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History of Muslims under Chinese Rule, since 1839


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Choi, Jiwon
Term Paper, AP World History Class, June 2009



Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. History of Muslims in Xinjiang
II.1 Ethnicity and major Muslim cities developed in Xinjiang
II.2 History of Muslims in Xinjiang during the Qing rule
II.2.1 The Rising of the Six Khodjas; Khodja's attempt to restore rule over Kashgaria
II.2.2 Impact of Dungan revolt
II.3 History of Muslims in Xinjiang under the Republic of China government
II.3.1 Establishment of the first Eastern Turkestan Republic
II.3.2 Establishment of the second Eastern Turkestan Republic
II.4 History of Muslims in Xinjiang under the People's Republic of China government
II.4.1 Abolition of the East Turkestan Republic and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region
II.4.2 The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps and the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM)
II.4.3 Impact of Cultural Revolution in Xinjiang
II.4.4 Kazakh Exodus
III. History of Muslims in China Proper
III.1 Major Provinces of high Muslim influence
III.2 History of Muslims in China Proper during the Qing Rule
III.1.1 Shaanxi and Gansu - Dungan revolt and its impact
III.1.2 Yunnan - Panthay Rebellion and its impact
III.3 History of Muslims in China Proper under the Republic of China government
III.3.1 Increased international contact
III.3.2 Emergence of Political Unity among the Chinese
III.3.3 Reform movements of Muslims
III.3.3.1 The Ikhwan Muslim Brotherhood (Yihewana)
III.3.3.2 The Xi Dao Tang
III.3.3.3 Reformation of the Gedimu
III.3.3.4 The degree of Distinction that each schools of Islamic reform movement held between the Islamic Society and the Chinese community
III.3.4 The War Lord Era - Ma Clique in Qinghai, Gansu, and Ningxia
III.4. History of Muslims in China Proper under the Peoples Republic of China government
III.4.1 Creation of Autonomous regions and impact on Chinese Muslims
III.4.2 The Great Cultural Revolution and the Persecution of Chinese Muslims
III.4.3 Immigration of Muslims to Taiwan
IV History of Muslim organization in national basis
IV.1 The Chinese Muslim Mutual Progress
IV.2 The Islamic Association of China
V Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction
            China, the country which has some of the oldest Muslim history, dating back to as early as AD 650 according to research of BBC (1), currently has about 1%-2% of the total population as Muslims (2). Among its 55 ethnic minorities, 10 groups, including the Hui, Uyghur, Kazakhs, are predominantly Muslims (3). Muslims in Northwestern China, in most cases, earned their livings by trade with neighboring border countries, under the characteristics of their nomadic culture (4).Throughout the history, it is undeniable that Chinese Muslims had a profound impact on Chinese society, as seen from the example of Zheng He, China's foremost explorer during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644).
            However, since the governments of each dynasty had held different policy toward minority groups for effective administration, the treatment of the Chinese Muslims has been also changed in the course of history. Especially, Islam in China has dramatic history during the period of Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Republic of China (1911-1948), and Peoples Republic of China (1949-present). Since the Qing rulers, the Manchus, themselves were one of the ethnic minorities in China, applied the "divide and conquer" tactics to effectively manage the minorities. This policy in nature had a repressive attitude toward the minorities, and thus resulted in bloody rebellion, including the Panthay rebellion or the Dungan revolt from 1862 to 1877 (altogether named as the Hui Rebellion) (5). To quote the Manchu government, it advocated the policy of "washing off the Muslims" (X? Hu?) (6). After the Chinese Revolution (1911) called the end to the Qing Dynasty, greater amount of autonomy and freedom was granted to the Muslims in China, as the government of ROC (Republic of China) proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Man (Manchu), Meng (Mongol), Hui (Muslim) (7). In 1949, the ROC government led by Chiang Kai Shek was replaced by Communist PRC government led by Mao Zedong. After the establishment of PRC government, especially during the Cultural Revolution, the previous autonomy had collapsed and cultural persecution was started; mosques were often defaced, destroyed or closed and copies of the Quran were destroyed along with temples, churches, monasteries, and cemeteries by the Red Guards (8). Nowadays, the government has relaxed its harsh policy toward Muslims.
            Though the general characteristics of policy were consistent, each region has observed various consequences followed by the Chinese rule. Some Chinese Regions such as Xinjiang had Muslims for their majority population, but regions in China proper, which includes most of China Proper mostly held the Muslims for minority population, so the lives of Muslims in China Proper were different from the lives of Muslims in Xinjiang. Thus, the paper will specifically divide the category into: first, Xinjiang, and second, the regions in China Proper. The national-basis organizations would be dealt in a separate chapter.
            The period during the Qing dynasty would be constrained only to 'after 1839', considering the time when Qing had experienced the Opium war and shifted from "independent feudal power" into "a semi-colonial, semi-feudal country". This shift thus instigated revolutionary struggle for the freedom of the Chinese people, composed of various ethnicities and culture (9). Besides, the paper uses the term "Hui" in two ways; first as the term that refers to the whole Chinese Muslims during the Qing and ROC, second as the term that refers to the ethnic minority, which would be used in describing the PRC rule.

