abolished to have its areas become a part of Baotou-shi and Tumote-qi.
            On May, 1958, Molidawa-qi was abolished, and instead the Dawoer-people¡¯s autonomous qi of Molidawa was established; Suolun-xian was abolished, and instead the autonomous qi of the Ewenke-people was established. On July, Dalate-back-qi was abolished and its respective areas were included within Wuyuan-xian; Guyang-xian was merged with Baotou-shi.
            On September, 1958, Chahaer-meng was abolished, and the xians and qis which used to be included within the area were put into Xilinguole-meng¡¯s jurisdiction; Bayanhaote-shi was abolished, and its administrative areas were merged with Alanshan-qi. On October, Chifeng-xian was abolished, and instead Chifeng-shi was established. On November, Tongliao-shi was abolished, and instead was merged with Tongliao-shi; Zhasake-qi and Junwang-qi were abolished and Yijinhuoluo-qi was established
            On January 27th, 1958, the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia published a report entitled . According to the document, the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia has seen accomplishments in its plans set in the autumn of 1956, which was to undergo a total division of lands in local farmlands; the original 443 Nutukes (A basic-level organization which used to take care of matters in 10 qis of Zhelimu-meng, Inner Mongolia during the Qing dynasty) and areal offices were abolished, with 259 eliminated at this period. However, in some districts, especially Hetao and Pingdiquan¡¯s administrative qus, there were some Nutukes that weren¡¯t abolished despite the fact that they met the requirements for elimination. Through requirements for each and every meng and administrative areas, from a time period around February, 1958, conferences of experts were opened, and research for a specific solution to this problem were requested to the Qing government. Later, according to the situation of the villages, elections at the basic level were organized.
            On February 15th, 1958, the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia added some amendments to this plan. The newly added parts of the plan inlucded some criterias regarding the appropriate size of villages according to population density or terrain properties.
            On April 2nd, 1958, according to the ratification by the Guowuyuan and decision made by the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia, the administrative areas of the district went through some changes including the following:
            1.) The first-class regimes of Hulunbeier-meng, Chahaer-meng, Zhelimu-meng, Wulanchabu-meng, Yikezhao-meng are to be changed into government offices, which would function as a branch organization of the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia.
            2.) Abolish the administrative area of Hetao, and have 4 xians and 3 qis formerly included within its areas moved into Bayannaoer-meng, with the meng office located in Dengkou-xian¡¯s Sanshenggong-zhen.
            3.) Abolish the administrative area of Pingdiquan, and have 10 xians, 4 mengs and 1 shi formerly included within its borders included in Wulanchabu-meng, with the meng office located in Jining-shi.
            4.) Abolish Langshan-xian, and and the original administrative area be changed so that it would be included within Hanglin-back-qi.
            5.) Have Shanba-zhen, which used to be in the former administrative area of Hetao, be moved into Hanglin-back-qi, and move the qi government office to Shanba-zhen.
            6.) Abolish Anbei-xian, have its original territories included into Wulate-front-qi, with the qi government located in Xishanzui.
            7.) Abolish Salaqi-xian, and have its former western areas (including 4 villages) included in Baotou-shi, with the remaining areas included within Tumote-qi, and the qi government located in Salaqi-xian¡¯s xiancheng.
            8.) Abolish Wudong-xian and have its former areas¡¯ Northern areas (including 7 villages) transferred into Siziwang-xian; the former Eastern areas (including 9 villages) transferred into Chahaer-right-wing-middle-qi; the former Southern areas (including 8 villages) transferred into Zhuozi-xian; the former Western areas (including 4 villages) transferred into Wuchuan-xian.
            9.) Have the original Wulate-front-qi and Wulate-middle and back-qis of Wulanchabu-meng transferred into Bayannaoer-meng.
            10.) Abolish Wulunbeier-meng¡¯s Molidawa-qi, and establish Dawoer ethnicity¡¯s autonomous qi, and have the former Molidawa-qi¡¯s administrative areas changed into Dawoer¡¯s autonomous qi¡¯s administrative area.
            11.) Abolish Wulunbeier-meng¡¯s Suolun-qi and establish Ewenke ethnicity¡¯s autonomous qi, with the former Suolun-qi¡¯s administrative areas changed into Ewenke ethnicity¡¯s autonomous qi¡¯s administrative area
            12.) Establish Baotou-shi¡¯s Guyang-qu and Baiyun mining areas
            On April 17th, 1958, the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia decided to abolish two mengs, and instead establish government offices.
            On July 5th, 1958, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Dalate-back-qi, Guyang-xian, Baiyunebo office office, with its administrative areas divided and transferred into Wuyuan-xian, Baotou-shi, and Daerhanmaomingan-allied-qis.
            On August 12th, 1958, according to a report issued by the Guowuyuan entitled , the military area of Inner Mongolia abolished the military area¡¯s Hetao division, and had its former areas transferred under Bayannaoer-meng division¡¯s leadership.
            On August 15th, 1958, Guowuyuan ratified the establishment of Hulunbeier-meng Molidawa Dawoer ethnicity¡¯s autonomous qi.
            On September 26th, 1958, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Chahaer-meng, and had its former areas included within Xilinguole-meng, with the meng office located in Xilinhaote.
            On October 4th, 1958, the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia issued a report , and decided to have the former Bayanhaote-shi¡¯s administrative areas all transferred into Alashan-qi¡¯s guanshu.
            On October 20th, 1958, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Chifeng-xian and the establishment of Chifeng-shi.
            On November 21st, 1958, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Tongliao-xian, with its administrative areas merged into Tongliao-shi; the abolishment of Zhasake-qi and Junwang-qi and merge their areas in order to establish Yijinhuoluo-qi.
            On December 16th, 1958, the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia issued a report entitled , in which the committee decided to develop the people¡¯s gongshe so that it would overcome the limitations of formerly established organizations of similar nature. Each gongshe was to be named after its respective village name, and gongshes had to organize their own smaller groups to represent the gongshes and to work on issues most directly related to the people.
            In 1958, according to orders given out by the Guowuyuan, the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia decided to have Daxinganling forest management office and Hulunbeier-meng forest lumbering office merged with their respective areal government offices, and had Daxinganling forest¡¯s trees lumbered and planted according to the needs.
            In 1958, the Chinese government agreed to plant about 4200km2 of grassland within the borders of Bayannaoer-meng Wulate middle-back allied qis, and give permission to the Republic of Mongolia in having their cattle graze on that land during winter and spring seasons, especially those from Nangebi-sheng.
            On August 25th, 1959, the autonomous district¡¯s people¡¯s committee answered to some issues including the naming of some qi and xian¡¯s organizations belonging to the people¡¯s commune:
