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Multinational Entities in the Age of Nationalism : The Austrian Littoral and Dalmatia


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Cha, Sung Jik
Term Paper, AP European History Class, June 2009



Table of Contents


I. Introduction
II. The Austrian Littoral
II.1 Historical Overview and Timeline
II.1.1 Trieste
II.1.2 Istria
II.1.3 Gorizia and Gradisca
II.2 Population Size and Composition According to 19th and Early 20th Century Encyclopedias
II.2.1 Austrian Littoral
II.2.2 Trieste
II.2.3 Istria
II.2.4 Gorizia and Gradisca
II.3 Analysis
III. Dalmatia
III.1 Historical Overview and Timeline
III.2 Population Size and Composition According to 19th and Early 20th Century Encyclopedias
III.3 Analysis
III.4 Pan-Slavism in Dalmatia as Portrayed in 19th and Early 20th Century Encyclopedias
III.4.1 Britannica 1911
III.4.2 Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
III.4.3 Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892
IV. Anti-Semitism in the Age of Nationalism, as Portrayed by the Jewish Encyclopedia
IV.1 Article on Trieste
IV.2 Article on Istria
IV.3 Article on Spalato
V. Bias in 19th and Early 20th Century Encyclopedias
V.1 Austrian Littoral
V.2 Dalmatia
VI. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography
Appendix



I. Introduction
            The 19th century for Europe was an era of national awakening, especially for multinational entities such as the Austrian Littoral and Dalmatia. The South Slavs, who inhabited the Balkans and the former Illyrian Provinces, for centuries were given little political voice under the rule of Austria, Venice, and the Ottoman Empire, and thus became the main focus of the 19th century Pan Slavic movement. [1]
            As such, examining contemporary 19th and early 20th century encyclopedia articles on the Austrian Littoral and Dalmatia would reveal some insight into the nationalistic movements, and also biases regarding the movements. The following chapters will examine articles of various languages by focusing on descriptions of the history, population, and Pan Slavic movements of the Austrian Littoral and Dalmatia.

II. The Austrian Littoral
II.1 Historical Overview and Timeline
            The Austrian Littoral was formed in 1849, as a crown land under the Austrian Empire and later Austria-Hungary. It comprised of the Imperial Free City of Trieste and its surrounding lands, the Margavate of Istria, and the Princely Country of Gorizia and Gradisca. Austrian control of the lands, which began in 1814, ended when the eastern part of the Littoral was occupied by the Italian army in 1918 (Julian March). During Fascist rule in Italy, the Slovenes in the Littoral were oppressed and subject to the policy of Italianization. [2] Like Dalmatia, the land contained a significant Slavic population, and thus it is worth examining 19th and early 20th century articles regarding nationalistic movements.

II.1.1 Trieste
            Trieste was a major trading port and shipbuilding center, and was founded by the Romans in 177 BC. It was originally populated by the Illyrian tribe of Histri until 2000 BC when Veneti speaking Italians migrated into the area. The Slavic people arrived in the first century BC, and settled mostly in the suburban areas surrounding the city. Austrian rule began in 1382 when the city voluntarily placed itself under Duke Leopold III of Austria. For 180 years, the city had been in conflict with its greatest rival, Venice, and though most of its inhabitants were Italians, the city identified with Austria.[3] Below is a brief timeline of major political changes.

            1369-1372 : Republic of Venice
            1382-1797 : Habsburg Empire
            1719-1891 : Granted status as a free port
            1809-1814 : French Empire
            1814-1918 : Austrian Empire
            1918 : Julian March (to Italy)

II.1.2 Istria
            Conquered by the Romans in 177 BC, the region was originally populated by the Illyrian tribe of Histri. Like Trieste, the cities that line the coast are mostly populated by Italians, but in the countryside there is a significant population of Slavic people, who migrated into the area around the first century BC. In 1267 the coastal cities were placed under the control of Venice, while the inner parts remained under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire. For the most part of the 19th century, both the cities and the countryside were under Austrian rule.[4]

            1267-1797 : Republic of Venice, Holy Roman Empire
            1797-1809 : Austrian Empire
            1809-1814 : French Empire
            1814-1918 : Austrian Empire
            1918 : Julian March (to Italy)

II.1.3 Gorizia and Gradisca
            The name Gorizia is of Slavic origins, and like Istria, the majority ethnicity is Slovene. Gorizia became a part of the Habsburg Empire in 1500, and in 1754 was unified with Gradisca to form the County of Gorizia and Gradisca. In the early 19th century, like Trieste and Istria, the county was conquered by Napoleon, and the rest of its history in the 19th century is similar to the other two regions.[5]