II. History of Muslim in Xinjiang

II.1 Ethnicity and major Muslim cities developed in Xinjiang
            Xinjiang is currently the autonomous region located in the northwestern tip of China, which borders Qinghai, Gansu, and Tibet Autonomous region. The majority of Xinjiang population is Uyghur people, which take up approximately 45 percent of the population. It is followed by Han (41%), Kazakh (7%), Hui (5%), respectively (10). The percentage of ethnic Han Chinese in Xinjiang has grown from 6 percent in 1949 to more than 40 percent in 1970s, which can be attributed to the increased Han immigration under the nominal name of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC), an economic and military governmental organization dominated by Han Chinese (consists 88.1 percent) (11). Except for the Han, the population of Xinjiang is mostly Turkic people (Uyghur) or Muslim Sino-Tibetan peoples, and has long history of practicing Islam.
            The major regions in Xinjiang that had developed under the Muslim influence notably include Kashgar, whose Old City has been called "the best-preserved example of a traditional Islamic city to be found anywhere in central Asia." (12). Kashgar was deeply influenced by the Uyghur Empire during the 10th century and started to establish Islam during that period (13). In the heart of the city, the huge Id Kah Mosque, the largest mosque in China was built in 1442, and The tomb of Abakh Khoja was constructed in 17th century (14). Ürümqi, currently the capital of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, has The International Grand Bazaar of Xinjiang (˲???), the Islamic bazaar that contains the Muslim traditional heritage of Xinjiang area.

II.2 History of Muslims in Xinjiang during the Qing rule from1839

II.2.1 Khodjas' continuous attempts to restore rule over Kashgaria and its impact on Muslims
            Before 1839, history of Muslims in Xinjiang due to the Qing rule was the repetition of the Qing dominance over the 'Xinjiang Khodjas' and the relative peace due to this oppressive military policy (15). The Qing court had paid the Khan of Kokand to control the Khodjas, who claimed them to be the descendents of Central Asian Naqshbandi Sufi teacher, Ahmad Kasani (1461-1542) and who had previously played significant role in the ruling of Turkic communities in Xinjiang (16). During this policy was held, Han traders and settlers from Shensi and Kansu brought in new ideas, and opened up the wasted land and rebuilt the irrigation systems without Khodjas intereference (17).
            However, Xinjiang Khodjas, for example Jehangir, sometimes attacked the Qing garrison and claimed themselves to be Sultan. Each time, Qing government inflicted heavy penalties on people; after gaining control over the rebellion, it employed economic blockade or damaged the lives of people who helped the khodjas.
            After 1839, the peace gained by Qing control seemed to remain shortly until 1847, but the Rising of the Six Khodjas' restarted the turmoil in Xinjiang area. Katta-Turya, the leading figure of the Rising, led a thousand horsemen and nomads. The desire for restoration of the power against the Qing rule had led them to slaughter the non-Muslim Han merchants, and Katta-Turya was proclaimed sultan. As mentioned before, his rising had also ended with the Qing oppressive military retaliation. The Qing power gathered huge force, approximately 200,000 men according to historians, and crushed the Katta-Turya's force in Kashgar. The Khodjas and thousands of Kashgar citizen fled, and they were perished with poverty and hunge (18).
            The attempt of Xinjiang Khodjas did not cease. In 1857, Khodjas, under the lead of Valikhan Turya, again raided Kashgar and proclaimed Valikhan to be the Sultan. At this time, not only the Hans or Machus (Non-muslims) suffered, but also the Muslims had suffered greatly; the women in Kashgaria, who were relatively free from the Harem or Purdah, now were forbidden to go unveiled in public (19). People were easily executed for breaking these harsh rules of Valikhan. This suppressive Muslim regime was soon hunted down by Qing force.
            In summary, the Xinjiang Khodjas, who were forced to remain in the khanate of Kokand by Qing rulers, continued their attempt to control over Xinjiang, especially Kashgar. The impact on Muslims of Qing rule, thus in general, brought the Xinjiang area turmoil caused by the previous Xinjiang Muslim rulers' desire to restore their power.

II.2.2 Impact of Dungan revolt on Xinjiang
            As mentioned in previous subchapter, the continuous attack of Khodjas in Xinjiang area resulted in the harsh policy of Qing; which also included increasing the military defense in Xinjiang area. This military unit was mostly recruited from Hui (Dungan) people in Shaanxi and Gansu. (20). After the Dungan revolt broke out in Shaanxi and Gansu, Hui people in Xinjiang, who originally came from Shaanxi and Gansu, started to hear the rumor about the Qing policy that would decimate the people in Xinjiang, the preemptive attack to prevent the further Hui rebellions. Ironically, this rumor had instigated the Dungan revolt in Xinjiang area, which was first as small as 200 Dungan soldiers but later joined by the Turkic people who practiced Islam, such as the Uyghur and the Kyrgyz. The rebellion continued until 1866, destroying numerous Qing bastions and militia.
            The another impact that the Dungan revolt had brought in Xinjiang region was the emergence of Yakub Beg, who took the advantage of chaotic status of Kashgaria, and conquered the whole region of Kashgar and claimed himself as an Amir (a high title of nobility or office, used throughout the Arab World and historically in 19th-century Afghanistan and also in the medieval Muslim World). (21) Yakub Beg placed heavy burden on his subjects in Kashgaria, and also not cooperative toward the Hui (Dungan) revolt forces; he generally had negative impact on the lives of Muslims in Xinjiang, especially Kashgar.
            Yakub Beg's arrival, in 1865, made the Muslim insurgents to attack the Yakub Beg force, hoping him to retreat from the area, but Yakub Beg rather crushed the insurgents. His hostile rule later ended with the reconquer of Kashgar by Qing dynasty.
            In a nutshell, the Dungan revolt from Shaanxi and Gansu started off another revolt in Xinjiang, and it was led by the Muslims originally of Shaanxi or Gansu who was employed by Qing government to prevent the further turmoil. This revolt was enlarged by the Muslim inhabitants in Xinjiang who were against the harsh Qing rule. The chaos further brought the emergence of Yakub Beg, who was often harsh to the inhabitants of Kashgar. By the end of the revolt, Xinjiang inhabitants who participated in the revolt were massacred, (no numeric values obtained), and more than thousands of Hui people from Turpan in Xinjiang immigrated to the Imperial Russia, reached Osh in southern Kyrgyzstan. (22)

