Italy on the Road to Unification Depicted in Encyclopedias of the Late 19th and Early 20th Century


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
LWJ



Table of Contents


Chapter : Rattazzi , December 1st 2009
Chapter : Garibaldi, 2nd draft , November 28th 2009
Chapter : Garibaldi , October 13th 2009
Update, September 29th 2009
Framework, September 9th 2009
Notes Enciclopedia Moderna Illustrata , August 25th 2009
Notes Lexicon Vallardi , August 25th 2009
Outline , August 25th 2009



Chapter : Rattazzi, December 1st 2009 . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Chapter: Rattazzi

Table of Contents:

I. Overview
II. Coverage Prejudice
II.1. Standards and Grades
II.2. Table of Coverage Analysis
II.3. Inter-encyclopedic analysis based on contents
III. Encyclopedic analysis
III.1. Encyclopedia predating Risorgimento
III.1.1. Pierer¡¯s Universal-Lexikon (1857-1865)
III.2. Encyclopedias contemporary or recent to Risorgimento
III.2.1. Nordisk Familjebok (1876-1899)
III.2.2. Meyers Konversationlexikon (1885-1892)
III.2.3. Catholic Encyclopedia (1907-1914)
III.2.4. Encyclopedia Britannica (1911)
III.2.5. Lexicon Vallardi: enciclopedia universale illustrata (192?)
III.2.6. Piccolo Lexicon Vallardi (192?)
III.2.7. Enciclopedia moderna illustrata (192?)
III.3. Modern encyclopedias
III.3.1. Wikipedia English edition
III.3.2. Wikipedia Italian edition
IV. Conclusion of Chapter: Rattazzi

I. Overview
         Urbano Rattazzi was Italian statesman. Educated in Turin as a lawyer, he was recruited by government at an early age and held countless crucial positions, sometimes one position at a time but sometimes multiple positions at once. The most conspicuous of the positions he held are head of cabinet, minister of foreign affairs, minister of state affairs, and minister of finance. Though Rattazzi and his life has many other details, regarding that the subject of this paper is Italy on the road to unification, the aspects related to the unification will be dealt more seriously. Rattazzi¡¯s dilemma, being unable to decide whether to listen to Italian public¡¯s wish or to follow diplomatic orders from France, will be the main criterion in judging whether an article is biased or not, for this single piece of information is the most direct and powerful connection to Italy¡¯s unification.

II. Coverage Prejudice

II.1. Standard and Grades

Childhood/ Education Family background/ childhood education/ any information relevant to life before political career
Career The positions held. The accomplishments as an acting politician. The negotiations, contributions, changes Rattazzi made.
Wife Wife has a surprising history. Two re-marriages in her life. Exile from Paris. Expertise in literature.
Character Development Any adjectives or expressions that elaborate Rattazzi directly or indirectly.
Dilemma Rattazzi¡¯s actions during Battle of Aspromonte and Mentana. His resignations and swings in popularity.

Quality of Contents
None Subject is virtually not dealt with at all
Poor Subject is covered in a manner that room for guessing is available
Adequate Subject is narrated clearly and information given leaves little or no doubt
Subject is described with in-depth information not present in other articles
Detailed
Not necessarily detailed; the subject is dealt with a highly biased approach
Extravagant

Quality of Bias
Objective Subject is dealt in a balanced fashion
Pro- Article overall takes a favorable stance towards the subject
Con- Article overall takes an unfavorable stance towards the subject

Quality of Expression
Dry Article conveys information avoiding unnecessary elaboration
Luxurious Article overflows with expressions that exalt the subject
Slight Article intentionally slights the subject using harsh language

Quality of Length
Inadequate Article is so short that it is hardly helpful or informing
Average Article covers enough to provide readers with reasonable information
Superfluous Article contains unnecessary information that are irrelevant

II.2. Table of Coverage Analysis
         Using the standards and grades established above, articles "Rattazzi" from ten different encyclopedias will be investigated.

Pierer 1857 Nordisk 1876 Meyers 1885 Catholic 1907 Britannica 1911
Childhood/Edu. N/A Poor Poor N/A N/A
Career N/A Adequate Adequate N/A N/A
Wife N/A None None N/A N/A
Character Dev. N/A Adequate Adequate N/A N/A
Dilemma Very poorly Adequate Adequate N/A N/A
overall N/A Objective / Dry / Inadequate Objective / Dry / Inadequate N/A N/A

. Lexicon Vallardi (192?) Piccolo Lexicon Vallardi (192?) Enciclopedia moderna illustrata (192?) Wikipedia English edition Wikipedia Italian edition
Childhood/Edu. poor Poor Poor Poor Adequate
Career Detailed Adequate Adequate Detailed Detailed
Wife None Detailed Detailed Detailed None
Character Dev. Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor
Dilemma Detailed Very poor Very poor Detailed Detailed (bias)
Overall Objective/ dry/ Adequate biased/ dry/ average biased/ dry/ average Objective/ dry/ adequate Bias/ dry/ average

III. Encyclopedic analysis

III.1. Encyclopedia predating Risorgimento

III.1.1. Pierer's Universal-Lexikon (1857-1865)
         Pierer did not dedicate an article to Rattazzi solely. However, it does mention him under the article "Sardinian Monarchy". Not much about him is discussed. Considering the year this article was written, 1857, the lack of detail on Rattazzi's role in Sardinian government is understandable.

III.2. Encyclopedias contemporary or recent to Risorgimento

III.2.1. Nordisk Familjebok (1876-1899)
         Though the length is short compared to articles on figures widely celebrated in Germany like Garibaldi, the article "Rattazzi" in Nordisk covers just enough to be said. Though the childhood or education is dealt with very poorly, the article clearly mentions the difficult situation of Rattazzi stuck between two entities' demands, one from Italian public and one from French. Unlike other articles, however, Nordisk contains a strong line that directly characterizes Rattazzi: "... he lacked energy, character, and foresight of a statesman."

III.2.2. Meyers Konversationlexikon (1885-1892)
         Meyers shares similar stance with Nordisk. Rattazzi's dilemma is clearly mentioned. The article criticizes Rattazzi's reaction to Battle of Mentana as "ambiguous and faltering." The only difference is in the method of Rattazzi's characterization. "As an excellent orator, he continued to exercise power in parliament, where he remained leader of the left. But his lack of character has shattered his reputation as a statesman."

III.2.3. Catholic Encyclopedia (1907-1914)
         Just like Garibaldi, Rattazzi favored Roman invasion at least for once. Perhaps for this reason, Catholic encyclopedia decided to omit Rattazzi. He is mentioned here and there in other articles but his vital role in deciding whether to protect Rome or to support Garibaldi is nowhere mentioned.

III.2.4. Encyclopedia Britannica (1911)
         (Due to technical problems, I wasn¡¯t able to get to this article. I will try later)

III.2.5. Lexicon Vallardi: enciclopedia universale illustrata (192?)
         This article was the most detailed of all the articles. Though Rattazzi¡¯s childhood is covered poorly, his political career is described in detail that can be observed nowhere else. It mentions the frequent resignations and reinstatements that Rattazzi underwent. It also mentions the Connubio, or union, between Rattazzi's center-left and Cavour's center-right. The changes in Rattazzi's partisanship is clearly illustrated. Despite expectations to be biased due to its Italian publisher, the article is rather straightforward in Rattazzi's dilemma. His "manner at Aspromonte and his marriage to a woman (remarriage, it mentions) from Bonaparte family, put him unpopular in Italian public.¡±" Regarding the second dilemma of Battle of Mentana, the article says: "[Rattazzi was] accused by liberals for weakness towards Napoleon, by clericals for connivenza (?) with Garibaldi, and compromise¡¦with French government." The article also mentions how Rattazzi became unpopular to Romans by his religious suppressions.

III.2.6. Piccolo Lexicon Vallardi (192?)
         Other opinions on this encyclopedia are very minor, enough to be ignorable. However, its stance differing from Lexicon Vallardi, which is from the same publisher, is stunning. This article does not mention that Rattazzi had to resign or fell in unpopular side among Italian public. The article itself is very short. Yet, the key information has been left out. All it says is as follows: "[Rattazzi] repressed movements in Aspromonte."

III.2.7. Enciclopedia moderna illustrata (192?)
         EMI wears the same glasses worn by PLV. Same expressions and same grammatical orders can be observed here and there.

III.3. Modern encyclopedias

III.3.1. Wikipedia English edition
         Mentions Rattazzi¡¯s religious involvement and his repressions. Simply narrates the positions held and resigned by Rattazzi. Under the article "Rattazzi", his wife is discussed, the length of which takes half of entire writing.

III.3.2. Wikipedia Italian edition
         Direct characterizations are observable: Rattazzi was "energetic and warrior-like." This description contrasts with that from Meyers and Nordisk. Perhaps this is a sign of bias. The article deals very lightly Rattazzi's "suppression of religious organizations." Regarding Battle of Aspromonte, the article writes, "[Rattazzi was] unable to stop with sufficiency the tempest of Giuseppe Garibaldi." As for Battle of Mentana, it says Rattazzi attempted arrest of Garibaldi but he "escaped miraculously." In other encyclopedias, Rattazzi is said to have not involved himself seriously in preventing Garibaldi's Roman invasion during Battle of Mentana. This discrepancy well exemplifies this article's distortion of factual information. (We need to talk about this. I feel uncomfortable with my conclusion here)

IV. Conclusion of Chapter: Rattazzi
         Overall, the articles ¡°Rattazzi¡± are very short. His childhood is poor in every article. Perhaps not much record has been found. Most articles decide to handle his wife with spotlight due to her interesting history. But only Lexicon Vallardi and modern English Wikipedia mention her confusing history. As said in the overview section, the dilemma Rattazzi had was dealt with utmost focus. The result was successful: articles differed on how they presented his dilemma-some ignored, some briefly mentioned, and some condemned his indecision. Once again, bias governed the framers of encyclopedic writing.