            1500-1508 : Habsburg Empire
            1508-1509 : Republic of Venice
            1509-1809 : Habsburg Empire
            1809-1814 : French Empire
            1814-1918 : Austrian Empire
            1918 : Julian March (to Italy)

II.2 Population Size and Composition, According to 19th Century Encyclopedias

II.2.1 Austrian Littoral
            Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926 : 894,457 inhabitants (1910) [6]

II.2.2 Trieste
            Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841 : 50,000 inhabitants
"the population is mostly a mixture of Germans and Italians, which is evident in her demeanor and nature of the matter, although the Italian language and custom prevail." [7]

            Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1911 : 178,599 (1900) [8]

            Meyers Konversationslexikon 1909 : 134, 143 (1900), including military (1953 men),
"with the 13 suburbs and the territory of 11 villages belonging to T., 178.599, mostly of Italian nationality (24.679 Slovenians, 8880 German) and the Catholic religion (1792 Protestants, 1378 Greek-Oriental, Israel 4954)." [9]

            Britannica 1911 : 132,879 (1900)
"three-fourths are Italians, the remainder being composed of Germans, Jews, Greeks, English and French."
"178,672, of which 77% were Italians, 18% Slovenes and 5% Germans."

II.2.3 Istria
            Britannica 1911 : 344,173 (1900) "Two thirds of the population were Slavs and the remainder Italians, while nearly the whole of the inhabitants (99.6%) were Roman Catholics"

            Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811 : 100,000
"The inhabitants, the number of which is estimated at 100,000, but who do not have the best reputation"

            Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865 : 223,000
"in the countryside Illyrian-speaking Slavs, in the cities Italians, mostly Catholics."

            Meyers Grosses Conversations-Lexikon 1902-1909 : 345,050

II.2.4 Gorizia and Gradisca
            Britannica 1911 : 232,338 (1900)
"According to nationality about two-thirds were Slovenes, and the remainder Italians, with only about 2200 Germans. Almost the whole of the population (99.6%) belongs to the Roman Catholic Church"

            Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865 192.500
"mostly Slavs, further Germans, Italians, Friulians"

            Meyers Grosses Conversations-Lexikon 1902-1909 : 232,897 (1900)
"140,582 were Slovenes, 81,136 Italians and Friulians, 3498 Germans."

II.3 Analysis
            For Trieste, there are two population figures for the year 1900 - one is approximately 130,000, and the other is 180,000. The former, as explained in the Meyers Konversationslexikon 1909 article, includes the suburban territories surrounding the city. It is interesting to note that the first figure does not mention any Slovenes, while the second, larger figure does. Thus, it can be concluded that at most 50,000 Slovenes reside in the suburban areas, while the Italians inhabit the city. This structure can also be seen in the two figures given by the 1911 Britannica article
            Another important fact is that though the majority ethnicity in Trieste is Italian, politically the city belongs to Austria. The Britannica 1911 article on Trieste states "During the Italian and Hungarian revolutions Trieste remained faithful to Austria, and received the title of Citta Fedelissima. In 1888 a monument was erected in commemoration of the 500th anniversary of the connection of the town with Austria." [10] It can be inferred that in Trieste, the Pan Slavic effort had little impact. Not only was there a relatively small Slavic population compared to other regions like Istria or Gorizia and Gradisca, but also political loyalty to Austria was strong.
            In Istria and Gorizia and Gradisca, the structure in which the countryside is dominated by Slovenes and the city by Italians is similar to that of Trieste. However, the majority population in Istria and Gorizia and Gradisca is Slovene, unlike Trieste, whose majority is Italian. Yet, in stark contrast to 19th and early 20th century encyclopedia articles on Dalmatia, there is no mention of any Pan Slavic movements in the articles about the Austrian Littoral. The reason for this can be found in the observation that the Slovenes who inhabited the Austrian Littoral, unlike their Croatian cousins in Dalmatia, were more inclined towards Austroslavism in the 19th century, than Pan Slavism.[11] Austroslavism, which opted for more autonomy under the Austrian identity, however, was later made irrelevant when Austria refused to honor the demands of the Slovenes in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, and in 1918, the Slovenes demanded unification under the State of Slovenes Croats and Serbs (SHS).