II.3 History of Muslims in Xinjiang during the Republic of China government

II.3.1 The establishment of the First Eastern Turkestan Republic
            After Qing Dynasty has collapsed by Chinese Revolution (1911), the last Qing governor of Xinjiang had fled and one of his subordinates, and Yang Zengxin (?) had the control of Xinjiang area. He acceded to the name of Republic of China, and smartly administrated the region by balancing the ethnic constituencies (23). His successor, Jin Shuren (?), came after his assassination. Official opinion of ROC toward the Muslims, which was mentioned in the introduction, did not well apply to the Xinjiang area; he had an oppressive attitude toward Muslims; he prohibited the participation in hajj and brought Han officials to replace the local governors. The Uyghur separatism during the 20th century resulted in the wealthier Uyghurs to call for the creation of independent nation. Uyghur, other Turkic groups, Russians and Hui (Muslim) Chinese arose the insurgency. In 1933, the Eastern Turkistan Republic was declared in Kashgar area. The republic endorsed the Sharia, the Islamic religious law, as the guiding law in its constitution, thus the Eastern Turkestan Republic was the country which was deeply influenced by the Muslims in Xinjiang. Sometimes, it was even called the "Eastern Turkestan Islamic Republic" in certain sources, another proof that shows the heavy Islamic influence on the country. However, this nation only survived for a year, due to the hostile forces including the Soviet Union and Republic of China government.

II.3.2 The establishment of the Second Eastern Turkestan Republic
            In 1944, the second Eastern Turkestan Republic was established after the Three District Rebellion aided by the Soviet Union. In this process, the Islamic scholar Elihan Töre declared a "Turkistan Islam Government" (25); the rebels ended the Chinese rule, kept the friendly relation with the Soviet Union, and approved equality for every nationality, recognizing local languages and culture. Though it had to negotiate with the ROC government so that the Eastern Turkestan Republic government declined to a mere "de facto" administration in Xinjiang area, it is clear that it contributed to the autonomy of Xinjiang population.
            Under the first and second Eastern Turkestan Republic, it is clear that the Muslims in Xinjiang deeply influenced the movement itself. Though ROC government itself did not fully recognized the traditional lives of Muslims in Xinjiang as it first approved the Hui (also referring to the Chinese Muslims) as the important part of China, the Muslims could stand against the oppression and contributed to the establishment of independent nations that approve Islam.

II.4 History of Muslims in Xinjiang during the People's Republic of China government

II.4.1 Abolition of the East Turkestan Republic and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region
            In 1949, the Communist party in China, under the lead of Mao Zedong, expelled the Kuomintang officials in Xinjiang with its army People's Liberation Army (PLA). Later that year, Mao Zedong invited the leader of the Eastern Turkestan Republic to the National People's Consultative Conference. The ETR agreed to incorporate the three districts into the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and accept important positions within the administration (26). However, the right to self-govern rests with the Constitution and the Law on Regional Autonomy, which requires leaders to seek prior approval from the National People's Congress (NPC) to pass legislation (27). Thus, with the existence of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps that will be dealt in next subchapter, Xinjiang area under the PRC government has not been enjoyed the full degree of autonomy and freedom.

II.4.2 The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps and the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM)
            The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC) is a unique economic and semi-military governmental organization existing in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China (28). Due to the establishment of XPCC, the population had observed the increase in the portion of Han Chinese, which rose from 6 percent to 40 percent in decades. XPCC brought improvement of infrastructures in Xinjiang area, but ethnic minority inhabitants of Xinjiang sometimes viewed the corps as the representation of Chinese imperialism and a means of interfering with the autonomous community of Xinjiang. (29)
            The opposition to the XPCC and the immigration of Han brought fear for inhabitants of repetition of Qing and ROC rule, which somehow brought restrictions on their cultural, religious practice, the Eastern Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) was started. ETIM is an Uyghur, purportedly militant organization that advocates the creation of an independent, Islamic state of East Turkestan, formally part of Afghanistan, in what is currently the Xinjiang region of the People's Republic of China (PRC). ETIM is described as a terrorist organization by the governments of the PRC, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and the United States, as well as the United Nations. (30)
            This organization is fundamentally based on Islamic fundamentalism in China, as backed up by the fact that ETIM is alleged to have had links with Al-Qaeda. In its 2005 report on terrorism, the US State Department said that the group was "linked to al-Qaida and the international jihadist movement" and that Al-Qaeda provided the group with "training and financial assistance". (31)
            In a nutshell, the PRC rule did not suppress the lives of Muslims in Xinjiang directly; it rather put the Xinjiang area as an autonomous region. However, the existence of XPCC and PLA in Xinjiang allowed PRC government to interfere with Xinjiang administration, and the Islamic fundamentalism followed by these interferences has created under the ETIM.