            1.) After the qis and xians establish alliances between communes, their party committee and people¡¯s committee are to be merged together to become a department (bu); the former people¡¯s committee organization would then be named wei, ju, ke, or bu; among these newly named organizations, wei and ju would not have the ¡°people¡¯s committee¡± label in front of their names, but ke and shi would.
            2.) The court, the prosecutor¡¯s office, and the police department are to not merge their smaller organizations, and are to divide the already merged organizations.
            3.) The people¡¯s commune office is to take charge of managing the official seals; the seals will not be newly made, but the ones that have been previously used by higher class authorities will be passed on to these organizations
            On January, 1960, Dengkou-xian was abolished and Bayangaole-shi was established, with Dengkou-xian¡¯s administrative areas as the shi¡¯s administrative areas. Tuquan-xian was abolished, and its former areas were included in Keerqin-right-wing-middle-qi. On July, Wulate-front-qi was included within Baotou-shi, and Tumote-qi was changed so that its jurisdiction would be included within Huhehaote-shi. On September, Huade-xian was abolished, had its former areas included within Shangdouxianghuang-qi, and Shangdouxianghuang-qi was changed into Xianghuang-qi.
            On January 7th, 1960, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Bayannaoer-meng Dengkou-xian and the establishment of Bayangaole-shi, which would become the location of the office of Bayannaoer-meng. On the same day, Hulunbeier-meng¡¯s Tuquan-xian was abolished, and its administrative areas were merged into Keerqin-right-wing-middle-qi.
            On July 14th, 1960, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Wulate-front-qi, and its former administrative areas were included within Wulate middle and back allied-qis and Baotou-shi; Tumote-qi was included within Huhehaote-shi.
            On September 13th, 1960, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Dehua-xian, with Dehua-xian¡¯s former administrative areas merged into Shanghouxianghuang-qi, and had Shangdouxianghuang-qi¡¯s name changed into Xianghuang-qi.
            On April, 1961, Alashan-qi was abolished, and Alashan-left-qi and Alashan-right-qi were established, with Alashan-qi¡¯s former administrative areas included within Bayangaole-zhen and Wuda-zhen¡¯s jurisdiction. On July, Guyang-qu was abolished, and its former name, Guyang-xian, was restored; Wuda-shi and Haibowan-shi were established.
            On May 31st, 1961, Guowuyuan ratified the following: a public report published by the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia entitled , which regulated Alashan-right-qi to take care of Bayinwendouer and five other such communes, and Alashan-left-qi to take care of Bayanhaote-zhen, Jiaergelasaihan, and eleven other such communes, with the area managed by Bayangaole-shi and Wuda-zhen¡¯s offices.
            On July 9th, 1961, Guowuyuan ratified the following report made by the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia:
            1.) The establishment of Haibowan-shi, with the former Zahozishan mining area¡¯s administrative areas included within Haibowan-shi¡¯s administration and under the direct jurisdiction of Yikezhao-meng;
            2.) The establishment of Bada-shi, with the former Bada-zhen¡¯s administrative areas as Bada-shi¡¯s administrative areas and have the areas under the direct jurisdiction of Bayannaoer-meng
            3.) The establishment of Guyang-xian, with a part of the former Baotou¡¯s administrative areas included within Guyan-xian¡¯s administration, with Baotou-shi¡¯s management.
            On March 7th, 1962, Guowuyuan ratified that Hebei-sheng Shangdou-xian be inlucded within the administration of Wulachabu-meng.
            On October 20th, 1962, Guowuyuan ratified the restoration of Tuquan-xian and Chifeng-xian. Keerqin-right-wing-middle-qi¡¯s people¡¯s committee was moved to Baiyunhushuo from Tuquan-xian.
            On March, 1963, Guowuyuan ratified that Tumote-qi be included within Wulanchabu-meng.
            On April 13th, 1963, Guowuyuan ratified that Huade-xian be restored.
            On Julty 31st, 1963, the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia¡¯s 27th meeting decided to establish Abahanaer-qi, with the qis¡¯ people¡¯s committee in Xilinhaote-zhen. Some parts of the former Abaga-qi and Xiwuzhumuqin-qi were included within Abahanaer-qi¡¯s administration. On October 23rd, Guowuyuan ratified the decisions made and agreed to them.
            On November 17th, 1963, Guowuyuan ratified that Wulate-front-qi and Guyang-xian be removed from Baotou-shi so that they can be managed by Bayannaoer-meng and Wulanchabu-meng¡¯s offices.
            On July, 1964, Tongliao-xian was restored, Wulanhaote-shi was merged into Keerqin-right-wing-front-qi, and Bayangaole-shi was abolished, with its areas included within the former Dengkou-xian, then restored.
            On July 20th, 1964, Guowuyuan ratified the restoration of Tongliao-xian, with its office located in Tongliao-shi; Dengkou-xian was restored, Bayangaole-shi was abolished, and Dengkou-xian¡¯s office was located in Bayangaole-zhen; Wulanhaote-shi was abolished and its administrative areas were merged into Keerqin-right-wing-front-qi.
            On August 10th, 1964, the central committee of the CCP and the Guowuyuan ratified the establishment of Daxinganlingte-qu.
            On March, 1965, Tumote-qi was abolished, with its former areas separated so that they would be included within Tumote-left-qi and Tumote-right-qi. On October the same year, Keerqin-left-wing-middle-qi was changed so that it would be managed by Zhelimu-meng instead of Hulunbeier-meng.
            On February 8th, 1965, the people¡¯s committee of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia¡¯s chairman Wulanfu organized a meeting where the issue of areal distinctions between Bayannaoer-meng, Gansu-sheng Wuwei, Zhangye, and Jiuquan¡¯s zhuanqu, related qis, and xian administrative offices was discussed. The participants of this meeting included Kuibi, Wangzhen and other people related to the issue. During the meeting, Wulitu and Wangzitu each introduced the situation and problems inherent in the areas of issue. The participants promised an yielding, compromising, and understanding attitude in solving the issue at hand, and promised to give out their best efforts. Areas closely related, including Alashan-left-qi, Alashan-right-qi, Ejina-qi and Gulang, Wujian, Minqin, Yongchang, Linze, Subei all reached an agreement. On April 6th, three western qis of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia gathered together to open a convention. Wulanfu led the meeting, took care of the regulation agreement between three borderline qis, which included three parts:
            1.) Agreement of participation and cooperation;
            2.) When there are disputes between the respective areas, the conflict must be reported to higher level offices, but not so high as the central office of CCP (ex. Sheng or autonomous district offices);
            3.) Once the borderline is decided, the offices within the dispute areas have to do their jobs well and promptly in a cooperative manner.
            On March 27th, 1965, Guowuyuan ratified the abolishment of Tumote-qi, the establishment of Tumote-left-qi and Tumote-right-qi, with Wulanchabu-meng taking care of their regional matters. On August 24th, 1965, Guowuyuan ratified that Hulunbeier-meng and Keerqin-right-wing-middle-qi be included within the areas of Zhelimu-meng. On January, 1966, Erlianhaote-shi was established; Eerguna-qi was abolished, and Eerguna-left-qi and Eerguna-right-qi were separately established. On January 18th, 1966, Guowuyuan ratified the establishment of Erlianhaote-shi (xian-level), and had the area included under the jurisdiction of Xilinguole-meng¡¯s areal office; the abolishment of Eerguna-qi and the establishment of Eerguna-left-qi and Eerguna-right-qi were also ratified, but they were included within the jurisdiction of Hulunbeier-meng¡¯s areal office instead, and their separate offices were established in Genhe-zhen and Sanhe-zhen, respectively.
            On August 4th, 1966,"