Chapter : Garibaldi, November 28th 2009 . . Go to Teacher's Comment

IV. Garibaldi as depicted in other articles
         There are no rules that guarantees coherency of position within a single encyclopedia. In belief that Garibaldi can be depicted differently in other articles, articles on Garibaldi¡¯s to two antagonistic figures-Cavour and Ratazzi-will be looked into.

IV.1. Cavour
         Nordisk & Meyers: Though these two encyclopedias have no reason to conceal the litigations between the two leading figures in Italian unification, they chose not to go into detail the conflicts between Garibaldi and Cavour. Both encyclopedias discuss that Cavour helped Garibaldi ¡°secretly¡± in invading Kingdom of Naples.
         PLV: the article mentions Garibaldi only once. It may be dangerous to attempt to extract any prejudice from this modicum of mention. PLV covers up Cavour¡¯s conflict with Garibaldi by not mentioning it at all. The only place their relationship/cooperation is discussed is: ¡°Garibaldi led the liberation armies¡¦the count of Cavour helped this bravery secretly in order to not put himself in a diplomatic uneasiness.¡±
         Wiki (En): No hesitation to reveal the contradiction in opinions between Garibaldi and Cavour. One powerful line: ¡°The relationship between Cavour and Garibaldi was always fractious: Cavour likened Garibaldi to ¡°a savage¡± while Garibaldi memorably called Cavour ¡°a low-intriguer.¡±¡±
         Wiki (It): The Italian version provides a new light to the two figures¡¯ conflict. It details that both admitted each other as ¡°enemies¡± and it includes one¡¯s comments on each other. Garibaldi had expressed his dislike of Cavour being the prime minister of Savoy.
         Though no prejudice was found, one conclusion can be surfaced: the encyclopedias did not change their stance within articles.

IV.2. Rattazzi
         Wiki (En): Garibaldi not characterized in any manner
         Wiki (It): ¡¯¡¯
         Nordisk & Meyers: only mentions Rattazzi¡¯s dilemma.
         Is this helpful ???



Chapter : Garibaldi, October 13th 2009 . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Abstract
         A timeline will come first, providing objective basis for judgment. Then a table that explicitly and directly shows content-wise bias will be shown. (standards and marks will differ from chapter to chapter) Then, each encyclopedia will be discussed separately, focusing on biases that cannot be made evident in the tables.

Table of Contents:

I. Overview (timeline)
II. Coverage prejudice
II.1. Standards and grades
II.2. Table of Coverage Analysis
II.3. Inter-encyclopedic analysis based on contents
III. Encyclopedic analysis
III.1. Encyclopedia predating Risorgimento
III.1.1. Pierer¡¯s Universal-Lexikon (1857-1865)
III.2. Encyclopedias contemporary or recent to Risorgimento
III.2.1. Nordisk Familjebok (1876-1899)
III.2.2. Meyers Konversationlexikon (1885-1892)
III.2.3. Catholic Encyclopedia (1907-1914)
III.2.4. Encyclopedia Britannica (1911)
III.2.5. Lexicon Vallardi: enciclopedia universale illustrata (192?)
III.2.6. Piccolo Lexicon Vallardi (192?)

III.2.7. Enciclopedia moderna illustrata (192?)
III.3. Modern encyclopedias
III.3.1. Wikipedia English edition
III.3.2. Wikipedia Italian edition
IV. Garibaldi as depicted in other articles
IV.1. Cavour
IV.2. Ratazzi
V. Conclusion of Chapter: Garibaldi

I. Overview (timeline)
         Garibaldi was an enfant-terrible. His spontaneous personality was his hallmark. He was not a perfect individual. He had his flaws and disgraces. Yet, the fact that he was the leading factor that enabled Italy to Risorgimento remains firm. The approaches that different encyclopedias engage in order to discuss Garibaldi differ greatly. Before going into investigation, outline of Garibaldi¡¯s life is organized into a timeline. It must be remembered that not all encyclopedias follow the organization as presented in the timeline. Some decide to add and some decide to omit. Some decide to exalt while some try to detract.

Fig. 1 : Events in the Life of Giuseppe Garibaldi

II. Coverage Prejudice
         Depending on differing interests, encyclopedias depict one aspect of Garibaldi while excluding another. Decisions and intentions hidden behind what to add and leave out in articles let a window into the prejudice that an encyclopedia has. By illustrating the difference in coverage, the overall trend of each encyclopedia can be seen.

II.1. Standards and Grades
         Based on the timeline, standards and grades for the table that will follow is established as follows:

Standards for judging coverage:
         The following standards can decide an article as biased or objective for they are key-matters in characterizing Garibaldi¡¯s life and aspects that differed the most from encyclopedia to encyclopedia.

Childhood Family background/ childhood character/ early years¡¯ life Early influence
Getting interested in nationalism; garnering his ideologies Marriage Marriage three times: Anita, Raimondi, Armosino -Anita was already engaged/married; mentioning this or not can show whether an article is pro-Garibaldi or not -Raimondi is rumored to be a courtesan and that Garibaldi left her immediately after marriage due to her infidelity. -With Francesca Armosino, Garibaldi got married when he was over 70. This can be overlooked, perhaps, because of such belatedness.
Children Four children with Anita, three children with Armosino
Life in Exile Brazil, Uruguay, US, England, Tangier, Tunisia, Caprera, etc. -Italian encyclopedias avoid elaborating Garibaldi¡¯s life in exile for they want to focus on his accomplishments in Italy
Character development Relationship with figures like Cavour, Ratazzi, Carlo Alberto -The tension between Cavour and Ratazzi regarding diplomatic and domestic policies -Carlo Alberto¡¯s outright refusal of Garibaldi¡¯s offer to help in First Italian War of Indepdence
Literature Comments on his novels like Clelia or I Mille
Feats Battle victories/ reputation/ conquests/ heroisms
Setbacks Battle losses/ deeds that can detract him from being a national hero
Overall Bias/ expression/ length
Grades for judging coverage

Quality of Contents
None Subject is virtually not dealt with at all
Poor Subject is covered in a manner that room for guessing is available
Adequate Subject is narrated clearly and information given leaves little or no doubt
Detailed Subject is described with in-depth information not present in other articles
Extravagant Not necessarily detailed; the subject is dealt with a highly biased approach

Quality of Bias
Objective Subject is dealt in a balanced fashion
Pro Article overall takes a favorable stance towards the subject
Con Article overall takes an unfavorable stance towards the subject

Quality of Expression
Dry Article conveys information avoiding unnecessary elaboration
Luxurious Article overflows with expressions that exalt the subject
Slight Article intentionally slights the subject using harsh language

Quality of Length
Inadequate Article is so short that it is hardly helpful or informing
Average Article covers enough to provide readers with reasonable information
Superfluous Article contains unnecessary information that are irrelevant

II.2. Table of Coverage Analysis
         Using the standards and grades established above, articles ¡°Garibaldi¡± from ten different encyclopedias will be investigated.

Pierer 1857 Nordisk 1876 Meyers 1885 Catholic 1907 Britannica 1911
Childhood None None Poor None Adequate
Early Influence None Poor Poor None Poor
Marriage None Adequate Detailed None Adequate
Children None Adequate Adequate None Adequate
Life in Exile Poor Adequate Adequate None Adequate
Character Development None Detailed Detailed None Detailed
Literature None Adequate Adequate None None
Feats Poor Detailed Detailed None Detailed
Setbacks Adequate Detailed Detailed None Detailed
Overall Objective / Dry / Inadequate Objective / Dry / Average Objective / Dry / Average Con / Slight / Inadequate Objective / Dry / Average

Lexicon Vallardi 192? (article:¡®Garibaldi¡¯ not available) Piccolo Lexicon Vallardi 192? Enciclopedia Moderna Illustrata 192? Wikipedia English edition Wikipedia Italian edition
Childhood N/A Extravagant Extravagant Detailed Detailed
Early Influence N/A Poor Poor Detailed Detailed
Marriage N/A Poor Poor Detailed Detailed
Children N/A Poor Poor Detailed Detailed
Life in Exile N/A Poor Poor Detailed Poor
Character Development N/A Poor Adequate Detailed Detailed
Feats N/A Extravagant Extravagant Detailed Detailed
Setbacks N/A Poor Poor Detailed Detailed
Overall N/A Pro-/ luxurious/ inadequate & superfluous Pro-/ luxurious/ inadequate & superfluous Objective/ dry/ average Objective/ luxurious/ superfluous


II.3. Inter-encyclopedic analysis based on contents
         A trend is apparent by observing the table. While encyclopedias made outside of Italy like German regions and England maintain an overall objective view on Garibaldi whereas Italian encyclopedias are preoccupied with elevating their hero. Thus, it can be said prejudice depends on national and diplomatic interests. Another prejudice-inducing frame is time. Before Garibaldi¡¯s reputation, Pierer writes on him indifferently. As time passed and interests in him rose, encyclopedias start scrutinizing his life, resulting in the detailed encyclopedias both from Italy and outside. However, in modern era, where supranational and objective conveyance of information is valued, encyclopedias begin to become generally free of prejudice; however, Wikipedia Italian edition is slightly tinged with prejudice. Now that the general trend is evident, it is necessary to discuss each encyclopedia separately and thereby reveal contextual and stylistic prejudice.

III. Encyclopedic Analysis
         In this chapter, each encyclopedia studied in the table will be discussed separately. Along with comments on the grades of the table, distinguishing traits of each encyclopedia will be talked about.

III.1. Encyclopedia predating Risorgimento
         The encyclopedia predating Italy¡¯s unification is to provide an insight into how Garibaldi was depicted before his internationally celebrated achievements.

III.1.1. Pierer's Universal-Lexikon (1857-1865) (1)
         What must be noted that the article ¡°Garibaldi¡± in Pierer was written before Italy was unified or gained recognition as a unified nation. Thus, Garibaldi, during time this article, had not gained the reputation he gained after the conquests of Kingdom of Two Sicilies. The article stops at 1854, Garibaldi during his second exile.
         Later, when Garibaldi came to be internationally reputed, Germans viewed him as a role model for they too wanted unification and had just failed in one attempt. This made Garibaldi a figure to study and investigate. However, Pierer wrote about him before such trend. Therefore, the article¡¯s lack of information and detail can be attributed to two factors: lack of research stemming from short time frame and lack of interests in the character itself. Put simply, it may be wrong to argue Pierer as being biased.