II.4.3 Impact of Cultural Revolution in Xinjiang
            During the Cultural Revolution, which would be more specifically dealt in the subchapter III.4.ii, In Xinjiang, copies of the Quran and other books of the Uyghur people were apparently burned and Muslim imams were reportedly paraded around with paint splashed on their persons (32).

II.4.4 Kazakh Exodus
            The Kazakh exodus from Xinjiang occurred after the Communist party of China defeated the Kuomintang, during 1950s and 1960s. The Kazakhs had settled in Xinjiang long in the history. There were the two major exoduses during the period. The first exodus was in 1950, when the communist government neither guaranteeing nor denying the Kazakh traditional Islam and tribalism. They decided to preserve their way of life in the steppes of Kashmir, exiled from their homeland (33).
            The Exodus was hampered by both Epidemics and the interference of the Chinese Red Army. Of the 400 families that fled China, only 350 arrived at Srinagar in the initial exodus (34).
            In 1962, the second exodus from Xinjiang had started. This time the Kazakh and members of other ethnic groups fled to the Soviet Union because they thought the communist way of life was going against their own traditional lives.

III. History of Muslims in China Proper

III.1 Major Provinces of high Muslim influence
            Today in China proper, which excludes Xinjiang, Muslims live predominantly in the areas in Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai, which is known as the "Quran Belt" (35). However, not only the area included in the Quran belt, there are numerous provinces in China which has close relation with the Chinese Muslims, such as Yunnan and Shaanxi.

III.2 History of Muslims in China proper under the Qing rule

III.2.1 Shaanxi and Gansu - Dungan revolt and its impact
            Shaanxi province was the center of Dungan revolt during the Qing rule, which was also mentioned in the subchapter II.2.i. The revolt primarily started from Shaanxi and Gansu. The modern researchers believe that the Hui rebellions in 1862 were not collective planned efforts of Muslims in various regions, but rather a coalescing of many local brawls and riots triggered by seemingly trivial causes (36). (Hui, during the Qing and ROC period, does not only refer to the ethnic minorities in China, but also refers to Muslims in China). As the Taiping rebellion troops approached near the eastern Shaanxi, the Qing government established Tuanlian militias to effectively prevent the further spread of the rebellion. However, the armed Han militia caused Muslims in Shaanxi to fear them, resulted in the formation of Muslim militia in Shaanxi. In the spring of 1862, when the Qing militia went out for various regions to suppress the Taiping forces, the Muslim rebellion has started against the fearful domination of Qing military, and rapidly spread to regions such as Gansu and Shaanxi.
            Since the Qing government had to deal with more imminent and severe rebellion, which was the Taiping rebellion, it could not effectively prevent the Hui rebellions, including Dungan revolt from spreading out. Though Zuo Zongtang, one of the best military officers in Qing dynasty, went to Shaanxi in 1867, he was busy controlling the Taiping revolt forces so that he could not care much about the Dungan revolt. Later from 1868 to 1873, he managed to control the Muslim insurgents; the revolt forces were no match with his army which possessed sieze guns.
            At the beginning of Qing, the Hui people had about 845,000; it increased to 1,700,000 within 200 years. But because of the Hui Rebellion in Gansu and Shaanxi during the Tongzhi reign, the total loss of Shaanxi Hui people was as high as 1,550,000, Hui people had only 150,000 left at the end of the war, over 91% of the initial people had vanished (37).
            The Muslims in Shaanxi and Gansu during the Qing rule, thus, had created the turmoil against the fearful armed Han and Manchu. It had caused severe damage to the Qing rulers and provinces, but Muslims in Shaanxi and Gansu had to face the harsh punishment in the long term; more than 90 percent of the population had decimated due to the revolt.
            After the revolt, the Muslim population from Shaanxi and Gansu immigrated to the Imperial Russia, with the Muslims in Xinjiang described in the previous subchapter II.2.ii. The second group, of 1130 people, originally from Didaozhou in Gansu, led by A hong A Yelaoren (?), were settled in the spring of 1878 in the village of Eastern Kyrgyzstan. The third group, originally from Shaanxi, led by Bai Yanhu () one of the leaders of the rebellion, were settled in the village of Karakunuz which is modern Zhambyl Province of Kazakhstan (38).