III. Dalmatia

III.1 Historical Overview and Timeline
            The Illyrian tribe known as the Dalmatians settled along the coast of the Adriatic Sea and established a republic in 180 BC. The Romans conquered the land in AD 14, and in the 7th century a large Slavic migration into Dalmatia took place. In the 10th century, the Croatian Kings extended their control over Dalmatia. While the cities were retained by the Italians and Latinized people, the countryside was overtaken by the Slavic tribes. The Italians and the Croats were often hostile towards each other, and this was intensified by the fact that while the Italians attached themselves to the Latin liturgies, many Croats preferred to use the Glagolithic script.
            In the 11th to 15th century, the city-states were contested by Venice and Hungary. While the coastal states turned to Venice for support against the Croats, the farmers and merchants in the interior turned to Hungary. In 1105 Hungary conquered Dalmatia, but Venice gained control of Dalmatia in 1420 when Hungary was weakened by Turkic invasions. In 1526, the Turks conquered the greater part of Dalmatia, and at this point many Christian Slovenes moved into the cities.
            In 1718, Dalmatia was returned to Venice, which was replaced by Austria in 1797. In 1809 Napoleon conquered Dalmatia and integrated it into the Illyrian Kingdom, which included the Austrian Littoral. In 1815 Dalmatia was given to Austria-Hungary. The first major Pan Slavic movement in Dalmatia occurred in 1848, when the Croatian Assembly (Sabor), lead by the Dubrovnik Municipality, requested the unification of Dalmatia and Croatia. However, the Austrian Emperor refused the request, and the struggle for Pan-Slavism continued.[12] Below is a brief timeline


            10th century : Croatian expansion into Dalmatia
            1105 : Hungary
            1420 : Republic of Venice
            1562 : Turkic invasions
            1718 : Republic of Venice
            1797 : Austria
            1809 : French Empire
            1815 : Austria-Hungary
            1848 : Croatian Assembly (Sabor) [13]
            1918 : Contested by Italy and SHS [14]

III.2 Population Size and Composition, According to 19th Century Encyclopedias
            Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811 : 329,000 (Italian Part)
"Her inhabitants, mostly Morlachs, for the larger part adhere to Greek faith, while in the cities Roman Catholicism is dominant. The dominant language is Slavonic."

            Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865 : 411,000
"Slavs, which are generally called Dalmatians, but also Morlachs in the north, Ragusans and Bocchesi in the south, further Italians, Albanians and a few Jews ... The dominant religion is Roman Catholicism; the province is divided in several dioceses, has 60 monasteries for monks and 9 for nuns, but there are also many Greek Christians."

            Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863 : 393,715 (1851)
" ... for the most part belong to Slavic tribes, as 9/10 are Croats. The remainder consists of Italians and a few Jews. The people's language is the Slavic or Illyrian in the Herzegovinian dialect; the official language is Italian, which is also the language of the upper classes. By confession in 1851 the population consisted of 318,340 Roman Catholics, 496 united and 14,529 not united Greeks, 15 protestants and 340 Jews."

            Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892 : 458,611 (1869), 476,101 (1880)
"The most numerous population elements in Dalmatia is the Serbian (93 %), who in the interior are called Morlachs. North of the Cettina persons in height, dialect, clothing style and customs are similar to he Croatian type; on the islands the influence of Italian idiom is noticeable. The Slavs use, in addition to the Latin alphabet, also (for the purpose of religious service) the Cyrillic and Glagolithic alphabet. The next most numerous population elements are the Italians (5.8 %), concentrated in the coastal cities and on the islands. In the larger cities about 3400 Germans reside. About 900 Albanians inhabit Borgo Erizzo near Zara, about 250 Jews of Spanish descent form the rest of the population ... Over 83 % of the population are Roman Catholic, 16 % Greek Orthodox. Protestants, united Greeks and Jews together make up hardly 500 souls"

            Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926 : 527,426 (1890) 593,784 (1900)
Of them were 96,65 % Serbo-Croats, 2.61 % Italians, the latter mostly living in the coastal cities and on the islands; the remainder consisting of Germans, Czechs, Slovenes etc. 83.7 % were Roman Catholics, 16.2 % Greek Catholics

            Britannica 1911 : 591,597 (1900)
"I % are foreigners and about 3% Italians ... The Morlachs, who constitute the remaining 96%, belong to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race, having absorbed the Latinized Illyrians, Albanians and other alien elements with which they have been associated. The name of Morlachs are commonly bestowed by English writers on the Dalmatian Slavs, though sometimes restricted to the peasantry of the hills, is an abbreviated form of?Mavrovlachi,?meaning either "Black?Vlachs," or, less probably, "Sea?Vlachs." It was originally applied to the scattered remnants of the?Latin?or Latinized inhabitants of central?Illyria, who were driven from their homes by the barbarian? invaders during the 7th century, and took refuge among the mountains. Throughout?the middle ages?the Mavrovlachi were usually nomadic shepherds,?cattle-drovers or muleteers. In the 14th century they emigrated from central?Illyria?into northern Dalmatia and maritime Croatia; and these regions were thenceforward known as?Morlacchia,?until the 18th century. Gradually, however, the Mavrovlachi became identified with the Slavs, whose language and manners they adopted, and to whom they gave their own name. In northern Dalmatia the Slavs of the interior are still called?Morlacchi;?in the south this name expresses contempt. Of the Vlachs, properly so called, very few are left in the country; although the name Vlachs?is frequently used by the Slavs to designate the Italians and the town-dwellers generally ... Roman Catholicism is the religion of more than 80% of the population, the remainder belonging chiefly to the Orthodox Church."

            Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 : 608,400
"The population consists of?Croats, who are in the?majority, Serbs,?Italians, and?Albanians?(about 10 percent).?There are 527,500?Catholics? in Dalmatia and 80,900?Greek schismatics."

III.3 Analysis
            19th and early 20th century encyclopedia articles on Dalmatia are contrastable to those on the Austrian Littoral in the portrayal of the Slavic people and the Pan Slavic movement. The Slavs in Dalmatia, as expressed in the articles, are of a Serbo-Croatian branch called the Morlachs. Although the Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811 article uses Slavs and Morlachs interchangeably, the Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865 and Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892 articles differentiates the Dalmatian Slavs and the Morlachs in the north. This is explained in detail in the Britannica 1911 article, which states that the name Morlachs is sometimes restricted to the Slavs living in the interior of northern Dalmatia.
            The population size of Dalmatia is smaller than the 894,457 inhabitants (1910) of the Austrian Littoral. However, the Slavic element is greater, with more than 90% being Morlach/Slavic. Especially, while mainly Slovenes inhabit the Austrian Littoral, the Slavs in Dalmatia are mainly of the Serbo-Croatian branch. There is also a significant percentage of Greek Orthodox Christians who use the Glagolithic script, compared to the overwhelmingly Roman Catholic population of the Austrian Littoral. These differences, along with the fact that Dalmatia is geographically closer to the South Slavic states in the Balkans and farther from Austria or Italy than the Austrian Littoral, amount to the greater intensity in the inclination towards Pan Slavism in Dalmatia than in the Austrian Littoral. Thus, a larger section in 19th century and early 20th century encyclopedia articles on Dalmatia is devoted to explaining Pan Slavic sentiments and movements than that, if any, of those on the Austrian Littoral.

III.4 Pan Slavism in Dalmatia, as Portrayed in 19th century and early 20th century encyclopedias
            The following is a list of statements that refer to Pan Slavism, with additional follow-up analyses for each encyclopedia

            Britannica 1911
"Dalmatian public life is deeply affected by the jealousies which subsist between the Slavs and the Italians."
"Dalmatia occupies a somewhat anomalous position in the Austro-Hungarian state system ... it is severed geographically from the other Austrian lands by the Hungarian kingdom of Croatia. Ethnographically it is one with Croatia, and it is included in the official title of the Croatian king."
"In 1904 the Vatican forbade the use of Glagolitic at the festival of SS.?Cyril?and?Methodius, as likely to impair the unity of Catholicism. A few years previously the Slavonic archbishop Rajcevic of Zara, in discussing the "Glagolitic controversy," had denounced the movement as "an innovation introduced by Pan Slavism to make it easy for the?Catholic?clergy, after any great revolution in the?Balkan?States, to break with Latin?Rome." This view is shared by very many, perhaps by the majority, of the Roman Catholics in Dalmatia."
"The farmers and the merchants who traded in the interior naturally favored Hungary, their most powerful neighbor on land; while the seafaring community looked to Venice as mistress of the Adriatic."

            The Britannica gives a glimpse of insight into the animosity between the Slavs and the Italians. Historically, Latin-speaking Italians inhabited the coastal cities during the Roman Empire, before the Slavs immigrated in the 7th century into Dalmatia. It is fair to assume that the Italians probably felt threatened by the Croatian expansion in the 10th century, consequently disliking the invaders. Such an ethnic division runs parallel with socioeconomic and religious lines, since the well-educated, city-dwelling Italians were of the upper and wealthy merchant class, living off the benefits of thriving coastal trade. The Slavs, on the other hand, inhabited the countryside, and had little voice in political affairs of the land, which revolved around the cities. In the last statement, the "farmers and merchants who traded in the interior" probably refers to the Slavs, as opposed to the Italian "sea faring community." Thus, it can be said that the rivalry between Venice and Hungary further deepened the division between the Slavs and the Italians. Also, regarding the statement about the "Glagolithic controversy," though the Croats in Dalmatia mostly belonged to the Catholic faith, they had a tradition of using the Glagolithic script for mass, and the Italians viewed the adherence to this tradition by some of the Croats unfavorably. The fact that a "Slavonic archbishop" denounced Pan Slavism may remind the reader of the observation made earlier in this paper that the Slovenes, especially those in the Austrian Littoral, were initially not as sympathetic towards Pan Slavism as were the Croats.

            . Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
"Dalmatia is the most neglected country under Austrian rule." "Venice never gained the affection of the Dalmatian people. By the treaty of Campo Formio in 1797 she lost Dalmatia, which came under Austrian rule, under which is has continued to the present time with the exception of Napoleonic times (1805-1814). The feeling towards Austria was not friendly, as the outbreak in 1869 shows. This was put down by force of arms in February of the next year. Influential patriots, the members of the home Diet, and the delegates in the Reichstag at Vienna are working to carry out the provisions of the fundamental law requiring the union of Dalmatia with the mother-country, Croatia, which the king promised in a solemn oath at his coronation."

            The Catholic Encyclopedia provides further reasons for the rise of Pan Slavism in Dalmatia. It states that both Austrian and Venetian rule failed to gain the sympathies of the Dalmatians. The last sentence, which implies that the Pan Slavic nationalists eventually gained significant political voice, is in the present tense, indicating that it was written in 1914, maybe a one or two years earlier. This development is more fully explained in the following encyclopedia.

            Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892 "While the Austrian administration undertook a number of steps to raise the material and spiritual level of he country, they failed in gaining it a lot of sympathies. In consequence of the events of 1848 Dalmatia was subordinated to the Ban of Croatia. As the Slavic inhabitants of Dalmatia almost exclusively belonged to the lower classes and were politically inactive, as the leading figures in the diet were Italians, Dalmatia did not want a connection with Croatia. So the Dalmatian diet expressed the desire to remain in the complex of German-Slavic provinces, and hurried to send delegates to the Viennese Reichstag. Only a small faction was pro-Slavic, and in an address which was presented to the Emperor on Oct. 9th 1861 they requested the reconstitution of the tri-unite kingdom, for which they claimed the same degree of autonomy within the Austrian state, as Hungary had had until the revolution of 1849. That the inhabitants were neither civilized nor loyal to the Empire, became apparent in the insurrection of 1869. When the of the Bocche di Cattaro as an infringement of their liberty; they put up armed resistance, expelled the officials, laid siege to Fort Dragalj and annihilated a detachement sent out against them. In their mountains they were almost sage from attack. Several regiments were beaten back and suffered losses; the insurgents received support from the interior and from Montenegro. Only when General von Rodich succeeded, by promising amnesty, compensation and freedom from the draft, to move the Bocchesians to lay down their arms and to submit, so that in February 1870 calm was restored. The Kaiser's visit of Dalmatia (in April and May 1875) which provided the opportunity to numerous local ovations, appeared later, when the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the natural hinterlands of Dalmatia (1878) became reality, as having preceded this great action of Austria, and appeared to the Dalmatians as a guarantee for the realization of a number of hopes concerning the material situation of the country. In the meantime the Slavic Party gained more and more ground in Dalmatia and finally gained the majority in the diet. The struggle of the parties, the Italian and the Slavic autonomists, and the supporters of a Croatian triunite kingdom Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia (Bosnia and Herzegovina included), continued in varying ferocity. Sensing their numeric superiority and their majority in the diet, the Croatian National Party began to attack the Italians and Germans, to Slavicize the schools. Also in 1881 in southern Dalmatia, in the Bocche and in so-called Krivoscie a new insurrection broke out, because of the introduction of mandatory military service; it was suppressed only in 1882."

            The MKL article provides a detailed explanation of the Pan Slavic movement. The article states that although the Slavs wanted unification with Croatia, they were politically suppressed by the Italians who preferred to remain under Austrian rule. The "events of 1848" probably allude to the Croatian Assembly (Sabor), which is mentioned in the Historical Overview chapter. The article also states that forced military recruits and mandatory military service proved to be a source of dissatisfaction, causing the uprisings of 1869 and 1881. Thus, it can be inferred that not only ethnographical causes, but also political mismanagement by the Austrian government played a role in fostering discontent and in sparking nationalistic uprisings by the Croats. Most important is the development described in the later part of the article, which outlines the political growth of the Slavic Party. This explains the last statement in the Catholic Encyclopedia passage.

IV. Anti-Semitism in the Age of Nationalism, as Portrayed by the Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
            The Jewish Encyclopedia provides unique and invaluable insight into the 19th century Jewish situation in the Austrian Littoral and Dalmatia. The Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863 article on Dalmatia gives the Jewish population number as 340; the Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892 article states that there were "250 Jews of Spanish descent" in Dalmatia. The Jewish Encyclopedia on Trieste states 5,000 Jews (1900) lived in the area, and the article on Istria states 285 Jews for Istria. Below is a list of statements in the Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 that are related to Anti Semitism.

