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Italy on the Road to Unification as Depicted in Historic Encyclopedias

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Lee, Won Jae
Term Paper, AP European History Class, June 2009

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Italian Unification - Overview
III. Italy on the Road to Unification as Depicted in Historic Encyclopedias
III.1 Lexicon Vallardi (undated, c.1890), Article Italia (sub-article Risorgimento)
III.1.1 Analysis at Surface Level
III.1.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
III.2 Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 Edition, Article Italy
III.2.1 Analysis at Surface Level
III.2.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
III.3 Jewish Encyclopedia 1901~1906 Edition, Article Italy
III.3.1 Analysis at Surface Level
III.3.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
III.4 Meyer¡¯s Konversationslexikon 1902~1909 Edition, Article: Italy
III.4.1 Analysis at Surface Level
III.4.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
III.5 Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 Edition, Article Italy (sub-article Risorgimento)
III.5.1 Analysis at Surface Level
III.5.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
III.6 Two Wikipedie ( &
III.6.1 Analysis at Surface Level
III.6.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
IV. Conclusion

I. Introduction
            Since Diderot and his predecessors, encyclopedias have been public¡¯s means of garnering vast information on diverse topics from all fields of studies. Encyclopedias, as a source of information, are thus responsible for conveying reliable and objective information, without any bias or prejudice. However, such is not the case in reality. Despite purpose of encyclopedias to remain objective, their writers after all are humans inclined one way or another to a certain set of values. Therefore, encyclopedias are subject to biases and prejudices according to their writers' interests.
            It would be silly to observe encyclopedias wholly and thoroughly in order to extract biases and prejudices through comparison. Thus, this paper will focus on ¡°Italy on the road to unification¡± and thus observe articles related to the event. There were historical figures, events that characterize Italy's unification. And it is this paper¡¯s aim to observe how various articles on such figures and events differ in terms of standpoints from one encyclopedia to another.

II. Italian Unification - Overview
            Before beginning to judge biases and prejudices in various articles in encyclopedias coming from different decades and nations, it is important to have a standard of judgment, drawn not from a primary source but a secondary source. Thus, a simple, and as objective as possible, overview of Italy on its way to unification cannot be overlooked.
            After the fall of the Napoleonic regime, and thus the decline of the Kingdom of Italy, the Italian peninsula was left with fragmented states including Kingdom of Sardinia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Duchy of Modena, Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, Kingdom of Two Sicilies, and Papal States; the Congress of Vienna in 1815 restored Italian peninsula to its divided status, but under Austrian influence not French. Italian nationalism was formed and first sparks of revolution started in Southern Italy by the Carbonari. Inspired by French Revolution, ideals of Carbonari quickly spread throughout the Papal States and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies; however, incumbent power's haste reaction and harsh suppression mitigated the revolutionary fire. Another nationalistically motivated attempt occurred in Kingdom of Sardinia in 1821, Piemonte. Santarosa, with the help of Prince Carlo Alberto, attempted to unite Italy under the House of Savoy. However, the king, Carlo Felice disavowed newly enacted constitution and annulled revolutionary attempts. Other revolutionary attempts were made in Modena and Parma, but were stifled by marching Austrian troops into the Italian peninsula. (1)
            On March 18th, 1848, the Milanese and Venetians rose up against the Austrian rule. In return, the Austrian army besieged Milan. Carlo Alberto, deeming this as the opportunity to unite Italy, declared war on Austria. Carlo Alberto suffered defeat and Lombardy-Venetia was securely in the hands of the Austrians. In 1849, Carlo Alberto waged another war on Austrians but experiences a final defeat. He abdicated his throne to his son, Vittorio Emmanuele II. The dream of Italian unification encounters a systematic tactician, Camillo Benso di Cavour. As the president of Council of Ministers, Cavour calculated that Sardinian forces will not be able to match the Austrian army. So he plans to draw British and French help. "Cavour and Napoleon III agreed to a joint war against Austria. Piedmont would gain the Austrian territories in Italy (Lombardy and Venetia), as well as the Duchies of Parma and Modena, while France would be rewarded with Piedmont's transalpine territories of Savoy and Nice." (2) Weakened and isolated after the Crimean war, Austria was incompetent against French-Sardinian alliance. After the Treaty of Zürich in 1859, Austro-Sardinian war came to a close, with Northern and Central Italy now under the Sardinian influence. (3)
            "Thus, by the spring of 1860, only four states remained in Italy - the Austrians in Venetia, the Papal States (now minus the Legations), the new expanded Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies." (4) Francesco II. of Two Sicilies began to organize armies against the Kingdom of Sardinia. Meanwhile, Garibaldi, a native of Nice, was deeply resentful of French annexation of his hometown and marched to France. Cavour persuaded Garibaldi to direct his troops to Two Sicilies. "The Expedition of the Thousand (Italian: Spedizione dei Mille) was a military campaign led by the revolutionary general Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1860. A force of volunteers defeated the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, leading to its dissolution and annexation by the Kingdom of Sardinia." (5) Vittorio Emmanuele II. met Garibaldi at Teano and took control of the unification process. "On February 18, 1861, Victor Emmanuel assembled the deputies of the first Italian Parliament in Turin. On March 17, 1861, the Parliament proclaimed Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy, and on March 27, 1861 Rome was declared Capital of Italy. Three months later Cavour, having seen his life's work nearly complete, died. When he was given the last rites, Cavour purportedly said: "Italy is made. All is safe." (6) The Austro-Prussian war in 1866 gave the new Kingdom of Italy chance to capture Venetia once and for all from the Austrians. On October 21 and 22, public referendum was held, under military pressure and Venetia was annexed. Despite new Kingdom of Italy's vast territory in the Italian peninsula, it was only in September 1870 that it succeeded in capturing Rome from the French garrison supporting Pius IX. On September 20th, the Sardinian army marched into Rome, marking the end of Risorgimento. (7)
            Although this overview is mostly from, which can also be subject to certain prejudice because it is global internet users who wrote the related articles, only the general flow and backbone of the events were used in order to avoid bias and prejudice as much as possible. Now that we have an broad idea of how Italy attained its unification, it is time to take a look into how different encyclopedias imply different tonalities in depiction of the same event. (7)