III.2. Encyclopedias contemporary or recent to Risorgimento
         The encyclopedias categorized under this chapter are those that are most susceptible to prejudice. Length, depth, and inclination in each encyclopedia vary widely. Culture of origin, contemporary diplomatic stage, and ideological background affect an encyclopedias depiction of Garibaldi.

III.2.1. Nordisk Familjebok (1876-1899) (2)
         A Swedish encyclopedia. This encyclopedia has no reason to be affiliated with what was going on in the Southern tip of European continent. Thus, the article takes on a very subjective stance. Unlike Pierer, enough time has passed for historians to study the figure. Consequently, very detailed information is presented. The article ranks high in many standards, inculcating both negative and positive aspects about Garibaldi¡¯s life and character. Garibaldi¡¯s setbacks, such as being rejected by Carlo Alberto and facing Italian army at Aspromonte, are clearly mentioned while his ¡°daringness¡± and ¡°courage¡± are constantly emphasized.
         What distinguishes Nordisk from other encyclopedias is its details regarding Garibaldi¡¯s first wife, Anita. It avoids mentioning that Anita was of dubious background, either already engaged or married. However, throughout the article, Nordisk writes what position Anita assumed as wife of Garibaldi: ¡°His courageous wife served as a captain¡± ¡°his wife now served as his adjutant¡± (3)
         Another aspect that never turns up in other encyclopedia is Garibaldi¡¯s disguise as a fisherman when he was escaping from Austrian troops after defeat at First Italian war of Independence.
         Nordisk acts very negatively towards Garibaldi¡¯s helping French in the Franco-German War: ¡°After the proclamation of the French Republic (September 4th 1870) with a unit of volunteers went to support the French, and began a guerilla war near Dijon, which was of no importance to the progress of the war.¡± The article is also hostile towards his literature saying ¡°they lack literary value.¡±
         Overall, Nordisk is objective, giving deserved credit and detractions.

III.2.2. Meyers Konversationlexikon (1885-1892) (4)
         In general, Meyers is similar to Nordisk in its depiction of Garibaldi. Garibaldi is described as an individual with both strengths and weaknesses. However, some acrimonious criticisms of Garibaldi¡¯s impetuous character are scattered throughout the article. "Garibaldi's period of glory was over. His earlier glorious successes are to be credited to his boldness and his idealistic, selfless enthusiasm for the cause of his fatherland. But his further actions prove, that he utterly lacked political insight, prudence and independent judgment. Because the hands of the government, in regard to an action against Rome, were tied by the September Convention, Garibaldi tried to take the city on his own. As his plan could not remain uncovered, the government on September 23rd had him arrested at Asinalunga, and deported to Caprera."
         Meyers also mentions some things bother not mentioned in other encyclopedias. The most shocking of this is Anita¡¯s background. Meyers designates her as being already married and thus impossible to legally marry. It also writes about Garibaldi¡¯s later years when he had to accept pension from the government because of his ¡°squandering sons.¡±
         The most conspicuous criticism on Garibaldi is the comment on his siding with French in Franco-German war:
         "when he permitted himself to be nailed down in Dijon by the attacks of a Prussian brigade, and did nothing to uphold the advance of Manteuffel, and to come to the aid of Bourbaki. After Bourbaki's army had been annihilated, Garibaldi on February 1st withdrew from Dijon. Because of this mishap, Garibaldi was treated very badly by the French. He had been elected into the National Assembly in Bordeaux. But when he took his seat, already after the first expressions of his opinion, he was showered with insults, so that he laid down his mandate immediately and retreated to Caprera, from where he issued statements in favour of the Paris Commune, as, from his island, he greeted any anti-clerical and radical movement, also the chauvinist movement of Italia Irredenta, with a few phrases."
         The Germans respected Garibaldi as a role-model as a charismatic individual who attained what they wanted to attain: unification. However, Garibaldi abruptly changed sides when the Franco-German war broke out. This made Meyers take a somewhat harsh attitude toward the figure in certain aspects. Nevertheless, the encyclopedia presents Garibaldi objectively and free of bias.

III.2.3. Catholic Encyclopedia (1907-1914) (5)
         Written by associates of the Catholic Church and Papal States, this encyclopedia can be characterized as one of the most extremely biased. Simply, Catholic ignores Garibaldi, outright, and discusses him only in other articles that talks about invasions of Papal States.
         " In the meantime, however, Garibaldi's campaign in Sicily and Calabria opened. Farini and Cialdini, sent by Cavour to Napoleon, represented to him (28 August) the urgent necessity of checking the Italian revolution, that Garibaldi was about to march on Rome, and that France ought to leave to Piedmont the task of preserving order in Italy, for which purpose the Piedmontese must be allowed to cross the pontifical territories so as to reach the Neapolitan frontier.¡± (6)
         ""Following upon Garibaldi's blow at the Pontifical States, which had been stopped by his defeat at Aspramonte (29 August)" (7)
         "Napoleon answered by complaining of the Garibaldian musters that threatened the pope's territories. When the Garibaldians made an actual incursion, on 25 October, 1867, the French troops which had for some weeks been concentrated at Toulon, embarked for Civita Vecchia and helped the papal troops defeat the invaders at Mentana." (8)
         It must be noted with discretion that Catholic characterizes Garibaldi¡¯s attacks on Rome as ¡°invasions¡± unlike Italian encyclopedias that elaborate on such attempts as persevering for unification.
         What else can be said about an encyclopedia that totally ignores the subject? Catholic is biased against Garibaldi.

III.2.4. Encyclopedia Britannica (1911) (9)
         Britannica, an English encyclopedia, has no reason to be either sympathetic or hostile to Italian unification or Garibaldi. True, England affected Risorgimento by supporting Garibaldi with some military help ("Assured by Sir James Hudson of the sympathy of England, he began active preparations for the expedition to Marsala."). England was concerned with French dominance in the Continent and had to support any ways of balancing power and suppressing French dominance, and Italy¡¯s rise as a unified nation was one way of doing so. But this still doesn¡¯t mean it has to be flamboyant or fraudulent of Italy¡¯s national hero: Garibaldi.
         Britannica can be said as the most detailed encyclopedia. Its tradition of research must have affected the depth of the article. It mentions Garibaldi¡¯s youth: ¡°Garibaldi fled from home to escape clerical education." This would have been avoided by pro-Garibaldi articles for it shows an uncontrollable character Garibaldi had.
         Britannica also did best at presenting Garibaldi¡¯s conflicts with other Italian historical figures and thus rendering a reality of character:
         ¡°Indignation at the cession of Nice to France and at the neglect of his followers by the Italian government induced him to return to political life. Elected deputy in 1861, his anger against Cavour found violent expression. Bixio attempted to reconcile them, but the publication by Cialdini of a letter against Garibaldi provoked a hostility which, but for the intervention of the king, would have led to a duel between Cialdini and Garibaldi."
         "Rattazzi, who succeeded Ricasoli, urged Garibaldi to undertake an expedition in aid of the Hungarians, but Garibaldi, finding his followers ill-disposed towards the idea, decided to turn his arms against Rome. On the 29th of June 1862 he landed at Palermo and gathered an army under the banner "Roma o morte." Rattazzi, frightened at the prospect of an attack upon Rome, proclaimed a state of siege in Sicily, sent the fleet to Messina, and instructed Cialdini to oppose Garibaldi. Circumventing the Italian troops, Garibaldi entered Catania, crossed to Melito with 3000 men on the 25th of August, but was taken prisoner and wounded by Cialdini's forces at Aspromonte on the 27th of August."
         Evidently, Britannica successfully depicts Garibaldi¡¯s enfant-terrible character.

III.2.5. Lexicon Vallardi: enciclopedia universale illustrata (192?)
         Volume 4 and 5, which presumably should contain article "Garibaldi" is not online.

III.2.6. Piccolo Lexicon Vallardi (192?) (10)
         This is an encyclopedia compiled by Italian liberals. It takes on a very positive attitude towards Garibaldi. As the table shows, it is full of decoration and elaboration. It avoids what can downplay from the national hero.
         The childhood is described in a rather impractical way: "Swimming in the ocean and running through the mountains, Garibaldi built his robust nature." "At 13, Garibaldi saved a boat full of people from drowning." "His heart beat at the idea of drawing sword for his liberty and independence."
         Garibaldi¡¯s being refused by Carlo Alberto and his disgraceful marriage with Raimondi is never mentioned anywhere in the article. Furthermore, Garibaldi¡¯s rash reactions with Cavour is euphemized with: "Garibaldi opposed energetically to the cession of Nice and Savoia to France." The battle of Aspromonte is not developed. Fight between Italian national hero and Italian army must have seemed awkward for liberals to add in the article.
         In conclusion, PLV is very pro-Garibaldi biased and makes full use of omission, exaggeration, euphemism, and distortion to achieve its fawning tone.

III.2.7. Enciclopedia moderna illustrata (192?) (11)
         EMI takes on a more extreme pro-Garibaldi attitude than PLV. It is shorter in length and contains almost no detail of any setbacks in Garibaldi¡¯s life.
         The article¡¯s characterization of Garibaldi¡¯s childhood is rather funny: "At the age of 8, Garibaldi saved a woman from drowning in the river."
         The level of praising Garibaldi is off-limits. When discussing Garibaldi¡¯s successful conquests of Kingdom of Two Naples, EMI writes: ¡°4 months were enough for [Garibaldi's army] to conquer a kingdom!¡± It is a very rare case for an encyclopedia to use an exclamation mark because it signals emotional intervention.
         What is notable of EMI, however, is that it mentions in a rather direct manner about Carlo Alberto¡¯s refusal of Garibaldi¡¯s help. Quite inconsistent for an Italian liberal encyclopedia to do so.