III.2.2 Yunnan - Panthay Rebellion and its impact
            As Yunnan had the long history of Islam from the Yuan dynasty, large proportion of Muslims lived in Yunnan around the cities such as Kunming. However, during the Between 1648 and 1878, more than twelve million Hui and Uyghur Muslims were killed in ten unsuccessful uprisings against the Qing Dynasty, and the discontent of the Qing rule in Yunnan province was culminated (39). Especially after the Opium war, the Qing government imposed heavy tax burden on the Yunnan province to pay off the war debts. Though it was not first started as the religious riots, but as mosques were destructed during the course of rebellion, it developed into the universal and well-planned religious uprising (40). Du Wenxiu (), an ethnic Hui, became the leading figure of the rebellion. Since the Qing government had to deal with so many other problems, including the Taiping rebellion and the aftermath of Opium war with Britain, the Panthay rebellion (1856- 1873) rapidly spread to the neighboring regions.
            The Rebellion, during its course, the force captured the city of Dali in 1856-1872, and established the Pingnan Guo(The Pacified Southern Nation) for its basis. The Sultanate, based on the Islam, even enjoyed the heyday from 1860 to 1868. Later on, when the sultanate started to face the decline, the Sultan of Suleiman asked for the aid of British Army (41). The Imperial Government had waged an all-out war against the Sultanate with the help of French artillery experts; the power of the Panthays in Yunnan fell in less than 20 years. (42)
            Many adherents to the Yunnanese Muslim cause were persecuted by the imperial mandarins. Wholesale massacres of Yunnanese Muslims followed. Many fled with their families across the Burmese border and took refuge in the Wa State where, about 1875, they set up the exclusively Hui town of Panglong. (43)

III.3 History of Muslims in China Proper under the Republic of China government

III.3.1 Increased international contact
            End of the Qing rule brought the relative freedom to the Muslims, as Sun Yat-Sen, who established the Republic of China declared that the country was equally belonged to the Hui, the Chinese Muslims, as the Hans and other three groups of people do. Thus they were able to increase the international-scale contact with other nations.
            Many Muslims began to travel to Middle East, and in 1923 to 1934 it was observed that 834 Hui Muslims made the Hajj, the pilgrimage, to Mecca (44). Since the Qing rulers generally did not allow Chinese Muslims to make Hajj, the incident was quite ground-breaking attempt to them. Some of them used steamers from Shanghai to reach Mecca. Though the number of Muslims travelled through Mecca was insignificant compared to number of Muslims in other nations who participated in the Hajj, Chinese Muslims, when went back to their homeland, played significant role in setting the typical Islamic cultural life in the Chinese Muslim community. Not only for the Hajj, but the opportunities of education had also increased; by 1939, more than 33 Chinese Muslims had studied at Cairo's prestigious Al-Azhar University. (45)

III.3.2 Emergence of Political Unity among the Chinese Muslims
            As a result of influence of increasing foreign, traditional Islamic values due to the increase international contact, Muslims started to organize politically, by creating Chinese Muslim Organizations from 1910s to 1930s. It was also the result of political instability that led Chinese Muslims to make collective efforts in protecting their religious, cultural values from. In 1912, especially, when Sun Yat-sen inaugurated provisional government in Nanjing, the Chinese Muslim Federation was also founded (46). The Chinese Muslim Mutual Progress Association, in Beijing, 1912, the Chinese Muslim Educational Association in Shanghai, 1925, the Chinese Muslim Young Students Association and the Society for the Promotion of Education Among Muslims Nanjing in 1931, and the Chinese Muslim General Association in Jinan, 1934 (47). The specific details of the organizations would be dealt later in chapter IV.
            The Muslim community in China began to increase its sense of unity through the periodicals during the era. Before the Sino-Japanese war, there were more than 100 Muslim periodicals, including more than 30 periodicals published in Beijing.

III.3.3 Reform movements of Muslims

III.3.3.1 The Ikhwan Muslim Brotherhood (Yihewana)
            The increase in the international contact, which allowed Chinese Muslims to understand their religion more thoroughly, not only resulted in the sense of unity among the Chinese Muslims but also instigated the reform movements of Muslims that brought a process of balancing the Islamic tradition and the Chinese culture. Influenced by the Wahhabi fundamentalism in Arabian Peninsula, the Chinese Muslims, under the lead of Ma Wanfu who went to the Hajj in 1890s, started the Ikhwan Muslim Brotherhood in China, which was termed as Yihewani, started from Dongxiang and Linxia. Different from other nations' Islamic Brotherhood which maintained anti-modernization idea, Yihewani was transformed into "revisionist and nationalist" movement, so that it allowed not only the Muslim unity to increase, but also the Chinese national unity and consciousness to increase (48). The movement was popular to the urban intellectual Muslims, because it emphasized the nationalist concerns or education. The movement also encouraged the Chinese Muslims to rebuild the mosques and Islamic schools during the ROC rules. Later, the movement also brought other movements within it, such as the Salafiyya.

III.3.3.2 The Xi Dao Tang
            Though not as popular as the Ikwan Muslim Brotherhood, The Xi Dao Tang had significance in that it was the only Muslim movement that natively started from China. The movement was the combination of traditional Chinese value and the Islamic Learning, led by Ma Qixi (49). The movement then developed to have the characteristics of modernist and accomdationist.