V.2 Wulanfu and Cultural Revolution¡¯s Influence on Inner Mongolia
            Wulanfu is a significant figure who must be distinguished prior to discussing anything about Inner Mongolia during the reign of the CCP. A Mongolian born in Inner Mongolia, Wulanfu was the first person as an ethnic minority to become a Communist and be recognized as a member of the CCP. He developed his Communist background in the Soviet Union, and therefore was successful in his early years in the CCP. As a prominent figure of Inner Mongolia, he was given the chance to change Inner Mongolia after the capture of Demchukdonggrub. Seeing that the CCP was definitely going to establish and take over the following regime, Wulanfu voluntarily turned the region over to Chairman Mao under the promises that the region will be designated as an autonomous district, with its political, cultural, and economical matters all supervised my people of the region. Many scholars believe that Wulanfu chose this path because he thought that partial dependence with much autonomy would be at least better than total elimination of the Mongolian grounds in China.
            His efforts, however, hit a wall during the Cultural Revolution of 1966. During this period, Chairman Mao was mentally unstable and craved for proof that he was the sole leader of China. In a way, he wanted to raise himself to a level of god, a figure to be followed, respected, and revered. Because of this, Mao and the CCP's policies towards the ethnic minority groups became more severe than ever; they did not want the ethnic minorities to preserve their traditional cultures and religions. Mao took special notice of the Inner Mongolians, since they had a stable basis of cultural background due to still-revered historical hero--the Jingghis Khan. Unofficial records note that during the Cultural Revolution, even mentioning the Jingghis Khan alarmed the CCP forces, and visiting sites related to the Khan (for example his graveyard) was strictly prohibited. Cultural rituals related to the Jingghis Khan were certainly not in order, and mass prosecution followed.
            Obviously, this was not the effect which Wulanfu had expected. With disappointment, he tried to suggest to the CCP that the ongoing persecution was too harsh and that it was not a part of the agreements made between him and the CCP. Mao, however, regarded this as a sign of rebellion and since then, Wulanfu's previous glories and positions were taken away; the following is a poster from the era which vividly shows how severe the persecution towards Wulanfu and his colleagues was (the words on this propaganda poster means "Root out all of Wulanfu's Rebellion Clique".
            Luckily, after the death of Chairman Mao, Wulanfu and other such previously persecuted individuals were set out from prisons and concentration camps. Some were even elevated to positions of considerable prestige, and Wulanfu was no exception; he became the first ethnic minority vice-president of China. Of course, however, it must be noted that a president or vice-president does not have as much influence or power in China as does a chairman, and Wulanfu did not make any major decisions during this period. Besides, many other people were also given positions of prestige at this time, all in mere name and no actual substance.