III.3. Modern encyclopedias
         Two supranational encyclopedias have been chosen: Wikipedia English and Italian editions. They use almost the same sources and are thus structurally and contextually similar. However, Italian edition provides some window into Italian national inclination to elevate Garibaldi.

III.3.1. Wikipedia English edition
         Compared to 19th and 20th century encyclopedias, Wikipedia English edition contains a strikingly detailed amount of information, covering perhaps every aspect of Garibaldi¡¯s life. This is done in a very objective manner as well.
         Noticeable is Garibaldi¡¯s early relationship with La Giovine Italia. The article describes his visit to Taganrog, Russia, and beginning of his ideologies. Garibaldi¡¯s setbacks are clearly discussed as well.
         "[Garibaldi] vehemently attacked Cavour for ceding Nice and the County of Nice to Louis Napoelon."
         "Garibaldi deeply disliked the Piedmontese Prime Minister, Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour. To an extent, he simply mistrusted Cavour's pragmatism and realpolitik, but he also bore a personal grudge for trading away his home city of Nice to the French the previous year. On the other hand, he felt attracted toward the Piedmontese monarch, who in his opinion had been chosen by Providence for the liberation of Italy."
         "On January 24, 1860, Garibaldi married a Lombard noblewoman, Giuseppina Raimondi, but left her immediately after the wedding ceremony due to her infidelities."
         The article also explicitly shows Garibaldi¡¯s deep distaste of papacy by quoting him from a speech made in public: ¡°The papacy being the most harmful of all secret societies, ought to be abolished.¡±
         A stand-out discrepancy in English edition is Garibaldi¡¯s participation in Franco-German war of 1870. It writes that Garibaldi commanded Army of Vosges, ¡°an army of volunteers that was never defeated by Prussians". However, Britannica 1911 edition writes about this army as ¡°commanded with much ?clat and little real effect by Garibaldi.¡± It must be understood that, thought supranational, the Wikipedia is based on liberal sources that are very likely to be in favor of Garibaldi.
         Overall, English edition is very well detailed and objectively presented. However, small prejudices are discoverable.

III.3.2. Wikipedia Italian edition
         As mentioned before, English and Italian edition share lots of similarities. Yet, there are details that are only present in this article. The article characterizes youth Garibaldi as ¡°more friendly with fun than with study.¡±, something contemporary liberal Italian encyclopedias would not have done. Talking about Anita, it also says ¡°was engaged, perhaps married, to a shoemaker¡± and thus acknowledging a possible setback of the hero. Yet, it omits life in exile with a simple expression ¡°after many episodes¡±, perhaps out of want to focus more on achievements made in Italy proper. Another detail is Garibaldi¡¯s disguise names during his missions in La Giovine Italia. Garibaldi assumed name of Cleombroto during his membership and Borrel while he was fleeing to Brazil after failure of revolutionary mission. By the end of the narrative on his life, the article attempts to add poignancy to the figure by saying ¡°from a commander to a loving father and affectionate husband.¡± Despite the overall objective and balanced tone, though still influenced by prejudice, the article is appendixed with superfluous information talking about Garibaldi¡¯s cultural ¡°legacies¡±: films, stamps, books, and monuments on Garibaldi. This information does not seem so necessary to helping readers learn who Garibaldi was.

IV. Garibaldi as depicted in other articles

IV.1. Cavour

IV.2. Ratazzi

V. Conclusion of Chapter: Garibaldi
         Garibaldi is generally depicted from three perspectives: a magnet who deserves favorable appraisals (PLV, EMI, Wikipedia Italian edition), a human individual with strengths and weaknesses (Britannica, Meyers, Nordisk, Wikipedia English edition), and a nobody who does not deserve any attention (Catholic, Pierer). Omissions and lengths showed at first glance how balanced or prejudiced each article was whereas scrutiny was necessary to capture subtle bias like exaggerations, distortions, and euphemisms. Garibaldi, a quintessential factor to Risorgimento, was an internationally celebrity. But as it was shown, he was ¡°celebrated¡± in different manners by different encyclopedias.

Notes

(1)      From now on, referred to as ¡®Pierer¡¯
(2)      From now on, referred to as ¡®Nordisk¡¯
(3)      If a citation is from encyclopedic article currently on discussion, a special note will not be made from now on
(4)      From now on, referred to as ¡®Meyer¡¯
(5)      From now on, referred to as ¡®Catholic¡¯
(6)      "Napoleon III" from Catholic Encyclopedia
(7)      "States of the Church" from Catholic Encyclopedia
(8)      "Naples" from Catholic Encyclopedia
(9)      From now on, referred to as Britannica
(10)      From now on, referred to as PLV
(11)      From now on, referred to as EMI




Chapter : Garibaldi, September 29th 2009 . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Overview
The overview will be narrated in the most objective fashion. Even important details may be abandoned here because these important events are sometimes depicted differently in encyclopedias. Other articles will all follow such introductory format.
Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi was born in Nice. He joins Giovine Italia in his twenties. Participating in a revolutionary activity along with Mazzini as member of Giovine Italia, Garibaldi is sentenced to death as default and eventually ends up in exile in South America. Garibaldi takes part in Brazilian insurrection and then travels to Uruguay. He meets Ana Ribeiro da Silva, also known as Anita. Hearing news about his homeland's insurrections, Garibaldi returns to Italy to demonstrate his liberal philosophy of Italy's unification. Yet, defeats drive him into second exile, this time in New York. In 1860's, Garibaldi comes back to Italy to participate in Second War of Independence. In this war, Garibaldi leads army to conquer Kingdom of Two Sicilies, an expedition at the end of which he surrenders his rule of the kingdom to Vittorio Emmanuele II. Thenceforth, Garibaldi continuously attempts to conquer Rome into Italian Republic, into House of Savoy. During such attempts, Garibaldi gets involved in battle of Aspromonte where he receives a wound in his right foot/ankle. In 1870, September 20th, Rome is annexed into the infant Republic of Italy. Though French had been enemy during Roman siege, Garibaldi sides with French troops in Franco-Prussian War. Garibaldi spends last years of his life in his personal property island of Caprera with his family, writing some pieces of literature like Clelia and I Mille. (1)
Though other omissions, distortions, and exaggerations are prevalent in each encyclopedia, the major differences lie in depiction of Garibaldi's childhood, the background of Anita (his first wife), battle of Aspromonte (where he had to fight Italian army), his irascible character, conflict with Cavour, and aiding French in Franco-Prussian war. These are the major focal points from which most conspicuous prejudices of different encyclopedias can be seen in retrospect.

II. Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
(to be added later)

III. Lexicon Vallardi: enciclopedia universale illustrata (online version)
Volume 4 and 5, which presumably should contain article "Garibaldi" is not online.

IV. Piccolo Lexicon Vallardi (Volume 4) (2)
The article starts off with elaboration of Garibaldi as "most glorious hero" (3) and "knight of humanity." Overall, the article is inadequate; all it does is following the course of actions that Garibaldi experienced. Even the course of actions is focused on Garibaldi's heroism. Put simply, this article can be characterized as biased. Exaggerations, omission, and expressions containing bias are dominant in the article.
The first paragraph of the article is dedicated to Garibaldi's childhood, which is unnecessarily detailed and exaggerated:
"Swimming in the ocean and running through the mountains, Garibaldi built his robust nature." "At 13, Garibaldi saved a boat full of people from drowning." "His heart beat at the idea of drawing sword for his liberty and independence."
Judging from the flamboyant description of childhood, the encyclopedia's intention to make Italy's liberalist national hero appear as precocious is evident.
Exaggerations do not only appear in describing his childhood but also in characterizing him in battles: exaltations such as "defended heroically", "fought most gloriously" are scattered throughout the article.
Besides exaggerations and word bias, what must be noted is the omission and distortion in favor of Garibaldi. It is well-reputed fact that Carlo Felice, the contemporary king of Sardegna, treated Garibaldi with disrespect and refusal when the revolutionary returned from South America to participate in the rising insurrections. Perhaps viewing king's refusal of to-be-hero's help as inappropriate, the article does not mention at all how Carlo Felice reacted to Garibaldi, something that does not happen in other encyclopedias. Another omission is related to Garibaldi's second marriage. Garibaldi married thrice in his life: first to Anita, second to Raimondi, and third to Francesca Armosino. But with the second wife, Garibaldi left her immediately due to her infidelity (4). This second marriage is not mentioned while the other two are in this article because of potential regard as disgrace. In addition to omission, this article makes use of distortion. The conflict between Garibaldi and Cavour regarding many political decisions, especially that of handing over Nice and Savoia to France, is famous and Garibaldi's opposition wasn't very gentleman-like. He gathered volunteers to attack Nice and retrieve it, only to be alleviated by pleadings from the king Vittorio Emmanuele (5). However, such a conflict is distorted and omitted in the article. All it says is "Garibaldi opposed energetically to the cession of Nice and Savoia to France". The word "energetically" even endows a positive color to Garibaldi's opposition. Garibaldi underwent other conflicts. Another well-known example is the battle of Aspromonte where Garibaldi faced Italian Republic's army with his volunteer troops on way to attack Rome. Ratazzi, the prime minister succeeding Ricasoli, dispatched troops to prevent Garibaldi from attacking Rome. This troops was led by general Cialdini (6). However, these two people, Ratazzi and Cialdini, are not mentioned in the article. All it mentions is that Garibaldi "was wounded in the right ankle."
In conclusion, article of Piccolo Lexicon Vallardi is biased in favor of Giuseppe Garibaldi.