III.3.3.3 Reformation of the Gedimu
            Not only for the Xi Dao Tang and Ikwan Muslim Brotherhood (also called as Yihewana), there were also reformation of the Gedimu, the belief in both Allah and the Mandate of Heaven, which came into being during Chinese feudal society (50). Just before the establishment of the Republican regime, the latter loyalty was easily replaced by the concept of the emerging "nation-state". This kind of argument was first discussed in a journal named Xinghuipian as early as in 1908 (51). The supporters of the reformed Gedimu showed cooperative attitude toward the ROC government and they also claimed that there was no contradiction between being a Chinese national and Hui Muslim, so they had to reform Islam and Muslim communities according to the modern trend.

III.3.3.4 The degree of Distinction that each schools of Islamic reform movement held between the Islamic Society and the Chinese community
            As the various reform movements and groups participated in the process of renewing and reinterpreting their religion Islam, the distinction made by each movement between the Islamic and Chinese community differed- the Fig1. shows the degree of distinction each schools that were considered.

Fig. 1 (52)


III.3.4 The War Lord Era - Ma Clique in Qinghai, Gansu, and Ningxia
            Ma clique was a family of warlords that controlled the area of Qinghai, Gansu, and Ningxia during the period of 1910s- 1930s. Warlord era in China was caused by the death of Yuan Shikai in 1916 and nominally ended in 1928, with the Northern expedition, the term which generally describes the path of Chinese reunification by the ROC government (53). In the region of Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, where the Muslims were highly populated, the Ma family, themselves Chinese Muslims, established their own powerful warlord provinces. They at first started to increase their dominance over areas through cooperation with the ROC forces, the force that were under the rule of Chiang Kai-Shek.
            Including the Gansu and Ningxia provice governor Ma Hongbin, Ma-Chungying who even played great influence in Xinjiang area, shaped the lives of Muslims during the 1910s- 1930s when China mainland had undergone severe political turmoil.

III.4 The History of Muslims in China Proper under the Peoples Republic of China Rule

III.4.1 Creation of Autonomous regions and impact on Chinese Muslims
            After expelled Kuomintang, the Republic of China government, went out to Taiwan, the Communist Peoples Republic of China under Mao Zedong took the control over China. As the government also contained the problem in dealing with the ethnic minorities, PRC government granted the certain degree of autonomy to them where the majority of the population was composed of non-Han Chinese. Thus, in the northwestern area of China mainland, including Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai were granted their Autonomous Administrative status (in similar way with Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region as mentioned in the previous subchapter II.4.1) .
            Thus, the Hui autonomous regions and the Uyghur autonomous region contain high Muslim population, for the Hui and Uyghur are both well characterized by their practice of Islam in most cases. These autonomous administrations seemed to grant more freedom in practice of Islam tradition or culture in the regions. This is not generally true, as was mentioned before in the subchapter II.4.1, due to the existence of the Law on Regional Autonomy in China. Moreover, the autonomous regions had experienced the increased amount of immigration of the Han Chinese after the PRC rule, under the name of Special Economic zones or military corps that would stabilize the area. For example, Ningxia Hui Autonomous region which contains the Economic and Technological Development Zones now contains Han Chinese of more than 60 percent of the total population (54). Though there had been huge immigration of Han Chinese and certain degree of interference with autonomy of the region, Muslims were able to create or stabilize their communities in those administrative units, and put effort to preserve their culture and religion. The Fig 2 shows the Hui Autonomous Administrative units founded after the PRC rule.

Fig. 2 (55)


III.4.2 The Great cultural revolution and persecution of Chinese Muslims
            "The Great Cultural Revolution a period of widespread social and political upheaval; the nation-wide chaos and economic disarray engulfed much of Chinese society between 1966 and 1976 (56). Mao Zedong, the chairman of the Communist party of China, convicted high government officials of becoming Bourgeois class and regenerating the "Class struggle" that Communism sought to eliminate. Under the Red Guard, which is composed of young generations, Mao persecuted not only the party members but also adherents of religions. Religious persecution was intensified based on the idea of Marxism.
            According to Jung Chang in her controversial book Mao: The Unknown Story, supposed cases of atrocities included a Muslim woman having her teeth pulled out with pliers, then her nose and ears twisted off, before being hacked to death. Another woman was raped with a pole (she then committed suicide). One man had nails driven into his skull. Another had his tongue cut out and then his eyes gouged out. Another was beaten with clubs on the genitals before having gunpowder forced up his nostrils and set alight (57). In Yunnan Province, the palace of the Dai people's king was torched, and an infamous massacre of Hui Muslim people at the hands of the People's Liberation Army, called the "Shadian Incident", supposedly claimed over 1,600 lives in 1975 (58). However, these days, the persecution of Muslims has been reduced greatly.

III.4.3 Emigration of Muslims to Taiwan
            Though Taiwan is not generally regarded as a part of China Proper, Muslims in China Proper immigrated to Taiwan after 1949, while experiencing the shift of major power of China from Kuomintang to the Communist party of China. Many of the immigrants were soldiers from regions of highly Muslim population such as Yunnan or Shaanxi. During the 1950s, contact between Muslims and Han Chinese were limited due to differences in custom, and the political tension between ROC and PRC government.