VI. Present-Day Issues
            The present day conditions of the autonomous district of Inner Mongolia are not so hopeful or positive. The Mongolian population within the area has severely decreased, and most of the people occupying the area today are the Han Chinese. Such phenomenon has occurred most likely because of the Chinese government's policy towards the ethnic minority youth. Once a child born between a Han Chinese and an ethnic minority person grows up to become an adult, the government lets the child choose between becoming a Han Chinese or an ethnic minority. Because there are many benefits that follow when a person lives as a Han, whether it is finding work or marrying to another person, the child is most likely to decide to become a Han as well
            It is also true that the Inner Mongolians are more timid and inactive compared to the Tibetans in terms of their efforts to gain independence from China. This is because of two reasons--the increasing population of Han Chinese population and the long history of trivial changes in administration and nomination. The first reason has already been thoroughly explained, so I will elaborate more on the second reason. As I have previously stated in this paper, the constant change of administrative organizations and names have clearly managed to tear apart the traditional names and regional bonds that the Mongolias used to have. In other words, there is no clear center on which the Inner Mongolians can focus and develop their power. Moreover, the Inner Mongolians have long been controlled under the meng-qi regulations established by the Qing Dynasty government, so they have trouble communicating between mengs and qis.

VII. Conclusion
            As you can see from this research paper, the history of Inner Mongolia reflects the history of modern China. Also, the area has long been an area of military importance and long-time motherland of the Mongolians. Yet it is also true that through the constant control of the Mongolian culture, the Inner Mongolians today have almost lost all hopes of forming an independent nation of their own.
            Of course in the present world, preserving the nomadic traits of the Mongolian culture may be too ideal. But the fact that a culture with a glorious history of once taking over large areas covering up to Europe is now subject to "cultural domestication" and elimination if worse is a tragic phenomenon which cannot be evaluated as positive.