V. Enciclopedia moderna illustrata (Volume 2) (7)
Compared to Piccolo Lexicon Vallardi, Enciclopedia moderna illustrata takes on a more extreme pro-Garibaldi bias. The article begins with describing Garibaldi as "the maximum hero, the most popular figure in Italian Risorgimento." Just like PLV, EMI chooses to talk about Garibaldi's childhood: "At the age of 8, Garibaldi saved a woman from drowning in the river." Once again, this seems highly unnecessary.
Due to the fact that PLV and EMI are from same origin, Milan, Italy, the two articles have redundant expressions. But what's different is that EMI makes profuse use of word "hero", even to the extent that Garibaldi is designated throughout the article as "the hero."
Even his first wife, Anita, is designated as "heroic wife." What was omitted and distorted in PLV is done the same way in EMI. But what's noticeable is that EMI very succinctly highlights Carlo Felice's reaction to Garibaldi's offer of help: "Carlo Felice refused Garibaldi."
The exaggeration in this article is brought to a higher extent. When summarizing Garibaldi's victories in his conquest of Kingdom of Two Sicilies, EMI writes, "Quattro mesi gli erano bastati per conquistare un regno!" (8) (translation: 4 months were enough for [Garibaldi's army] to conquer a kingdom !) Without doubt, this sentence is a subjective comment. It is also very surprising that an encyclopedia used an exclamation mark, a direct expression of personal opinion or state. Furthermore, Garibaldi's death is worded most exaggeratedly: Garibaldi died "among the immense sadness of all Italy".
It is clear that PLV and EMI share the same view. They are both in favor of Garibaldi. However, in comparison, EMI adopts a more fawning stance toward the national figure.

VI. Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 Edition
Of all encyclopedias looked into for Garibaldi, Catholic encyclopedia is the most antagonistic towards Italy's national hero. It's simple: Catholic encyclopedia disregards Garibaldi and does not dedicate an article to him. This can be explained by Garibaldi's continuous attempt to conquer Rome during the years of Roman Question. In fact, Garibaldi is only mentioned in other articles when invasions on Rome is being discussed.
" In the meantime, however, Garibaldi's campaign in Sicily and Calabria opened. Farini and Cialdini, sent by Cavour to Napoleon, represented to him (28 August) the urgent necessity of checking the Italian revolution, that Garibaldi was about to march on Rome, and that France ought to leave to Piedmont the task of preserving order in Italy, for which purpose the Piedmontese must be allowed to cross the pontifical territories so as to reach the Neapolitan frontier. (10)
"Following upon Garibaldi's blow at the Pontifical States, which had been stopped by his defeat at Aspramonte (29 August)" (11)
"Napoleon answered by complaining of the Garibaldian musters that threatened the pope's territories. When the Garibaldians made an actual incursion, on 25 October, 1867, the French troops which had for some weeks been concentrated at Toulon, embarked for Civita Vecchia and helped the papal troops defeat the invaders at Mentana." (12)
The above are few examples when Garibaldi's name is mentioned in Catholic Encyclopedia. It must be noted with discretion that his name is only mentioned while talking about "invading" Rome. The wording of the three excerpts shows that Catholic encyclopedia had a positive attitude toward Napoleon III for setting a garrison in Pontifical States to protect it from "invaders", Garibaldinians.

VII. Britannica 1911 Edition
The article "Garibaldi" on Britannica is very detailed. It writes about facts that Italian encyclopedias decided not to comment on. The article starts off with dry characterization of Garibaldi as "Italian patriot." This expression, compared to those that appear in Italian encyclopedias, is moderate, showing Britannica's position towards Italian affairs.
Britannica does talk about Garibaldi's youth, but no flamboyance or exaggerations. What it does is saying: "Garibaldi fled from home to escape clerical education." (13) A national hero that ran away from home doesn't sound so good for Italy's national interest, but Britannica has no reasons to protect Garibaldi. Such ideology occurs frequently throughout. The plot for which Garibaldi was exiled to South America is described in detail. The plot was to acquire an arsenal in Genoa when Mazzini's troops should enter Piemonte and thereby start a revolution spreading ideologies of Giovine Italia. Britannica, unlike any other encyclopedia dealt with in this paper, talks about Garibaldi being "severely tortured and his limbs dislocated" during his early years in South America. Britannica also outlines the shift of Garibaldi's impression on Pope Pio IX, who in later years was the target of hatred of Garibaldi. "October 1847 he wrote to Pius IX., offering his services to the Church, whose cause he for a moment believed to be that of national liberty."
An interesting mention is that Britannica highlights that Britain assisted in Italy's unification. "Assured by Sir James Hudson of the sympathy of England, he began active preparations for the expedition to Marsala." In order to deal with French supremacy, Britain must have helped Italy and attempts to gain credit for its actions while Italian encyclopedias do not mention about this at all, perhaps an attempt to depict unification as an accomplishment by its own people.
Contrary to other compilations, Britannica is unhesitant to reveal conflicting ideas and plans between Risorgimento's leading figures. It explicitly writes that Cavour and Vittorio Emmanuele II opposed Garibalid and his expedition into Naples. It also makes clear that attack on Rome in early 1860's is a decision made by Garibaldi himself, not Italian government of Sardegna.
"Indignation at the cession of Nice to France and at the neglect of his followers by the Italian government induced him to return to political life. Elected deputy in 1861, his anger against Cavour found violent expression. Bixio attempted to reconcile them, but the publication by Cialdini of a letter against Garibaldi provoked a hostility which, but for the intervention of the king, would have led to a duel between Cialdini and Garibaldi." "Rattazzi, who succeeded Ricasoli, urged Garibaldi to undertake an expedition in aid of the Hungarians, but Garibaldi, finding his followers ill-disposed towards the idea, decided to turn his arms against Rome. On the 29th of June 1862 he landed at Palermo and gathered an army under the banner "Roma o morte." Rattazzi, frightened at the prospect of an attack upon Rome, proclaimed a state of siege in Sicily, sent the fleet to Messina, and instructed Cialdini to oppose Garibaldi. Circumventing the Italian troops, Garibaldi entered Catania, crossed to Melito with 3000 men on the 25th of August, but was taken prisoner and wounded by Cialdini's forces at Aspromonte on the 27th of August." (14) As the above quotations show, Britannia did not hide Garibaldi's conflict and enfant terrible character.

VIII. Meyers Konversationlexikon 1885~1892 Edition (15)
Overall, Meyers maintains a balanced point of view regarding Garibaldi. Length is legitimate and content is relatively free of bias. Yet there are some extreme opinions that make this article stand out.
When talking about Garibaldi's help in Rome against French siege, Meyers writes: "All successes achieved by the Romans during the siege of Rome by the French are to be credited to Garibaldi." This statement can mislead a reader to think that Meyers is pro-Garibaldi. However, severe criticisms appear by the end of the article.
"Garibaldi's period of glory was over. His earlier glorious successes are to be credited to his boldness and his idealistic, selfless enthusiasm for the cause of his fatherland. But his further actions prove, that he utterly lacked political insight, prudence and independent judgment. Because the hands of the government, in regard to an action against Rome, were tied by the September Convention, Garibaldi tried to take the city on his own. As his plan could not remain uncovered, the government on September 23rd had him arrested at Asinalunga, and deported to Caprera."
After Garibaldi's successful conquest of Kingdom of Two Sicilies, Meyers characterizes Garibaldi as "over." It clearly reveals both the strengths and weaknesses of Garibaldi. Another extremity is description of Anita. Anita is described as already having married. If true, this fact was conveniently hidden away by other encyclopedias that did not want to downplay a national hero.
According to generally known history, Garibaldi, after entering Rome, with support from Prussia, and making it Italian, sided with French in the Franco-Prussian war. As being an encyclopedia from Prussian culture, Meyers harshly criticizes Garibaldi in France in a manner and detail that no other encyclopedia does.
"when he permitted himself to be nailed down in Dijon by the attacks of a Prussian brigade, and did nothing to uphold the advance of Manteuffel, and to come to the aid of Bourbaki. After Bourbaki's army had been annihilated, Garibaldi on February 1st withdrew from Dijon. Because of this mishap, Garibaldi was treated very badly by the French. He had been elected into the National Assembly in Bordeaux. But when he took his seat, already after the first expressions of his opinion, he was showered with insults, so that he laid down his mandate immediately and retreated to Caprera, from where he issued statements in favour of the Paris Commune, as, from his island, he greeted any anti-clerical and radical movement, also the chauvinist movement of Italia Irredenta, with a few phrases."
This narrative contradicts what's on English Wikipedia, a modern encyclopedia, which write of Garibaldi's expedition in France as "[commander] of the Army of Vosges, an army of volunteers that was never defeated by Prussians". (16) Thus, one possible conclusion regarding such discrepancy can be that Meyers, which is more prone to have a grudge on Garibaldi, is distorting information.
Moreover, Meyers takes a very critical attitude toward Garibaldi's literature such as Clelia and I Mille, by designating them as "mostly worthless." In talking about Garibaldi's acceptance of pension in his later years, Meyers mentions about his squandering sons.
Another interesting omission discoverable in the article is that it never mentions Rome going finally into Italian hands. It only describes Garibaldi's attempt to engage in invasion.

IX. Nordisk Familjebok 1876~1899 Edition (17)
Nordisk begins dryly saying "Italian national hero". It maintains the dry tone, simply outlining course of events. Yet, the point of view is very similar to that of Meyers. It strongly and concisely summarizes Carlo Felice's reaction by saying "[Garibaldi] rejected by King Carlo Alberto" (18) But Nordisk also praises Garibaldi with: "The courage [Garibaldi] and his men developed at a time when Italy was in the grip of despair, gained the sympathy of almost all Italians." Very similar expressions as those of Meyers are used to characterize Garibaldi. "His period of glory now was over; what he has done since shows only that he lacked political prudence and independence." "[Garibaldi] lacked the clear, penetrating reasoning of the statesman, which coldly calculates advantages and disadvantages before taking on a risky and important undertaking."
Just like Meyers, Nordisk categorizes Garibaldi's literary endeavor as "lacking literary value."
The striking similarity between Meyers and Nordisk in both expression and point of view makes the conclusion that Prussian-origin encyclopedias were hostile to turncoat Garibaldi inevitable.