IV. History of Muslim organization in national basis

IV.1 The Chinese Muslim Mutual Progress Association
            Among the Muslim organization during the ROC period, when the response from the Chinese Muslims to the political changes emerged, the Chinese Muslim Mutual Progress Association would be of the most significant influence (59). It was formed in 1912 in Beijing by Wang Haoran who had studied in the Middle East. The organization created branches, both in provincial and national scale. By 1923, the branches were extended to even three thousand. (60)

IV.2 The Islamic Association of China
            The Islamic Association of China was founded in 1953, May 11 in Beijing. It called representatives from 10 nationalities of the People's Republic of China as its intendance. 10 nationalities include groups such as Hui, Uyghur. Its major goal was to assist PRC government to set up the policy of freedom of religion, preserve the fine tradition of Islam, and unify Muslims in participating in the socialist construction of China, develop friendly relation with Muslims in other countries, collect and edit historical data about Islam. Its governing body is the national congress. (61)

V. Conclusion
            It was clear that as the government changes, the policy regarding the Chinese Muslims greatly changed. During the Qing rule, the Manchu rulers tried to dominate Chinese Muslims with the force, and levied high tax due to the Opium war debt. The high tax rate was conglomerated with the Muslim persecution so resulted in the collective rebellion of Muslims. Chinese Muslims, no matter where they resided in, had attempts to stand against the Qing government which tried to oppress the Islamic lifestyle, for example destructing Mosques and Quran copies.
            However, the treatments were subtly different depend on regions, especially during the ROC and PRC rule. In Xinjiang, where the majority population is practicing Islam, the treatment has been stricter than other region's treatment. It was natural consequence because Xinjiang population have been tried to gain independence from China Mainland; they had their own identity even though they had long history under the Chinese administration. Even now, Muslims in Xinjiang, in the form of ETIM, continuously struggle to establish their own community more free from the Chinese government. On the other hand, the Muslims in China Proper had fewer attempts to get independence, rather, they chose to form their unity and identity through national organization, and tried to cooperate with government to establish stable status of Muslims in China. (As revealed from the main goals of the Islamic Association of China)
            Some sources that describe the situation of ROC and PRC rules, especially, were seemed to be biased or not fully informed. For example, in Jack Chens The Sinkiang History described the modern Xinjiang with extremely positive attitude. This source explains that "Xinjiang is the good example of how the problems of 13 ethnic minorities are resolved." (62) However, as dealt in the previous chapters, Xinjiang is still experiencing political instability and danger due to the existence of XPCC and ETIM. The written source of modern History of China, especially regarding the sensitive issues of ethnic minorities, has not been much available to the foreigners, and even in the case of source from Chinese it is sometimes too exaggerated and extorted, probably because of the characteristics of PRC government, Communist party that cares much about the political issue, as seen from the example of Tienanmen massacre in 1989. The paper, thus tried to remain neutral as possible, based on various sources and took the information that most sources had included and reaffirmed.


Notes (1)      BBC Religion and Ethics ISLAM origins
(2)      CIA - The World Factbook ? China
(3)      Islamic Education in China
(4)      Soviet Economic Policy in the East- Violet Conolly
(5)      Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization.
(6)      Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)", University of Washington Press (February 1998), ISBN 0-295-97644-6.
(7)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_china#cite_note-18
(8)      Ibid. (6)
(9)      Jack Chen,The Xinkiang History
(10)      ???Ҵ??2005 China Statistical Yearbook 2005 www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj
(11)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xinjiang#cite_note-hrwb-24
(12)      George Michell, in the 2008 book Kashgar: Oasis City on Chinas Old Silk Road, quoted by Michael Wines in the New York Times, May 27, 2009
(13)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashgar
(14)      Ibid. (13)
(15)      Ibid. (9)
(16)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khoja
(17)      Ibid. (9)
(18)      Ibid. (15)
(19)      P145, Jack Chen,The Xinkiang History
(20)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dungan_revolt
(21)      P 147, Ibid. (17)
(22)      Svetlana Rimsky-Korsakoff Dyer. Karakunuz: An Early Settlement of the Chinese Muslims in Russia www.nanzan-u.ac.jp/SHUBUNKEN/publications/afs/pdf/a916.pdf
(23)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xinjiang#The_Dzungar_Empire
(24)      Ibid. (20)
(25)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_East_Turkestan_Republic
(26)      Ibid. (25)
(27)      Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)"
(28)      Study of the Infrastructure of Xinjiang
(29)      Ibid. (27)
(30)      "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement". MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. http://www.mipt.org/
(31)      Ibid. (29)
(32)      Law, Kam-yee. Brooker, Peter. The Chinese Cultural Revolution Reconsidered: Beyond Purge and Holocaust
(33)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakh_exodus_from_Xinjiang
(34)      Ibid. (31)
(35)      Ibid. (6)
(36)      P120-121 John Lipman, Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China
(37)      http://yugong.fudan.edu.cn/Article/Info_View.asp?ArticleID=72
(38)      Ibid. (21)
(39)      Alexander Berzin - Historical Sketch of the Hui Muslims of China
(40)      Ibid. (17)
(41)      Atwill, David G., The Chinese Sultanate: Islam, Ethnicity and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China,
(42)      Ibid. (34)
(43)      Ibid. (34)
(44)      Muslim Chinese: ethnic nationalism in the People's Republic- Dru C. Gladney, Harvard University. Council on East Asian Studies http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=_hJ9aht6nZQC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=Chinese+Muslim+Federation&source=bl&ots=exox3Lvdcg&sig=SoFd-JF3uFFdlCDvsBUpiWHs8Fk&hl=ko&ei =0_01SqLLJ4fUsgPOnrTVDg&sa=X&oi=book _result&ct= result&resnum=1#PPA56,M1
(45)      Ibid. (39)
(46)      Ibid. (39)
(47)      Ibid. (39)
(48)      Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)"
(49)      Ibid. (39)
(50)      The completion of the idea of dual loyalty towards China and Islam - Matsumoto Masumi http://science-islam.net/article.php3?id_article=676%E2%8C%A9=fr
(51)      Ibid. (43)
(52)      Ibid. (39)
(53)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warlord_era
(54)      ???Ҵ??2005 China Statistical Yearbook 2005 www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj
(55)      P 587- 593 Zhongguo Shaoshu minzu http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=_hJ9aht6nZQC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=Chinese+Muslim+Federation&source=bl&ots=exox3Lvdcg&sig=SoFdF3uFFdlCDvsBUpiWHs8Fk&hl=ko&ei=0_01SqLLJ4fUsgPOnrTVDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#PPA56,M1
(56)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_Revolution
(57)      Chang, Jung and Halliday, Jon. Mao: The Unknown Story. Jonathan Cape, London, 2005
(58)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_revolution#cite_note-21
(59)      China's Muslim Hui community -Michael Dillon http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=hUEswLE4SWUC&pg=PA84&lpg=PA84&dq=chinese+muslim+mutual+progress&source=bl&ots=H94SlBHffU&sig=pQw0fZpKhNwSa7GShTGdL8GRIUY&hl=ko&ei=if82StX_IoKgswP56PDSBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7
(60)      Ibid (55)
(61)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_Association_of_China
(62)      Ibid. (9)