IV.1 Article on Trieste
            "It has been many years since there has been a ghetto at Trieste, as the Jews have always enjoyed exceptional favor there, being allowed to live in any part of the city and being exempt from wearing the Badge."
"Aaron Parente was president of the chamber of commerce of?Triest, and was succeeded by his son Solomon, while Baron Elio Morpurgo and his son Mario have been presidents of the Austrian Lloyd. Caliman de Minerbi has been vice-podest?, and the Hirschel family was received at court at a time when the Jews of other cities were persecuted and despised. At present Jews control the principal banks and commercial institutions and the chief insurance companies."

            The first statement implies that the Jews in other parts of Europe were not allowed to live in wherever they wished, that there existed Ghettos, and that they were usually forced to wear the Badge.
The second statement reveals the economic situation of the Jewish community in Trieste, with Jewish families dominating influential business positions. It also states that the Jews in other cities were "persecuted and despised" at one point of time.
Interestingly, the Jews in Trieste enjoyed a relatively liberal life, without being subject to strict Anti-Semitic rules.

IV.2 Article on Istria
            "In Istria, as in almost the whole of Europe, the Jews conducted banks for lending money."
"The street in which the Jewish bankers and their associates were located was called "Ghetto" and this name was preserved even after their departure."
"Under these "capitoli" the city of Pirano was obliged to provide the Jews with sound animals for slaughter according to Hebrew rites, and with a field for a cemetery, and to permit them to invite other "Zudei," including teachers for their sons, to settle in the city." "Jews above thirteen years of age were obliged to wear an "O" on their clothing, but not within Venetian domains. Jewesses were exempt from this rule."

            In Istria, as in Trieste, the Jews were free from rigorous Anti Semitism, which is evident in the statement that the capitoli "are still extant." These "capitoli" enabled the Jews to enjoy governmental benefits like "sound animals for slaughter," "a field for a cemetery," and the right to invite and settle other Jews in the city. The last two sentences confirm the above observation, stating that the Jews could serve in the military, were allowed to hold religious services, and have their own cemetery.

IV.3 Article on Spalato
            "When Jewish exiles settled there in numbers after the expulsion from Spain, the port contained the most important community in Dalmatia." "The Spalato Jews were highly favored by the Venetian republic, local trade and finance being almost entirely in their hands."

            The first statement refers to the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492. The second statement explains that the Jews in the cities like Spalato were favored by Venice for economical reasons. This may also explain why the Jews in the Austrian Littoral in general were free from rigorous Anti-Semitism. While the first and second statements are historical descriptions, the third statement gives contemporary information that the Jewish community in Spalato "is in a state of decline." It is unclear whether this phenomenon can be applied not to the entire land of Dalmatia, and whether the decline was a result of Anti-Semitism.

V. Bias in 19th and Early 20th Century Encyclopedias
            Despite the neutrality expected of encyclopedias, there are several statements that contain bias. Both the Britannica and the German encyclopedias appear to be more favorable towards the Austrian administration than the Slavs, especially those of Dalmatia, as evident in the examples examined below.

V.1 Austrian Littoral
            Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Istria
"the inhabitants, the number of which is estimated at 100,000, but who do not have the best reputation"
It is unclear whether the "inhabitants ... who do not have the best reputation" is referring to the Italians or the Slavs. However, since the majority of the population was the Slavs, it is likely that the bias is against the Slavs

V.2 Dalmatia
            Britannica 1911, Dalmatia
"The Morlachs wear a picturesque and brightly-coloured?costume, resembling that of the Serbs (see?Servia). In appearance they are sometimes blond, with blue or grey eyes, like the Shumadian peasantry of?Servia; more often,?olive-skinned, with dark hair and eyes, like the Montenegrins, whom they rival in stature, strength and courage; while their conservative spirit, their devotion to national traditions,?poetry?and?music, their pride, indolence and superstition, are typically Servian."
The "National Characteristics" section of the Britannica 1911, which describes the character and physical appearance of the Slavs, is prejudicial. The attempt to make broad ethnical generalizations based on characteristics like "pride and indolence" is suggestive of racism.

There was considerable danger that the Latin liturgies would be altogether superseded by the Glagolithic, especially among the northern islands and in rural communes, where the Slavonic element is all-powerful.
The word "danger" carries negative connotations, and the statement seems to take the side of the "Latin liturgies" against the "Glagolithic." This is another example of a bias against the Orthodox Slav.