X. English Wikipedia
The article "Garibaldi" of English Wikipedia starts with an equitable expression: "Italian military and political figure." English Wikipedia maintains the most objective perspective and reveals detailed information on Garibaldi.
The article mentions Garibaldi's visit to Taganrog in1833 where he met Giovanni Battista Cuneo, a member of Giovine Italia. In same year's November, Garibaldi meets Mazzini, but this encounter is directly expressed as "a relationship that later would become rather troublesome" for Garibaldi. It also mentions about Garibaldi's praising of Pope Pio IX on his inauguration, believing him to be a liberal pope to lead Italy to unification.
English Wikipedia takes a rather outright position toward possibly disgraceful actions of Garibaldi. On the conflict between Cavour and Garibaldi, English Wikipedia writes: "[Garibaldi] vehemently attacked Cavour for ceding Nice and the County of Nice to Louis Napoelon."
"Garibaldi deeply disliked the Piedmontese Prime Minister, Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour. To an extent, he simply mistrusted Cavour's pragmatism and realpolitik, but he also bore a personal grudge for trading away his home city of Nice to the French the previous year. On the other hand, he felt attracted toward the Piedmontese monarch, who in his opinion had been chosen by Providence for the liberation of Italy."
Regarding the second marriage to Giuseppina Raimondi, it writes "On January 24, 1860, Garibaldi married a Lombard noblewoman, Giuseppina Raimondi, but left her immediately after the wedding ceremony due to her infidelities."
English Wikipedia, perhaps due to its American origin, mentions about Garibaldi aiding in American Civil war and Garibaldi's offer to help Abraham Lincoln.
Battle of Aspromonte, which epitomizes Garibaldi's position as an outcast from Italian Republic's policies, is described in detail. It describes the battle scene itself: "the Italian army fired some chance shots. Garibaldi forbade his army to fire at fellow men of Kingdom of Italy."
Garibaldi's hostility towards Papacy is explicitly shown through his quotation: "The papacy being the most harmful of all secret societies, out to be abolished."
In conclusion, English Wikipedia takes neither positive nor negative side towards Garibaldi and offers a well-rounded view on the figure.

XI. Italian Wikipedia
Though in Italian, the article of Italian Wikipedia contained practically directly translated paragraphs from English Wikipedia. (perhaps vice-versa) However, additional details provide more insight into Garibaldi.
Surprisingly, his childhood is rather negatively described. It talks about conflicting interests between Garibaldi and his parents regarding his future career. Garibaldi is characterized as "more friendly with fun than with study."
What is distinct about Italian version is that it talks about disguises that Garibaldi assumed during years of membership of Giovine Italia. His first disguise was Cleombroto. Next disguise, during his journey to South America, was Borrel.
The actions Garibaldi led in Brazil are skipped comfortably with a simple summary "after many episodes." Perhaps, Italian version wanted to focus more on what the national hero did for Italy itself.
When mentioning Anita and her marriage to Garibaldi, the encyclopedia carefully brings up that she "was engaged, perhaps married, to a shoemaker." It further notes that Anita was helpful to Garibaldi because of her knowledge and talent on horse-back riding.
Carlo Felice's reaction to Garibaldi is clearly summarized into one word "rejection."
In describing Garibaldi's defeat at French siege while protecting Rome, the article says "Despite the numerous heroic actions of patriots and despite the strenuous performance of the defense organized by Garibaldi, the enormous superiority of number of the French and Napoleon expedition at the end turned out to be better." From this citation, one can see that the encyclopedia is attempting to word Garibaldi's defeat discreetly and softly.
What makes this article different from every others is its special dedication to chapter "Garibaldi and Cavour" which specifically talks about their relationship. However, the contents is exactly same as the one that appears in the English version.
The narrative on Garibaldi's life ends with a euphemized expression "from a commander to loving father and affectionate husband."
Overall, Italian version is superfluous. It contains too much information and details regarding Garibaldi's battles. After the narrative on his life, the article proceeds into explanation of Garibaldi's influence on Italian culture, influences visible on stamps, monuments, films, music, and books.

XII. Conclusion
PLV and EMI were very pro-Garibaldi compared to other encyclopedias. The two German ones maintained objectivity while narrating his life but turned acrimonious when commenting on his later actions like participation in Franco-Prussian war. Britannica and Catholic encyclopedia stand at two extremities, the former being the most objective enough to depict Garibaldi humanely and the latter ignoring Garibaldi's contribution to Italy's unification.

In the bibliography or notes, a section dedicated to clarifying designation of encyclopedias will be attached. E.g. Lexicon Vallardi online version: Vallardi I
I've tried to establish inter-encyclopedic comments while I was writing. But I deem another chapter dedicated to such comparative insight from larger perspective necessary after I've gone through all political figures, also after research on what figures are discarded from the encyclopedias.

I cannot understand why the "German" encyclopedias chose not to mention about Garibaldi's Rome conquest.
The chapter "Garibaldi" is not done yet. I am planning to expand on it this weekend, adding to the conclusion and finding out more focusing on omissions and also polishing.
Bibliography to be added at the end of research on Garibaldi.

Notes
(1)      Article: "Garibaldi" from English Wikipedia
(2)      From here on, PLV
(3)      If a certain citation is from the encyclopedia currently in discussion and from article "Garibaldi", note will not be made to identify its source.
(4)      Article: "Garibaldi" from English Wikipedia
(5)      Article: "Garibaldi" from English Wikipedia
(6)      Article: "Garibaldi" from Britannica 1911 Edition
(7)      From here on, EMI
(8)      "Garibaldi" from Enciclopedia Moderna Illustrata by Milano Vallardi, Vallardi, 192?
(9)      "Roman Question" from English Wikipedia
(10)      "Napoleon III" from Catholic Encyclopedia
(11)      "States of the Church" from Catholic Encyclopedia
(12)      "Naples" from Catholic Encyclopedia
(13)      Article: "Garibaldi" from Britannica 1911 Edition
(14)      Article: "Garibaldi" from Britannica 1911 Edition
(15)      From here on, Meyers
(16)      Article: "Garibaldi" from English Wikipedia
(17)      From here on, Nordisk
(18)      Article: "Garibaldi" from Nordisk-Familjebok 1876~1899 Edition



Update, September 29th 2009 . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Instead of Brockhaus Bilder Conversation-Lexikon (1837-1841), Pierer (1857-1865) will be used as the encyclopedia predating Risorgimento.

Notes:
- Decisive battles: Novara, Custoza, Magenta, Solferino, Volturno, Aspromonte (civil ?),Gaeta
- 1860, invasion of Kingdom of Two Sicilies, led by Garibaldi, financed by Piemonte and UK.
(article: Italian Wars of Independence)

GARIBALDI (Draft version):

English Wikipedia:
First describing expression: "Italian military and political figure".
Early years
Garibaldi's family was involved in coastal trade. In April 1833, visiting Taganrog, he met Giovanni Battista Cuneo, who was a member of La Giovine Italia, founded by Mazzini. Garibaldi swore to dedicate his life to liberation of his homeland. 1833 November: met Mazzini himself and "started a relationship that later would become rather troublesome". Joined Carbonari; insurrection in Piemonte; sentenced to death
History in South America
Joined Brazilian war of independence. Meets Ana Ribeiro da Silva (Anita)
Couple moved to Uruguay. Garibaldi, in Uruguay, was trader, schoolmaster, and married there. Four children: Menotti, Rosita, Teresita, Ricciotti. During his years in Uruguay, he adopted his trademark clothing, the red shirt, poncho, and sombrero used by gauchos. Took part in Uruguayan Civil war. Hearing news of election of reforming pope Pio IX, Garibaldi praised. Sensing revolutionary agitation rise, he, with 60 members of his legion, returned home.
Return to Italy and Second Exile
Garibaldi was treated by Carlo Alberto with distance. Rebuffed by the Piemontese, Garibaldi led his troops to support provisional government of Milan. Went to fight off French troops for Roman Republic. Surrendered and retreated. Momentary refuge at San Marino. During rereat, Anita died. Piemonte exiled him once again. Stay in New York. Stay in Tyneside (honors, inscribed sword) (England)
Second War of Independence
Garibaldi returns to Italy and is appointed by Piemonte as the major general. Garibaldi switches his philosophy from Mazzini's to Piemontese. He is highly displeased with the surrender of Nice to France. In April 1860, "[Garibaldi] vehemently attacked Cavour for ceding Nice and the County of Nice to Louis Napoleon" for military assistance.
Campaign of 1860
"On January 24, 1860, Garibaldi married a Lombard noblewoman, Giuseppina Raimondi, but left her immediately after the wedding ceremony due to her infidelities."
Kingdom of Two Sicilies provided Garibaldi with an opportunity. He gathered I Mille, also known as Redshirts. Series of conquests. Finished the conquest of Sicily. After the conquest, "Garibaldi crossed the Strait of Messina, with the help of British navy." Garibaldi and Piemontese army had different views on attacking Rome, protected by French troops. At Teano, Garibaldi cedes all Southern territories to Piemonte.
"Garibaldi deeply disliked the Piedmontese Prime Minister, Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour. To an extent, he simply mistrusted Cavour's pragmatism and realpolitik, but he also bore a personal grudge for trading away his home city of Nice to the French the previous year. On the other hand, he felt attracted toward the Piedmontese monarch, who in his opinion had been chosen by Providence for the liberation of Italy."
When American Civil war broke out, Garibaldi offered to be a part of it to Abraham Lincoln.
In June 1862, Garibaldi gained troops to attack Rome. The Italian government, piemonte, was unwilling. Garibaldi sailed from Genoa and landed at Palermo. General Cialdini of Italian government dispatched a division led by Pallavicino against Garibaldi's volunteer troops. Battle at Aspromonte, the Italian army fired some chance shots. Garibaldi forbade his army to fire at fellow men of Kingdom of Italy. Many volunteers were taken prisoner, including Garibaldi, who was wounded in foot. In 1864, garibaldi went to London and met prime minister Henry Palmerston.
Later
Allying with Prussia, revolutions started again. 1867. Attack on Rome, at Aspromonte, again wounded in the leg. Sent back to Caprera. 1867, Geneva congres, Garibaldi said, "The papacy, being the most harmful of all secret societies, ought to be abolished".
Franco-Prussian War, French garrison back out, Rome captured. Fall of Second French Empire in hands of Prussia, but Garibaldi decides to support French Third Republic, leading army of the Vosges.
In 1880, he married Francesca Armosino, with whom he had previously had three children.
Comment:
Detailed. Does not talk specifically. Defeats and mistrusts are clearly expressed. The expressions are moderate, implying neither negative nor positive impressions.

Italian Wikipedia :
First describing expression: "commander, and Italian patriot"
Mentions name of Garibaldi's family's name: Domenico, Rosa, and brothers like Angelo and Michele and Felice (last two died young)
Talks about conflicting interests regarding future between Garibaldi and his parents.
"Piu amnico del divertimento che dello studio" (more friendly with fun than with study_
(some sort of demeaning characterization ?)
Garibaldi faces Mazzini in London. Joins Giovine Italia. Garibaldi assumes a disguise Cleombroto. His actions to spread revolutionary ideals marks him as a wanted criminal. Marseilles to Tunisia. Remains in contact with Giovine Italia through Luigi Cannessa. Assumes name Borrel. Goes to South America, leaves Marseilles 8th September 1835. (Very detailed narrative of pre-South America period)
Exile in South America
In contact with adherents of Giovine Italian, Rio de Janeiro. Actions in Brasil skipped. ("dopo molti episodi") Uruguay, Gauelguay. Focus on Garibaldi's rite of passage. 11th April 1838, first land battle. ("In particolare Garibaldi fu impegnato per la prima volta in un combattimento esclusivamente terrestre")
1842,. In Uruguay. Leads a fleet against Argentina. Soldiers all wearing red shirts. Here, marries Anita. Anita was engaged, perhaps married, to a shoemaker. Left shoemaker for Garibaldi. Taught Garibaldi horseback riding while in return learned military life.
In 1848, sails back to Italy. Anita and four children safely sent to Nice to his folks.
Carlo Felice "rejected" Garibaldi.
"Nonostante i numerosi atti d'eroismo dei patrioti e nonostante la strenua opera di difesa organizzata da Garibaldi, l'enorme superiorita numerica dell'esercito francese e di quello napoletano ebbe alla fine la meglio."
On running away from Roman defeat, Anita dies, pregnant.
Humanization: "Al pianto disperato di Garibaldi, che non voleva abbandonare il cadavere della donna, "Leggero" lo avrebbe sollecitato a proseguire la fuga e a mettersi in salvo dicendogli: Generale, per i vostri figli, per l'Italia ..."
Buys half of island Caprera. Builds a factory with 30 friends. Farming. Olive trees. Orchards. Livestock.
Lack of description on Battle of Aspromonte. Garibaldi, probabilmente, contava sul proprio prestigio per avanzare indisturbato, certamente cerca di evitare lo scontro, passando per una via discosta nel cuore della montagna dell'Aspromonte. Venne comunque intercettato, i bersaglieri aprirono il fuoco e parimenti risposero alcune camicie rosse.
Garibaldi and Cavour
An entire special chapter dedicated to these two's relationship:
"Garibaldi non ebbe mai rapporti sereni con Cavour. Da un lato, semplicemente non aveva fiducia nel pragmatismo e nella realpolitik di Cavour, ma provava anche risentimento personale per aver ceduto la sua citta natale di Nizza alla Francia, nel 1860. D'altro canto si sentiva attratto dal monarca piemontese, che egli credeva l'uomo adatto per liberare l'Italia" (This quote is exactly translated in English version article "Garibaldi", but it's important that the Italian version, which could avoid it, mentions it in a special chapter dedicated for this purpose)
Late Years>>
"from a commander to loving father and affectionate husband"
Comment:
Superfluous. Description of life lengths similarly with English version but after that the article talks about cultural influence like stamps, monuments, films, music, and books on Garibaldi, as if honoring the great influence of Garibaldi. Though not outright, certain pro-Garibaldi expressions are visible here and there. Certain omissions and additions are visible as well.

Lexicon Vallardi (online version):
Volume 4 and 5, which should be containing letter G, are missing online.

Lexicon Vallardi (hardcopy version. Vol. 4 Article: garibaldi):
First describing expression: "gloriossimo ereo, "cavaliere dell'umanita"

Running through mountains, swimming in the ocean, built robust nature.
At 13, saved a boat full of people from drowning.
At 15, first trips in the Orient. Command of a ship named nostra Signora della grazia.
"il suo cuore palpitava all'ieda di snudare la spade per la sua liberta e indipendenza"
. Mazzini, giovine Italia, Sardinian marine.
Omission: Carlo Felice's rejection
Expressions: "difese eroicamente, combattendo gloriosamente"
"si oppose energicamente alla cessione di Nizza e Savoia alla Francia" (wording)
Comment:
Inadequate. It does outline the course of events, but in a very simple manner. Nothing negative at all mentioned about Garibaldi.

Piccolo enciclopedia illustrate (Vol. II, Article: Garibaldi):
"il Massimo eroe, la piu popolare figura del Risorgimento Italiano.
At the age of 8, saves a woman fallen in river.
Brazil: attivissima parte.
Camicia Rossa (immortale)
Carlo Felice refused Garibaldi
L'eroica moglie Anita
L'eroe (pronoun)
Protesto energicamente per la cession di Nizza e Sovaia alla Francia.
"Quattro mesi gli erano bastati per conquistare un regno !" (outright subjective comment)
Death. "Fra l'immenso compianto di tutta Italia"
Comment:
Inadequate. Follows similar format as that of lexicon Vallardi hardcopy version. More pro-Garibaldi. High exaltations.

Catholic Encyclopedia:
Outright omission. Surprisingly, the supposedly great hero of Italian unification is not given an article for details. Garibaldi is infrequently mentioned when talking about Napoleon III and Naples and related battles.

Focus on Garibaldi's attack on Rome. His service to his nation ignored. Characterized as an "invader":
"1) In the meantime, however, Garibaldi's campaign in Sicily and Calabria opened. Farini and Cialdini, sent by Cavour to Napoleon, represented to him (28 August) the urgent necessity of checking the Italian revolution, that Garibaldi was about to march on Rome, and that France ought to leave to Piedmont the task of preserving order in Italy, for which purpose the Piedmontese must be allowed to cross the pontifical territories so as to reach the Neapolitan frontier.
2) Following upon Garibaldi's blow at the Pontifical States, which had been stopped by his defeat at Aspramonte (29 August
3) Napoleon answered by complaining of the Garibaldian musters that threatened the pope's territories. When the Garibaldians made an actual incursion, on 25 October, 1867, the French troops which had for some weeks been concentrated at Toulon, embarked for Civitia Vecchia and helped the papal troops defeat the invaders at Mentana."

Britannica 1911 Edition
Italian patriot
He fled from home to escape clerical education.
Plot of acquiring arsenal in Genoa when Mazzini's troops should enter Piemonte. Plot discovered, exiled.
In South America, he was severely tortured and has his limbs dislocated.
October 1847 he wrote to Pius IX., offering his services to the Church, whose cause he for a moment believed to be that of national liberty.
"Assured by Sir James Hudson of the sympathy of England, he began active preparations for the expedition to Marsala." Expedition into Naples was opposed by Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II.
Indignation at the cession of Nice to France and at the neglect of his followers by the Italian government induced him to return to political life. Elected deputy in 1861, his anger against Cavour found violent expression. Bixio attempted to reconcile them, but the publication by Cialdini of a letter against Garibaldi provoked a hostility which, but for the intervention of the king, would have led to a duel between Cialdini and Garibaldi.
Attack on Rome not ordered by Italian government but a decision of Garibaldi.
the regular army; Rattazzi, who succeeded Ricasoli, urged Garibaldi to undertake an expedition in aid of the Hungarians, but Garibaldi, finding his followers ill-disposed towards the idea, decided to turn his arms against Rome. On the 29th of June 1862 he landed at Palermo and gathered an army under the banner "Roma o morte." Rattazzi, frightened at the prospect of an attack upon Rome, proclaimed a state of siege in Sicily, sent the fleet to Messina, and instructed Cialdini to oppose Garibaldi. Circumventing the Italian troops, Garibaldi entered Catania, crossed to Melito with 3000 men on the 25th of August, but was taken prisoner and wounded by Cialdini's forces at Aspromonte on the 27th of August.
Comment:
Garibaldi depicted as an enfant terrible who did not follow his superior's words.
Detailed.

Nordisk Familjebok (1877-1899)
"Italian national hero"
Mentions France (1834) before going to Tunisia.
Detached tone. Simple outlining of events in South America.
"Rejected by King Carlo Alberto"
"The courage [Garibaldi] and his men developed at a time when Italy was in the grip of despair, gained the sympathy of almost all Italians"
"where his courageous wife served as a captain"
Courageous, daring.
"His period of glory now was over; what he has done since shows only that he lacked political prudence and independence."
"lacked the clear, penetrating reasoning of the statesman, which coldly calculates advantages and disadvantages before taking on a risky and important undertaking."
Characterizes Garibaldi's literary works as "lacking literary value."
Comment:
Overall, detailed. Focus on the courses of battle. What makes this encyclopedia unique is that it directly condemns Garibaldi in certain aspects. Garibaldi writing hostile novels against the church.

Meyer:
Sees Garibaldi's experience in S. America as "an excellent education in the art of waging war".
Anita already married. (not mentioned elsewhere other than Italian encyclopedia which says either engaged or married)
Absolute statement: "All successes achieved by the Romans during the siege of Rome by the French are to be credited to Garibaldi". (overstatement)
Handing over dictatorship over Sicily at "Sessa" ?
"Garibaldi's period of glory was over. His earlier glorious successes are to be credited to his boldness and his idealistic, selfless enthusiasm for the cause of his fatherland. But his further actions prove, that he utterly lacked political insight, prudence and independent judgment. Because the hands of the government, in regard to an action against Rome, were tied by the September Convention, Garibaldi tried to take the city on his own. As his plan could not remain uncovered, the government on September 23rd had him arrested at Asinalunga, and deported to Caprera."
"suffered complete defeat" (Rome invasion)
Garibaldi writing hostile novels to the church.
Anti-Garibaldi:
"when he permitted himself to be nailed down in Dijon by the attacks of a Prussian brigade, and did nothing to uphold the advance of Manteuffel, and to come to the aid of Bourbaki. After Bourbaki's army had been annihilated, Garibaldi on February 1st withdrew from Dijon. Because of this mishap, Garibaldi was treated very badly by the French. He had been elected into the National Assembly in Bordeaux. But whenm he took his seat, already after the first expressions of his opinion, he was showered with insults, so that he laid down his mandate immediately and retreated to Caprera, from where he issued statements in favour of the Paris Commune, as, from his island, he greeted any anti-clerical and radical movement, also the chauvinist movement of Italia Irredenta, with a few phrases."
Pension accepted because of squandering sons.
Comment:
Very detailed narrative on Garibaldi's course of actions. But towards the end, outright criticism of Garibaldi's position towards Catholic church. Regards literature on Garibaldi "mostly worthless".
Omission: both encyclopedias do not mention that Rome was finally into Italian hands on September 20th.
Two german encyclopedias praise what they have to praise like daringness and courage but detract what they have to detract like impetuosity and lack of prudence.

Overview:
Plot, exile in South america, Italy (lost Custoza), America, Second War, Roma, Third war



Framework, September 9th 2009 . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Articles to be investigated
     1) States: Sardegna, Parma, Modena, Toscana, Papal States, Two Sicilies, Lombardo-Venetia
     2) Figures: Carlo Alberto, Carlo Felice, Cavour, Crispi, Depretis, Francis II of Two Sicilies, Garibaldi, Gioberti, Mancini, Mazzini, Pio IX, Pelloux, Ratazzi, Santarosa, Sella, Visconti-Venosta, Vittorio Emmanuele II
     3) Entities & families: Savoia, Bourbon, Hapsburg, Napoleon, Francia, Italia
     4) Organizations: Carbonari, Giovane Italia, Camicie Rossi
     5) Events: Spedizione dei Mille, Congresso di Vienna, Questione romana (Capture of Rome), Cinque giornate di Milano

     II. Encyclopedias
Pre-1870:
     1) Brockhaus Bilder-Conversation-Lexikon (1837-1841) (http://www.zeno.org/Brockhaus-1837)
1871~1920:
     1) Milano Vallardi, Lexicon Vallardi, -1910. (Online) (http://www.archive.org/stream/lexiconvallardie06milauoft#page/n0/mode/1up)
     2) Milano Vallardi, Piccolo Lexicon Vallardi
     3) Enciclopedia Moderna Illustrata
     4) Catholic Encyclopedia (1907-1914 Edition) (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/index.html)
     5) Encyclopedia Britannica (1911 Edition) (http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Main_Page)
     6) Meyers Konversationlexikon (1885-1892, 1902-1909 Editions) (http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/stoebern.html?werkid=100149) (http://www.zeno.org/Meyers-1905)
     7) Brockhaus Konversationlexikon (1894-1896 Edition) (http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/stoebern.html?werkid=100150)
     8) Nordisk Familjebok (1876-1899, 1904-1926 Editions) (http://runeberg.org/nf/)
Modern:
     1) English Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org)
     2) Italian Wikipedia (http://it.wikipedia.org)
     3) www.risorgimento.it (potentially helpful, haven't looked into details)

III. Analysis Format
1) Part I: article by article ex) articles "Garibaldi" will be looked into all encyclopedias. So the paper will be structured in order of articles that I go into.
     - Article "Italia" comes first with some modifications of my term paper
     - Then follows articles on States, figures, entities & families, organizations, and events
     - Analyzing each article will follow a format discussed below
     - At the end of going into all articles of one topic, like "Garibaldi", an analytical conclusion will follow to establish an interconnecting analysis. This will also have its own format, discussed below.
     - the actual working procedure may not follow the paper's structure. Later to be put together
2) Format of analyzing individual articles:
    1) Length: classified into four categories at a reading of couple of paragraphs (superfluous, detailed, average, inadequate)
         - By the end of reading the article, comment on the general undertone regarding the article length will be written to justify article's length. ex) Inadequate article on "Bourbon" can be commented as "Italy being anti-Bourbon"
    2) Diction: what I have been doing so far. Interpreting words and expressions to deduce an article's inclination.
ex) "to liberate" in Lexicon Vallardi will be interpreted as "patriotic" or "nationally favorable, liberal"
3) Format of analyzing in interconnecting viewpoint:
    1) Omissions: this can be clear only when I've gone through certain degree of articles from different encyclopedias so it will be discussed in the analytical conclusion.
    2) Literary techniques (overstatement, understatement, euphemism, etc.):
     I will be able to judge whether a phrase is overstated or understated when I've gone through enough articles.

4) Part II:
     - When going into individual articles and organizing is over, I will dedicate perhaps one or two paragraphs to each encyclopedia showing its general attitude towards Italian unification. Here, I will have to do extra-research other than using encyclopedias to clearly grasp a country or community's diplomatic background and cause. Just like the reason British had to aid Garibaldi's sail. Thus, each chapter will carry an encyclopedia's name. I see this as important because it provides a different window into prejudices. Each chapter here will not be very long.

5) Part III:
     - Conclusion. Part II has a summarizing effect. So conclusion can be casual.



Notes Enciclopedia Moderna Illustrata . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Article: Italia (Vol. III, pg 1306)
"Le idee di liberta portate dai francesi avevano scossa la coscienza ....germi del Risorgimento maturarono"
=> Nationalism, elaborate expressions that are only found in Italian encyclopedias

"eroici Mille"

=> Overall, too short. More of a dictionary than an encyclopedia

Article: Garibaldi (Vol. II)
"A 8 anni, salvo na donna caduta in un fiume"
=> herofication

"Il Massimo Eroe"
"attivissima"
=> Use of superlatives
=> "immortale"
=> "difese eroicamente" "caddero eroicamente, combattando"
Garibaldi is later replaced with pronoun "L'eroe"
His death described as "fra l'immenso compainto di tutta Italia"

Article: Austria (Vol. I)
"Nello stesso anno in sosero l'Ungheria e le provincie italiane: l'austia e prima sconfitta, ma poi ne esce vittoriosa con la battaglia di Custoza"
"Ma un'altra Guerra con l'Italia fa guadagnare a quest'ultima la Lombardia, col Trattato di Villafranca del 1859."

=> Austria's rule over Italy somewhat inadequately described.

Article: Cavour (Vol. I)
"per spirit di liberta"
"fondo Istituti di credito, asili infantile e miglioro l;agricoltura"
"Fond oil giornale quotidian oil Risorgimento, incitando il re Carlo Alberto alla Guerra contro l'Austria"
"sua opera piu proficua"
"sulle tristi condizioni dell'Italia"

Article: Borboni (Vol. I)
talks about its familial treason Enrico IV killed.
=> no further detail/ shallow approach

Article: Carbonari (Vol. I)
"uni quelloe dell'unita italiana. Fu perseguitata in tutta Italia e molti fra I suoi affiliati, tra I quail erano nobili figure di patriotti, subirono la priogionia e la morte."
=> undoubtedly, series of praises and compliments (patriotic, tutta italia, nobili figure)

A quick opinion on Enciclopedia Moderna Illustrata:
Too brief compared to other encyclopedias. More of a dictionary than an encyclopedia.
Hard to extract prejudices for it maintains its succinct manner (maybe ¡®omission' can be an approach for this encyclopedia)

Article: Savoia (Vol. V)
Simple listing of lineage. Too simple to analyze



Notes Lexicon Vallardi . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Article: Italia
Pg. 54
"Ma alla liberta il popolo era avvezzo da un ventennio ... "
(first sentence. Pg. 55)
=> Emphasis on "people", nationalism

Half-bottom in pg. 55
"l'abilita diplomatic del Cavour ..."
"la seconda Guerra d'indipendenza ... sperare e credere ponibilie d'unita d'I."
=> Focus on "vittorie" => hope and belief in unification
=> Deliberate emphasis on nationalism
=> Praises on Cavour

Right top corner pg. 55
"I mille diventano presto venti, trentamila ..."
=> Emphasis on growth of population's interest in unification (hyperbole)

In general, never mentions losses in battles. Always victories.
=> outright avoidance of verb to lose
=> "furono spraffatti e disperse a Mantana'

"11 millioni d'abitati proclamano la loro connessione al Regno che finalmente s'intitola Regno d'italia"
=> in other encyclopedias that are not strongly related to Italy, the annexations of states and regions are described as happened under military pressure

"Nella sua pattriottica impazienza, Garibaldi ..."
=> deliberate word choice, oxymoron

Use of word "Governo italiano" => attacking Rome
Liberalism

"attestarono al Mondo"

Guarentigie => "papa nell'esercizion delle sue funzioni spirituali"



Outline . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Step 1: Analyzing articles in each encyclopedia. Following encyclopedias will be dealt with in this paper:
- Lexicon Vallardi
- Enciclopedia Moderna Illustrata
- Britannica
- Catholic Encyclopedia
- Jewish Encyclopedia
- Meyers Konversationlexikon
- Wikipedia

In the term paper, only articles "Italy" from the above encyclopedias were studied. But in the research paper, more articles that are directly related to Italy's Unification will come under scrutiny as well.
Additional articles are as following:
- Garibaldi
- Cavour
- Vittorio Emmanuele
- Piemonte
- Carbonari
- Papa
- Savoia
- Giovane Italia
- Sardegna
- Carlo Felice
- Spedizione dei Mille
- Austria (only in encyclopedias affiliated with Italy)
- Bourbon
The above list is subject to change, whether omission or addition.

Analyses of specific articles will be constantly updated.
When the articles have all been fully analyzed, based on the organization of the term paper, the organization of the research paper will be drafted, which is step 2.