Bibliography Note : websites quoted below were visited in June 2009.
1.      BBC Religion and Ethics ISLAM origins
2.      CIA - The World Factbook ? China
3.      Islamic Education in China
4.      Soviet Economic Policy in the East - Violet Conolly
5.     : Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization
6.      Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)", University of Washington Press (February 1998), ISBN 0-295-97644-6.
7.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_china#cite_note-18
8.      P142, Jack Chen,The Xinkiang History
9.      ???Ҵ??2005 China Statistical Yearbook 2005 www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj
10.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xinjiang#cite_note-hrwb-24
11.      George Michell, in the 2008 book Kashgar: Oasis City on Chinas Old Silk Road, quoted by Michael Wines in the New York Times, May 27, 2009
12.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashgar
13.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khoja
14.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dungan_revolt
15.      Svetlana Rimsky-Korsakoff Dyer. Karakunuz: An Early Settlement of the Chinese Muslims in Russia www.nanzan-u.ac.jp/SHUBUNKEN/publications/afs/pdf/a916.pdf
16.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xinjiang#The_Dzungar_Empire
17.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_East_Turkestan_Republic
18.      Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)"
19.      Study of the Infrastructure of Xinjiang
20.      "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement". MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. http://www.mipt.org/
21.      Law, Kam-yee. Brooker, Peter. The Chinese Cultural Revolution Reconsidered: Beyond Purge and Holocaust
22.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakh_exodus_from_Xinjiang
23.      P120-121 John Lipman, Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China
24.      http://yugong.fudan.edu.cn/Article/Info_View.asp?ArticleID=72
25.      Alexander Berzin-Historical Sketch of the Hui Muslims of China
26.      Atwill, David G., The Chinese Sultanate: Islam, Ethnicity and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China
27.      Muslim Chinese: ethnic nationalism in the People's Republic - Dru C. Gladney, Harvard University. Council on East Asian Studies http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=_hJ9aht6nZQC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=Chinese+Muslim+Federation&source=bl&ots=exox3Lvdcg&sig=SoFd-JF3uFFdlCDvsBUpiWHs8Fk&hl=ko&ei =0_01SqLLJ4fUsgPOnrTVDg&sa=X&oi=book _result&ct= result&resnum=1#PPA56,M1
28.      Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)"
29.      The completion of the idea of dual loyalty towards China and Islam -Matsumoto Masumi http://science-islam.net/article.php3?id_article=676%E2%8C%A9=fr
30.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warlord_era
31.      ???Ҵ??2005 China Statistical Yearbook 2005 www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj
32.      P 587- 593 Zhongguo Shaoshu minzu http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=_hJ9aht6nZQC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=Chinese+Muslim+Federation&source=bl&ots=exox3Lvdcg&sig=SoFdF3uFFdlCDvsBUpiWHs8Fk&hl=ko&ei=0_01SqLLJ4fUsgPOnrTVDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#PPA56,M1
33.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_Revolution
34.      P 567 Chang, Jung and Halliday, Jon. Mao: The Unknown Story. Jonathan Cape, London, 2005
35.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_revolution#cite_note-21
36.      China's Muslim Hui community -Michael Dillon http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=hUEswLE4SWUC&pg=PA84&lpg=PA84&dq=chinese+muslim+mutual+progress&source=bl&ots=H94SlBHffU&sig=pQw0fZpKhNwSa7GShTGdL8GRIUY&hl=ko&ei=if82StX_IoKgswP56PDSBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7
37.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_Association_of_China


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