"A few years previously the Slavonic archbishop Rajcevic of Zara, in discussing the "Glagolitic controversy," had denounced the movement as "an innovation introduced by Pan Slavism to make it easy for the?Catholic?clergy, after any great revolution in the?Balkan?States, to break with Latin?Rome." This view is shared by very many, perhaps by the majority, of the Roman Catholics in Dalmatia."
The statement about the "Glagolithic controversy," although in itself contains no partiality, is still biased in that it assumes that "This view is shared by very many, perhaps by the majority, of the Roman Catholics in Dalmatia." It is also biased in that only one side of the argument is quoted by an authoritative figure.

            Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811 "Her inhabitants, mostly Morlachs"
The Britannica 1911 article, in describing the Morlachs, takes caution in accurately defining the origins of the name and to which specific groups it is applied. The Britannica explicitly states, "in the south the name expresses contempt." However, the Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811 shows no effort to differentiate the Slavs in northern and southern Dalmatia. If the Britannica were c orrect in saying the name "expresses contempt," then the southern Slavs who read the Brockhaus article would take offense. This indicates that the inspected encyclopedia was not intended for the Slavic readership.

            Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892 "That the inhabitants were neither civilized nor loyal to the Empire, became apparent in the insurrection of 1869."
The word "civilized" to describe movements for higher autonomy is highly controversial, and is biased against the Slavs. The tendency of German language encyclopedias to be biased against the Slavs may be in part because the readership was most likely intended to be Germans and German-speaking Austrians.

"While the Austrian administration undertook a number of steps to raise the material and spiritual level of he country, they failed in gaining it a lot of sympathies... Only when General von Rodich succeeded, by promising amnesty, compensation and freedom from the draft, to move the Bocchesians to lay down their arms and to submit, so that in February 1870 calm was restored. The Kaiser's visit of Dalmatia (in April and May 1875) which provided the opportunity to numerous local ovations, appeared later, when the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the natural hinterlands of Dalmatia (1878) became reality, as having preceded this great action of Austria, and appeared to the Dalmatians as a guarantee for the realization of a number of hopes concerning the material situation of the country."

            The above statements are favorable towards the Austrian government. The first statement describes the Austrian government¡¯s policy in a positive light, and the claim that the "Kaiser¡¯s visit" elicited ovations, and that it was a "great action of Austria" all point to pro-Austrian partiality

            Pierer¡¯s Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865
"Women love jewelry if it attracts attention."
This is another form of racial prejudice; it attributes a general quality to a certain ethnicity. The statement also insinuates racial sexism.

VI. Conclusion
            By examining 19th and early 20th century encyclopedia articles, I have analyzed the historical background behind Pan Slavism, and compared and contrasted the Austrian Littoral and Dalmatia regarding nationalistic movements. Although there was no extensive coverage on Pan Slavism, I was able to isolate relevant information from descriptions on the history and population of the two regions.
            The articles used for this paper were ones that had separate articles for Dalmatia and the component regions of the Austrian Littoral. The articles of encyclopedia editions after 1848, which marked the beginning of major Pan Slavic movements, were especially helpful due to their detailed coverage on the history of the regions. Especially, the Britannica 1911 generally had the most detailed articles, and it was primarily from the Britannica 1911 that I selected important facts for the Historical Overviews. The objectivity of the Britannica articles and those of other languages was examined by analyzing statements that contain prejudices or bias. The editions before 1848, however, such as the Brokhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, barely had a paragraph, with only cursory descriptions with too little content to contain significant bias. This may be because the 1848 nationalistic movements provided an incentive for more coverage and bias, especially regarding Dalmatia, since the land played a major role in the movements.
            Although English translations of most of the German and Swedish language encyclopedia articles I used were accessible from WHKMLA (see Bibliography), the articles on Trieste were translated using Google Translator. Since the translations about Trieste were for mainly statistical information, I believe there is little translation error. The original texts and their translations are provided in the Appendix.

Notes
           
(1)      "Pan Slavism" Wikipedia
(2)      "Austrian Littoral" Wikipedia
(3)      "Trieste" Britannica 1911
(4)      "Istria" Britannica 1911
(5)      "Gorz and Gradisca" Britannica 1911
(6)      See Appendix
(7)      See Appendix
(8)      See Appendix
(9)      See Appendix
(10)      "Trieste" Britannica 1911
(11)      "Austroslavism" Wikipedia
(12)     : "Dalmatia" Britannica 1911
(13)      "Dalmatia" Wikipedia
(14)      ibid.


Bibliography

Note : websites quoted below were visited in June 2009.