VIII. Glossary of Terms

(1) Meng : an areal administrative unit which includes qi under it.
(2) Qi : an areal administrative unit, smaller than a meng
(3) Wangqongs : Wanggongs: the nobility during the Qing Dynasty
(4) Duguilang : in Mongolian means ¡°round¡±. This name originated from the fact that the participants of the rebellion used to sit in circles during discussions.
(5) Wubogedehu i: the Mongolian mob of Zhuosuotu-meng Tumote left-qi who erupted into rebellion against Wanggong¡¯s severe pressure.
(6) Bailinga rebellion : One of the major farmer rebellions of Dongbei and eastern Inner Mongolia of the 1860s; Bailinga was the name of a government officials of Zhaowuda-meng Aohan Beizi (one of the titles of officials of the Qing Dynasty).
(7) Guowuyua n: the cabinet during the early years of Zhonghuaminguo government.
(8) Sumu : name of a Mongolian village.
(9) Bage : component of qis; similar to a village.
(10) Mengcangyuan : A government office in charge of taking care of matters within ethnic minority areas like Menggu and Xijiang; then under the direct jurisdiction of Guowuyuan. Used to exist during the Zhonghuaminguo Period (Republic of China).
(11) Yamen : a form of government and municipal office
(12) Muqun : name of nomadic group.
(13) Zongguanq i: a qi that covers the whole area; not divided into left and right.
(14) Shezhiqus : a second-class administrative area of Zhonghuaminguo which belonged to the sheng government.
(15) Cheng : an administrative unit.
(16) Dutong : one of the members of Baqijun, who are the people who established Qing Dynasty; there were leaders of each of the eight member qis within the association. These eight qis united altogether is what we now know as Qing Dynasty
(17) Sheng : an administrative unit.
(18) Hosho (= Qi).
(19) Guanshu : governmental office.