III. Italy on the Road to Unification as Depicted in Historic Encyclopedias
            Six encyclopedias will be used in total in order to meet this paper¡¯s goal. Four of such encyclopedias will be primary sources: Lexicon Vallardi, an Italian encyclopedia presumed to be published at the end of 19th century, Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition, Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 Edition, and Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 Edition. Two major secondary sources will be articles on Italian Unification from English Wikipedia and Italian Wikipedia. Some sources dedicate an entire article to ¡°Unification of Italy¡± or ¡°Risorgimento¡±, but some only give a portion under ¡°Italy¡±. Thus, such words will be words that will be looked into.

III.1 Lexicon Vallardi (undated, c.1890), Article Italia (sub-article Risorgimento)

III.1.1 Analysis at Surface Level
            Though Lexicon Vallardi does not provide ample information on Italian Unification, it provides insightful and profound information on Italy as a whole, covering fauna, flora, minerals and many details that other encyclopedias conveniently chose to ignore, a point which already shows the difference in viewpoint between encyclopedias. Before going into the article, it must be noted that it is Italian liberals who have written Lexicon Vallardi. Thus, it is reasonable to go into this article thinking that the article will be favorable towards unification movements.

III.1.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
            The sub-article ¡°Il Risorgimento d¡¯Italia¡± (under article ¡°Italia¡±) covers relatively briefly the process of its country¡¯s unification. It mainly focuses on what figures like Mazzini and Garibaldi have done and how each state reacted to the movements. Second sentence of the article begins with ¡°i Carbonari trionfarono a Napoli¡± (Italian: The Carbonari triumphed at Naples). What is notable is that the verb ¡®to triumph¡¯ can be easily seen throughout the article. ¡®To triumph¡¯ is a stronger form of ¡®to win¡¯ tinged with sense of jubilation and justice. Thus the use of such special verb already marks a difference. Instead of focusing on the military or diplomatic tactics, the article highlights the attainment of constitution in several states. Such focus shows the article¡¯s intention to make ¡°Risorgimento¡± a more public event than elite event because constitutions generally influence entire public rather than the elites. Instead of remarking that Piemonte was the only state that resisted Austrian influence, Lexicon Vallardi chooses to say it: ¡°solo il Piemonte resistete and tenne la Costituzione¡± (Italian: only Piemonte resisted and retained the Constitution), once again showing the writers¡¯ intention. When introducing the revolutionary Garibaldi, the article does not forget to title him ¡°l¡¯eroico Garibaldi¡± (Italian: the heroic Garibaldi). Garibaldi¡¯s Mille is also named ¡°mille eroi¡±. (Italian: Thousand heroes) To describe Garibaldi¡¯s attempts to enter Rome, delicate expressions are used: ¡°Garibaldi fa un altro tentative coi suoi volontari per liberare Roma ... il 20 settembre, le armi italiane, quasi senza colpo ferire, entrano in Roma¡±. (Italian: Garibaldi made another attempt with his volunteers to liberate Rome ... the 20th of September, the Italian army, almost without any damage or harn, entered Rome) Instead of verbs like ¡®conquer¡¯, or ¡®dominate¡¯, the verb ¡®to liberate¡¯ has been used. Furthermore, the article designates revolutionary army as ¡°armi italiane¡±, and thus showing nationalistic viewpoint. Another subtle favoritism can be seen in ¡°quasi senza colpo ferire¡± meaning ¡®almost without any harm and damages¡±, which justifies Garibaldi¡¯s entrance with air of justice. (9)
            In conclusion, Lexicon Vallardi subtly yet strongly writes in favor of the Italian unification movements. Choices of verbs and adjectives are directly show Lexicon Vallardi's stance regarding Risorgimento. Despite the shortness of the article, which is understandable considering the short time lapse since the unification, the article is full of favoritism towards Risorgimento.