Primary Sources
1.      "Austrian Littoral" Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_Littoral
2.      "Austroslavism" Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austroslavism
3.      "Dalmatia" Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalmatia
4.      "Dalmatia" Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 edition, posted as Classic Encyclopedia http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Dalmatia
5.      "Dalmatia" Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition, posted by New Advent, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04606b.htm
7.      "Dalmatien" Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, posted by Zeno, translation posted by WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/balkans/dalmenc19.html
8.      "Dalmatien" Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, posted by Zeno, translation posted by WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/balkans/dalmenc19.html
9.      "Dalmatien" Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, posted by Project Runeburg, translation posted on WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/balkans/dalmenc19.html
10..      "Dalmatien" Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892, posted by Retro-Bibliothek, translation posted by WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/balkans/dalmenc19.html
11..      "Dalmatien" Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926, posted by Project Runeburg, translation posted by WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/balkans/dalmenc19.html
12..      "Litorale" Nordisk Familje-Bok 2nd ed. 1904-1926, posted by Project Runeberg, http://runeberg.org/nfai/0751.html for translated segment, see Appendix
13.      "Gorz and Gradisca" Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 edition, posted as Classic Encyclopedia. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Gorz_And_Gradisca
14.      "Görz" Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition, posted by New Advent, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06654b.htm
15.      "Görz und Gradiska" Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, posted by Zeno, translation posted by WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/germany/gorenc19.html
16.      "Görz und Gradisca" Meyers Grosses Conversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, posted by Zeno, translation posted by WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/germany/gorenc19.html
17.      "Istria" Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906 edition; Funk & Wagnalls, http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=368&letter=I
18.      "Istria" Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 edition, posted as Classic Encyclopedia. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Istria
19.      "Istrien" Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, posted by Zeno, translation posted by WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/germany/istriaenc19.html
20.      "Istrien" Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, posted by Zeno, translation posted by WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/germany/istriaenc19.html
21.      "Istrien" Meyers Grosses Conversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, posted by Zeno, translation posted by WHKMLA 22.      "Trieste" Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 edition, posted as Classic Encyclopedia. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Trieste
23.      "Triest-Capo d¡¯Istria" Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition, posted by New Advent, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15045a.htm
24.      "Triest" Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906 edition; Funk & Wagnalls, http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=335&letter=T
25.      "Triest" Meyers Konversationslexikon 1902-1909 edition, posted by Zeno. http://www.zeno.org/Meyers-1905/A/Tri%C3%A9st?hl=trieste for translated segment, see Appendix.
26.      "Triest" Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841 edition, posted by Zeno. http://www.zeno.org/Brockhaus-1837/A/Triest for translated segment, see Appendix
27.      "Triest" Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1911 edition, posted by Zeno. http://www.zeno.org/Brockhaus-1911/A/Tri%C3%A9st for translated segment, see Appendix
28.      "Spalato" Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906 edition; Funk & Wagnalls http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=993&letter=S <


Secondary Sources

29.      Article : Austroslavism, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austroslavism
30.      Article : Austrialn Littoral, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_Littoral
31.      Article : Dalmatia, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalmatia


Appendix

1. "Litorale" Nordisk Familje-Bok 2nd ed. 1904-1926
"Det har en areal af 7,973 kvkm., hvaraf på Görz och Gradisca 2,927, på Istrien 4,951 och på Trieste 95 kvkm. med 894,457 inv. (1910)."
Translated to :
"It has an area of 7973 square km. Görz and Gradisca 2927, Istria 4951 and Trieste 95 square km. with 894,457 inhab. (1910)."

2. "Triest" Meyers Konversationslexikon 1902-1909 edition
"Die Zahl der Einwohner betr?gt (1900) mit dem Militär (1953 Mann) 134,143, mit den 13 Vororten und den zum Gebiet von T. gehörigen 11 Dörfern 178,599, die überwiegend der italienischen Nationalität (24,679 Slowenen, 8880 Deutsche) und der katholischen Religion angehören (1792 Evangelische, 1378 Griechisch-Orientalische, 4954 Israeliten)." Translated to :
"134,143 (1900), including military (1953 men), with the 13 suburbs and the territory of 11 villages belonging to T., 178.599, mostly of Italian nationality (24.679 Slovenians, 8880 German) and the Catholic religion (1792 Evangelische, 1378 Greek-Oriental, Israel 4954)."

3. "Triest" Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841
"Kaiserthums mit 50,000 Einw" "Die Bevölkerung ist meist eine Mischung von Deutschen und Italienern, was sich deutlich in ihrem Benehmen. und Charakter ausspricht, obgleich ital. Sprache und Sitte ?berwiegen." Translated to : "50,000 inhabitants" "the population is mostly a mixture of Germans and Italians, which is evident in her demeanor and nature of the matter, although the Italian language and custom prevail."

4. "Triest" Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1911 edition
"Kronland (95 qkm, 1900: 178.599 E)"
Interpreted as :
178,599 inhabitants in the year 1900


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