IX. Reference List

IX.1 Primary Sources (in Chinese)

1. Shi Wei-le. (1949-2002), Renmin Publishing Company, December 2006
2. Zhao Qing-shu. , The University of Inner Mongolia Printing Press, December 1996.
3. Zhang Shou-he. , Jiling-sheng Regional Records Compilation Committee & Jilin-sheng Association of Regional Library Printing Press, June 1985.
4. Hao Wei-min. , June 1991.
5. Hao Wei-min, Qimudedaoer. , Renmin Publishing Company, June 2006.
6. Jin Hai. , the People¡¯s Publishing Company of Inner Mongolia, November 2005.
7. Hao Wei-min. , August 1997.
8. , Liaoning Education Publishing Company, December 1990.
9. (Qing Dynasty), China Map Publishing Company, April 1987.
10. Yan Tian-Ling. , from , March 2001.
11. Wulanshaobu. , from , 1385.
12. Zhao Wun-tian. , from , April 2004.
13. Ming Yue. , from , November 1997.
14. Hoshino Shoyu. , from , June 2006.
15. , from , May 17th2007.
16. Qinggeletu. , from
17. Hao Wei-min. , from , 1994.
18. Bai Yun. , from , 1997.
19. Li Rui. , from , 1997.
20. Yu Tian. , from , 1993.
21. Li Rui. , from , 2006.
22. Chen Li, , from , July 23rd,2001.
23. Li Jian-hui. , from , 1995.
24. Duan Yun-xue. , from , May 19th,2002.
25. Jin Bing-hao, Ma Xing, Song Quan. , from , 2002.
26. Yan Yong. , from , April 1994.
27. Zhang Shuang-zhi. , from , 2003.
28. Yang Zuo-shan. , from , September 2000. Vol. 21.
29. Li Yu-wei. , from , 2004. Vol. 31.
30. Zheng Bao-heng. , from , March 27th,2000.Vol.27.
31. Bailadougeqi. , from , 1997.
32. Yang Yong-hou. , from , 1992.
33. Li Yu-wei. , from , March 25th,2004.
34. Deng Yi-wu. , from , March 2002. Vol. 22.
35. Qinggeletu. , from , 1994.
36. Hetaobianzhu. .
37. Li Wang-wei, , from , March 2008. Vol. 18.
38. Qinggeletu. , from , March 2003. Vol. 35.

IX.2 Secondary Sources (in English or Korean)

Brown, Kerry. "THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION IN INNER MONGOLIA 1967?1969: THE PURGE OF THE ¡°HEIRS OF GENGHIS KHAN¡±." Asian Affairs 38 (2007): 173-187.



Chapter V.4 : The Military of Inner Mongolia after the Independence War (as of June 4th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

            Military efforts to firmly occupy the region of Inner Mongolia persisted even after the establishment of an independent government, since the KMT forces were still present in some regions such as the Xilin Gol League. The China Communist Party (CCP), however, were more active and more free to mobilize its troops, since the former leader Demchukdonggrub, who had shown particularly close affiliations with the KMT, was not in charge of the area anymore (He fled the country after realizing that the KMT was on the verge of losing; he crossed the borders on December 29th, 1949, and was later arrested in 1950 by the Mongolian government and sent back to China, where he finished his life in 1966).
            There are some accounts which specifically depict the efforts made by the CCP to drive the opponents out. Part of the process is delineated below:

       The 1st and 2nd military division of defense received orders to head for South to liberate and keep the borders of ZheLiMuMing. They were to work with East-western People's Liberation army to participate in the summer, autumn, and winter campaigns and conduct a struggle against criminals in Eastern Mongolia and uprisings in the countryside.
       From April 1947 to September that year, the 11th and 16th division of the defense forces dislodged Chahar's KMT army in their surprise attacks launched twice on [the liberated region of] XiCha. On January 1948, the 11th and 16th divisions of the defense forces under the instructions of WuLeJi Ao Wi'er (military commander of the 11th division) went into a long-range raid over the Sonid Left Banner of Inner Mongolia and destroyed the KMT security command center there.
       On January 1948, People's defense forces of Inner Mongolia arranged itself together£¬and changed its name into People's Liberation Army of Inner Mongolia. Ulanhu held two positions of both the political commissar and commander, ASiGen held position as vice commander (passed away on January 1948 due to illness). WangZaiTian, ZhangJiHe held position as staff officer, and FangZhiDai held position as the director of the division of political affairs.
(1)