III.2 Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 Edition, Article Italy

III.2.1 Analysis at Surface Level
            Garibaldi and many revolutionaries towards the end of Risorgimento attacked the Papal States in order to attain full union of the peninsula under one rule. Thus, Catholic Church could have seen revolutionaries¡¯ attempts as threatening and also undesirable, a belief which would have led writers of Catholic Encyclopedia to have viewpoint of anti-revolutionaries. Judging from a quick glance at the proportion that is dedicated to unification movements, such reasoning does not seem to be wrong. Out of 45,000 words article ¡°Italy¡± only two short paragraphs mention, in a disinterested manner, Italian unification process.

III.2.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
            Unlike Lexicon Vallardi, Italian unification is not separated as an individual sub-article in Catholic Encyclopedia; it merely dedicates two paragraphs at the end of section ¡°History¡±. Reading through the article, one can easily realize that it lacks details and insights; the article only follows how each state reacted to sweeping changes from one rule to another. What is more surprising is that it mentions very few figures who contributed to unification. Cavour is the only major figure that is mentioned. Garibaldi appears nowhere in the article; considering that it was under Garibaldi that attempts to siege Rome were conducted, such omission is comprehensible. The article writes "The unification of Italy was essentially an act of Piemonteese government", ignoring all other revolutionary groups like Carbonari and Red shirts. Furthermore, subtle choices of words are used to depict revolutionary armies negatively:

            "on 20 September, 1870, Rome, having been taken by force of arms, declared its union with the Kingdom of Italy through the plebiscite (2 October) of that year." (10)

            Unlike Lexicon Vallardi that used ¡°to liberate¡± to describe the capture of Rome, Catholic Encyclopedia expresses hostility by using expression like ¡°having been taken by force of arms¡±.
            Considering the great amount of omission and negative description, Catholic Encyclopedia can be said to have a bias against Italy¡¯s Unification and its processes.

III.3 Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 Edition, Article Italy

III.3.1 Analysis at Surface Level
            Just like Catholic Encyclopedia, Jewish Encyclopedia dedicates only a small portion of its article to Italy¡¯s unification. Its high inclination towards Jewish events and figures makes the article to be devoid of several details concerning Italy¡¯s politics, societies, and economies. Jewish Encyclopedia is likely to be biased against Italians because of antisemitismo that prevailed throughout the early and middle 2nd millennium. (11)

III.3.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
            Though it is said above that Jewish Encyclopedia does dedicate certain amount to Italian unification, even this small amount is mostly related to Jewish events and matters. Even important events to Italian unification is described in connection to Jewish events:

            "1859 all the papal states became the united kingdom of Italy under King Victor Emanuel II.; and except in Rome, where oppression lasted until the end of the papal dominion (Sept. 20, 1870), the Jews obtained full emancipation." (12)

            Due to lack of information, it is difficult to judge reasonably Jewish Encyclopedia¡¯s stance towards Italian unification. Instead of describing Italian history, the Jewish Encyclopedia outlines the emancipation process and other events that directly influenced the Jewish people as the above quotation shows. It may be too much to say that Jewish Encyclopedia is anti-Italian; however, it is reasonable to say that Jewish Encyclopedia is strongly pro-Jewish.

III.4 Meyers Konversationslexikon 1902-1909 Edition, Article Italy

III.4.1 Analysis at Surface Level
            Meyers Konversationslexikon is a German encyclopedia. Germany was not involved politically or religiously in the Risorgimento; thus it is presumable that Meyers Konversationslexikon maintains relative objectivity. An agreeable amount is dedicated to section ¡°The Unification of Italy to a Single Kingdom¡±.

III.4.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
            As predicted, Meyers Konversationslexikon describes Italy¡¯s Unification in an objective stance while mentioning some details that previously dealt encyclopedias did not talk about. Beginning with crediting Cavour as "the greatest statesman Italy has produced in the last 5 centuries", Meyers Konversationslexikon outlines Cavour¡¯s diplomatic tactics. Battles undertaken by Vittorio Emmanuele II and Garibaldi are dealt with much emphasis and details. The following an example of detailed narrative on battles:

            " ... Vittorio Emmanuele increased his army to a size of 80.000 men, and united the volunteers arriving from all over Italy under the command of Garibaldi. The French partially crossed the Western Alps on April 25th, partially landed in Genova on April 26th, and united with Sardinians. A reconnaissance, in the course of which Gyulay on May 20th near Montebello ran into superior French forces, convincd him that he had to expect the main attack from southerly direction ..." (13)

            What distinguishes Meyers Konversationslexikon from Lexicon Vallardi is that it genuinely depicts the tension between Cavour and Garibaldi, a tension of two heroes that pro-Italian Lexicon Vallardi avoided to mention:

            "On July 7th under the jubilation of the population Garibaldi entered Naples. Now the serious danger existed that he might turn against the Papal State and try to liberate Rome from the rule of the pope. In order to prevent this, Napoleon and Cavour agreed, that Sardinian troops were to occupy the Marches and Umbria, and would move on Naples, in order to establish an organized monarchic government instead of Garibaldi¡¯s dictatorship ..." (14)

            Besides truthful depiction of revolutionary hero, Meyers Konversationslexikon also does not hesitate to show opposition to Italian unification.

            "The plebiscite in the Papal State held on October 2nd produced 133,681 yes votes, 1507 no votes among 167,000 who had the right to vote" (15)

            Meyers Konversationslexikon explicitly mentions the ¡°1507 no votes¡±, something that Lexicon Vallardi did not do in order to strengthen the sense of national union.
            Thus, in conclusion, Meyers Konversationslexikon allows us to learn that the more detached the writing group of an encyclopedia is from a historical event, the more objective and detailed the depiction of the event is.

III.5 Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 Edition, Article Italy

III.5.1 Analysis at Surface Level
            Encyclopedia Britannica provides vast information on Italy. Geography, politics, environment, towns, history are all comprehensibly provided with statistical data and records. The article ¡°Italy¡± is extensively categorized into many sections, 33 pages of which is specifically dedicated to Risorgimento. Regarding the length, it is very likely that insight and details will be prevalent in the article. Just like Meyer¡¯s, Britannica is from a country that did not have much to do with ongoing nationalism in Italy. Thus, it is also likely that Risorgimento will be displayed objectively and with detail.

III.5.2 Analysis Contextual Level
            Overall, Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 Edition does not hesitate to condemn or praise either side of the nationalist revolution. In describing Papal State before the rise of insurrection, it writes:

            "The administration was inefficient and corrupt, the censorship uncompromising, the police ferocious and oppressive ..." (16)

            Note that Britannica harshly criticizes the Papal State, and that this is something that religiously-interested encyclopedias would not have done.
            Another hesitation-free remark is the following:

            "To the mass of the people the restoration of the old governments undoubtedly brought a sense of relief, for the terrible drain in men and money caused by Napoleon¡¯s wars had caused much discontent, whereas now there was a prospect of peace and rest" (17)

            The ¡°restoration of the old governments¡± in this text means the re-fragmentation of Italian states and incoming of Austrophil rulers. The highly liberal Lexicon Vallardi surely would not have expressed such event as relieving.
            Unlike some other encyclopedias, important figures are given very much weight. One example, Cavour is not directly described in adjectives but is indirectly characterized, depicted throughout the entire article. Here is an example:

            "The preparations for the expedition¡¦were viewed by Cavour with mixed feelings. With its object he sympathized; yet he could not give official sanction to an armed attack on a friendly power, nor on the other hand could he forbid an action enthusiastically approved by public opinion." (18)

            Note that Britannica instilled its judgment on Cavour and is attempting to depict him as a thoughtful leader. Cavour is also depicted as having prudence and patience towards unification:

            "Cavour¡¯s ideal for the present was the expulsion of Austria from Italy and the expansion of Piedmont into a north Italian Kingdom; and, although he did not yet think if Italian unity as a question of practical policy, he began to foresee it as a future possibility." (19)

            Just like Meyers, the Britannica also brings up possible dangers of Garibaldi¡¯s dictatorship:

            "King Victor Emmanuel and Cavour both wrote to Garibaldi urging him not to spoil all by aiming at too much. But Garibaldi poured scorn on all suggestions of compromise; and Cavour saw that the situation could only be saved by the armed participation of Piedmont in the liberation of south Italy" (20)

            Here, Garibaldi, a national hero, is shown as a threat to Italian unification. Next paragraph to this quotation uses expression like ¡°race between Garibaldi and the Piedmontese¡±, depicting process of Italian unification as a competition rather than tightly united movement motivated by nationalism and sense of responsibility.
            By far, Encyclopedia Britannica is the most detailed. Yet, both pro- and anti- Italian unification expressions are used to describe diverse events and figures. These extreme expressions cancel each other out and thus grant reality and objectivity.

III.6 Two Wikipedie ( &

III.6.1 Analysis at Surface Level
            It is a widely accepted opinion that Wikipedia articles dealing with same topics but from different linguistic backgrounds display certain degree of differences. Same is true for article ¡°Italian Unification¡± (Risorgimento in Italian Wikipedia). Simple differences can be seen at outline level. English version of Italian unification follows more or less a strict chronological order. On the other hand, Italian version begins with coverage of background ideologies which lead to similar chronological coverage but culminate in in-depth narratives that specifically deal with major events that are likely to have drawn public involvement.

III.6.2 Analysis at Contextual Level
            Italian version is much more detailed and well organized. However, this is not the outstanding difference. The major distinguishing aspect of the Italian version from the English version is that the Italian version constantly attempts to encourage national pride and unison.
            In describing the incident of Five days of Milan (18~22 March 1848), Italian version of Wikipedia says: ¡°un esempio della partecipazione popolare al fenomeno risorgimentale¡± and ¡°grande dedizione patriottica alla causa nazionale¡±. (Italian: an example of public participation to the Restoration phenomenon) Undoubtedly, because Italian version is very likely to be read by Italian learning children and citizens, the Italian version emphasizes nationalism and public involvement more than any other encyclopedia, thereby displaying Risorgimento in public light, not elite light. Garibaldi¡¯s La Spedizione dei Mille (Italian: the Expedition of Thousands) is given precisely such description: ¡°La spedizione dei Mille fu la grande occasione: trasformare il Risorgimento da un movimento d¡¯elite a un grande movimento popolare". (The Expedition of Thousands marked an important occasion, transoforming the Restoration from an elite movement to a big movement of the public) The Italian people at that time is also depicted as enthusiastic participants in the revolution: ¡°Avevano lasciato I loro studi, I loro agi ... per venire in questa lontana isola (Sicilia) ..." (Italian: they left their studies, their comforts¡¦to come to this island of Sicily) (21)
            Besides nationalistic undertones, Italian version does not mention about tension between Garibaldi and Cavour, and thereby making the two heroes of unification above normal human emotions and grudges.
            Therefore, in conclusion, Italian version of article Italian unification is more subject to bias (pro-Italy) whereas English version is relatively bias-free (the introductory section II is based on English version).

IV. Conclusion
            As has been stated in the beginning, this paper¡¯s goal was not to study on the events and processes of Italian unification. Thus details related to such topics were not heavily dealt with in the paper. However, it focused on excavating underlying biases in various articles. Each encyclopedia was dissected on article related to Italian unification and they were found subject to biases. The result was that every encyclopedia had its own standpoint. Lexicon Vallardi and Italian version of Wikipedia article were in favor of Italian unification. While Catholic Encyclopedia and Jewish Encyclopedia showed reluctance towards the same event. Meyers Konversationslexikon and the Britannica were rather objective. Yet, no encyclopedia succeeded in providing a wholesome and complete account on Italian Unification. Reading only Italian version of Wikipedia and Lexicon Vallardi will not provide with subtle political conflicts between Cavour and the revolutionary general. Reading Catholic Encyclopedia and Jewish Encyclopedia will give the impression that Italian unification is an event that deserves very little attention. In conclusion, contrary to common belief that all encyclopedias are informative in objective manner, encyclopedias are driven by self-interests. Though Meyers and the Britannica displayed little or probably no bias regarding Italian unification, they will also be subject to bias when it comes to topics like Sepoy Rebellion or Imperialism. Thus it is not outrageous to claim that all writings are subject to bias, which is dependent on the writer¡¯s background, whether this background be national or personal. All encyclopedias, in conclusion, are unable to provide a whole and most objective information on every event; this is why the skill to see through biases and extract necessary information is one of the most cherished skills for modern historians.


(1)      Article: ¡°Italian Unification¡± from Wikipedia
(2)      Quoted from Article: ¡°Italian Unification¡± from Wikipedia
(3)      Article: ¡°Italian Unification¡± from Wikipedia
(4)      Quoted from Article: ¡°Italian Unification¡± from Wikipedia
(5)      Quoted from Article: ¡°Expedition of the Thousand¡± from Wikipediaa
(6)      Quoted from Article: ¡°Italian Unification¡± from Wikipedia
(7)      Article: ¡°Italian Unification¡± and ¡°Capture of Rome¡± from Wikipedia
(9)      Quotes from Article: ¡°Italia¡±, Lexicon Vallardi (undated, c.1890) Volume VI, pg. 174.
(10)      Article: ¡°Italy¡± from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 Edition.
(11)      See ¡°anti-semitism¡± and ¡°ghetto¡± for further reference, at WHKMLA Historical Dictionary : Italy
(12)      Article: ¡°Italy¡±, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 Edition
(13)      Article: ¡°Italy¡± from Meyer¡¯s Konversationslexikon, translated version on WHKMLA
(14)      Article: ¡°Italy¡± from Meyer¡¯s Konversationslexikon, translated version on WHKMLA
(15)      Article: ¡°Italy¡± from Meyer¡¯s Konversationslexikon, translated version on WHKMLA
(16)      From Article: ¡°Italy¡±, Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition
(17)      From Article: ¡°Italy¡±, Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition
(18)      From Article: ¡°Italy¡±, Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition
(19)      From Article: ¡°Italy¡±, Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition
(20)      From Article: ¡°Italy¡±, Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition
(21)      Quotations from Article: ¡°Risorgimento¡± from Italian


Note : websites quoted below were visited in June and July 2009.

Primary Sources
1.      Article: ¡°Italia¡± from Lexicon Vallardi Volume VI, pg. 174. Milano F. Vallardi. Posted on: Internet Archive
2.      Article: ¡°Italy¡± from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907~1914 Edition. Posted by New Advent.
3.      Article: ¡°Italy¡± from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901~1906 Edition Posted by Jewish Encyclopedia :
4.      Article: ¡°Italy¡± from Meyer¡¯s Konversationslexikon 1902~1909 Edition, posted by Retro-Bibliothek English translation posted on WHKMLA (
5.      Article: ¡°Italy¡± from Encyclopedia Brtannica 1911 Edition Posted by Classic Encyclopedia :

Secondary Sources
6.      Article: ¡°Italian Unification¡± from
7.      Article: ¡°Expedition of Thousand¡± from
8.      Article: ¡°Capture of Rome¡± from
9.      Article: ¡°Risorgimento¡± from
10.      Historical Dictionary : Italy, from WHKMLA ?entries : Anti-Semitism, Ghetto?
11.      Article: ¡°L¡¯Unificazione d¡¯Italia¡± from

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