History of Muslims under Chinese Rule since 1839

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

August 23rd 2009

August 23rd 2009 . go to CJW's Log

You told me you spent more time on this paper than on any paper before. Looking into your paper, I have the impression that you never before wrote a paper in the humanities. This paper needs a lot of work. Be prepared for a very long, detailed comment :

(1) Bibliography / References


position 4 : Soviet Economic Policy in the East- Violet Conolly
position 5 : Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization
position 6 : Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)", University of Washington Press (February 1998), ISBN 0-295-97644-6.
position 7 : P142, Jack Chen,The Xinkiang History
position 18 : Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)"
position 21 : Law, Kam-yee. Brooker, Peter. The Chinese Cultural Revolution Reconsidered: Beyond Purge and Holocaust
position 23 : P120-121 John Lipman, Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China
position 25 : Alexander Berzin-Historical Sketch of the Hui Muslims of China
position 26 : Atwill, David G., The Chinese Sultanate: Islam, Ethnicity and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China,
position 27 : Muslim Chinese: ethnic nationalism in the People's Republic- Dru C. Gladney, Harvard University. Council on East Asian Studies http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=_hJ9aht6nZQC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=Chinese+Muslim+Federation&source=bl&ots=exox3Lvdcg&sig=SoFd-JF3uFFdlCDvsBUpiWHs8Fk&hl=ko&ei =0_01SqLLJ4fUsgPOnrTVDg&sa=X&oi=book _result&ct= result&resnum=1#PPA56,M1
position 28 : Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)"
position 32 : P 587- 593 Zhongguo Shaoshu minzu http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=_hJ9aht6nZQC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=Chinese+Muslim+Federation&source=bl&ots=exox3Lvdcg&sig=SoFdF3uFFdlCDvsBUpiWHs8Fk&hl=ko&ei=0_01SqLLJ4fUsgPOnrTVDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#PPA56,M1
position 34 : P 567 Chang, Jung and Halliday, Jon. Mao: The Unknown Story. Jonathan Cape, London, 2005
position 36 : China's Muslim Hui community -Michael Dillon http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=hUEswLE4SWUC&pg=PA84&lpg=PA84&dq=chinese+muslim+mutual+progress&source=bl&ots=H94SlBHffU&sig=pQw0fZpKhNwSa7GShTGdL8GRIUY&hl=ko&ei=if82StX_IoKgswP56PDSBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7

(1a) If you quote not the original book, but the excerpts posted by google, still please give the complete bibliographic record for the original books : author, title, place of publication, publisher, (edition if not the first) year of publication : positions 27, 32, 36
The purpose of a bibliography / reference list is that you give the basic data for every outside source you use.
(1b) Why do you list Jonathan N. Lipman, Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China four times ? positions 6, 18, 23, 28. One time is enough. you can quote the book repeatedly in the note section.
(1c) For book sources, please standardize and comnplete entries to the following format : author, title, place of publication, publisher, (edition if not the first) year of publication : positions 4, 5, 6, 7, 21, 25, 26, 34
(1d) Information which does not belong into bibliographies : ISBN number (position 6)
(1e) Information which does not belong into bibliographies / reference lists : specific page number (unless you refer to an encyclopedia article or an article in a magazine or newspaper and you want to give the precise pages)
(1f) All books you list in your reference list you personally held in your hand. If not, in foot- or endnotes list them and explain how you got to this reference (quoted after ...)

(2) Notes
(2a) use EITHER footnotes OR endnotes. This is the only paper I encountered in 20 years of teaching which tried to do both. I only posted the endnotes.
(2b) I assume you do not understand the usage of "ibid.". Ibid. is short for ibidem and refers to the source you refered to immediately before. So Note 52 : Ibid. (39) I have to read as : same source as listed in note 51, page 39.
(2c) In footnotes or endnotes you do not need to list complete titles
your note 36 : P120-121 John Lipman, Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China
can be shortened to : Lipman 1997 pp.120-121
so with books : Author, year, page(s)
(2d) if you refer to one page : p., if you refer to more than one page : pp.
(2e) for every reference to a book in a footnote you should refer to specific page(s).
(2f) If you find reference being made to a specific source in a book or website you use, do not simply copy & paste that reference, but, in your note, add : quoted after (then the source where you found the reference being made).
(2g) your note 10 : ???Ҵ??2005 China Statistical Yearbook 2005 www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj
So you read Chinese. In a note you do not refer to the entire yearbook, but to a specific statistical table; list the title of that table (Chinese + English translation) and give the page number.
(2h) your note 9 : Jack Chen,The Xinkiang History title misspelled

(3) Organization of your paper
(3a) This is a challenging, complex topic. You organize your paper (A) geographically into Xinjiang and the rest of Muslim China, and (B) chronologically. This is legitimate.
(3b) However, other organizations are possible. For instance : Xinjiang : Political History, Economic History, Social and Cultural History. Your paper, following the sources you have, focusses mainly on issues such as rebellion, reimposition of Chinese rule, suppression. How about : History of education in Xinjiang - Quran schools; perhaps during late Qing or the Republic of China Chinese schools for the ethnic Chinese population in the major cities introduced. When was schooling made mandatory ? language of education ?. How about : History of slavery in Xinjiang. Abolished when and by whom ? How about position of the woman in Xinjiang ? Was the ROC able to implement reforms here ? What did the PRC accomplish ?
This paper is going to be the showpiece I need to refer to in your recommendation letter. At present, it is your original work as evident by the cumbersome English in which you write. As I acknowledged above, you have established an organization of your own. But within the Xinjiang part of your paper, for example, you are too dependent on a certain number of sources, more or less you iterate rebellions and the reestablishment of Chinese control.
Remember Kermit the frog, the trees and the forests. Digging out all those facts is important, but the facts are the trees. You are supposed to write about the forest.
(3c) Your chronological narrative leaves gaps, whenever there was no "action" (rebellion or reimposition of Chinese rule)
(3d) II.4.3 Impact of Chinese Cultural Revolution in Xinjiang, II.4.4 Kazakh Exodus
Cultural Revolution 1966-1967, Kazakh Exodus 1952-1962 ; order of chapters should be switched.

(4) Terminology
(4a) China. I suggest you insert a map, you can download one of my maps http://www.zum.de/whkmla/histatlas/china/haxchina.html and alter them for your use (use paintbrush). Show (a) China proper and the outlying provinces, (b) Xinjiang, (c) the provinces you deal with in the other half of your paper. You can insert that map in your introduction.
(4b) Nation
IV. History of Muslim organization in national basis
so you use nation in the sense of : the citizens of the PRC, no matter what ethnic background, are one nation
The Uyghur separatism during the 20th century resulted in the wealthier Uyghurs to call for the creation of independent nation.
an Uyghur nation.
Keep in mind, the term is politically sensitive. Be careful when using it.

(5) Scanned images (figures)
I recommend you recreate these diagrams / tables and in your notes list "after (source)". For instance your figure 2 is titled "Table 3". But your paper does not have tables 1 and 2. You cause confusion. Also, this is a matter of copyright.

(6) Overall :
A lot of work to be done. Start with fixing the references and notes.
Create the map(s) I suggested.
Then try to add chapters on economic, social and cultural history and address the "nation" issue.