            Considering the possibility of bias against the KMT, however, the ¡°criminals¡± in this statement may be referring to those who supported KMT or the members of the party. In addition, seeing that there were uprisings in the countryside, it seems like the residents of some areas did not fully consent to the CCPCC's rule over their regions, including perhaps the landlords who would have feared risking their property under the CCP regime.
            Relating to the latter part of the excerpt, the military organization listed above shows that the army - even right after the civil war and most probably in a state of turmoil and confusion - was well-structured and had specific roles assigned to specific people. The people mentioned here are also significant in that they were the first to hold major positions within the Communist party after Inner Mongolian regions were "liberated"; it means that there is a strong correlation between being the leaders of military forces during this time later becoming politically important figures. Indeed, some of the members did not have strong relations with military matters prior to this organization.
            The most striking example is Ulanhu, who later held position as the representative of Inner Mongolia in CCPCC's official meetings - he was believed by the Communists as somebody who can aid in maximizing the benefits and saving time of Communist China in the process of gaining Inner Mongolia. Therefore, he is sometimes blamed for using clandestine measures to either protect at least a portion of his nation or, in a more radical sense, to sell it. He is, however, very frequently regarded by some as a Mongolian nationalist who did what was best for Mongolia, someone whose diplomatic policies with Communist China minimized the possible damages (and also possibly massacre, if situation exacerbated) the Mongolian minorities could have suffered had they resisted. In other words, Ulanhu is a polarizing figure, whose actions may be interpreted in very different ways according to the viewer's perspective. Nevertheless, one thing certain is that he was an influential person in Mongolia as well as in the CCPCC, later even assuming the position of deputy chairman. This excerpt from The New York Times article of December 9th, 1988, mostly supports the latter point of view :

       [Ulanhu] worked for Inner Mongolia's independence from Nationalist-ruled China in the 1930's and fought against Japanese efforts to occupy Inner Mongolia. He also worked on the international scene, particularly in relations with Outer Mongolia, the Mongolian People's Republic, where Soviet influence is strong but ethnic identification with Inner M ongolia is close. (2)

            After the KMT forces were driven out of the region of concern, military control of the region seems to have been left on the discretion of the newly established autonomous district, for descriptions of The New York Times ((3) related to Ulanhu's later years state that "[w]hen radical youth groups called Red Guards tried to take over Inner Mongolian government offices in 1967, Mr. Ulanhu used his troops against them". This shows the possibility of the Inner Mongolian government possessing some kind of army to defend it in desperate situations (although Chairman Mao would not have expected to see that army being used to fight against the Red Guards). The scale of the army in the region in peacetime, however, was small compared to the CCP forces allocated in other minority-occupied regions like Tibet, where the situation continued to remain more volatile than Inner Mongolia. In addition, after much of the Inner Mongolian population was supplanted by the Han Chinese who moved into the region, the "danger" of Inner Mongolia claiming more than remaining as an independent district in China significantly decreased, leading to less severe military occupation of Inner Mongolia.



Working Table of Contents (as of May 16th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Introduction
II. Mongolia Prior to Partition
     1.) Political Situation
     2.) Ethnic Components
     3.) History
     4.) Map
III. Under the KuoMinTang (KMT; People's National Party): 1928-1937
     1.) Political Situation
     2.) Ethnic Components
     3.) History
     4.) Map
IV. Japanese puppet state: Mengchiang (Early 1930s-Early half of 1940s)
     1.) Location
     2.) Ruler
     3.) Capital
     4.) Language used
     5.) Map
V. Period 1945-1949
     1.) The Rise of Nationalism in Inner Mongolia after the Success of the Resistance against the Japanese
     2.) The Allied Assembly (?) Supporting an Independent Inner Mongolian State under the Communist Government
     3.) The Establishment of the Autonomous Government of Inner Mongolia
     4.) The Military of Inner Mongolia after the Independence War
     5.) The Establishment of the Autonomous District of Inner Mongolia
VI. Policies and Issues Following them
     1.) Ethnic Policies
     2.) Economic policies
     3.) Governmental Policies (perhaps)
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Notes
IX. Bibliography



Reference List, 1st Update (as of March 27th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment