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Multicultural Metropoleis: Vienna and Istanbul in Encyclopedia before 1920

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Park, Young Jin
Term Paper, AP World History Class, June 2009

Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Multicultural Metropoleis
II.1 Vienna
II.1.1 History
II.1.2 Government and Administration
II.1.3 Population
II.2 Istanbul
II.2.1 History
II.2.2 Government and Administration
II.2.3 Population
III. Encyclopedic Analysis on the Articles of Vienna and Istanbul
III.1 Periodic Comparison
III.2 Bias in Encyclopedia
IV. On More Sources
IV.1 Modern Encyclopedia
IV.2 Other Sources
V Source Criticism
V.1 Reliability of the Sources and Possible Errors
V.2 Selection of Articles and Sources
VI. Conclusion

I. Introduction
            Vienna and Istanbul had been the capitals of the empires. Vienna had been the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Istanbul had been the capital of Byzantine and Ottoman Empire. These metropoleis have been multicultural cities as they were the capital of large empires and these empires were tolerant to other religious and ethnical entities in some degrees.
            Encyclopedias are often used as the first line of references as they give general picture of the subjects of the research. (1) This paper will discuss mainly about the two multicultural metropoleis in the encyclopedia before 1920 and make some observations and deductions on the primary sources - encyclopedias - which are used in the paper.

II. Multicultural Metropoleis
            A multicultural metropolis is a city where diverse cultures are clashed and mixed together throughout the city in many ways. A multicultural metropolis has ethnical diversity. (2) Also, multicultural metropolis has multicultural consumers, civility and collegial interactions within the city in modern observations. (3) Back in the 19th and early 20th century, there were not many multicultural entities in Europe as nationalistic movements were popular and many political entities and nations were basically consist of one and the same ethnicity. Vienna and Istanbul in those days were two of the largest cities in Europe and were multicultural metropoleis for some reasons.

II.1 Vienna
            Vienna was the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and now the capital of the Republic of Austria with current population of 1.7 million. (4) Vienna was one of the largest cities in Europe in 19th century (5) and had diverse ethnic composition in 19th and early 20th century before the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I and the ethnical and this cultural diversity went into downfall before World War II with the advent of the Nazis.

II.1.1 History
            History of Vienna dates back to Christian age. Vienna was originally named Vindomina and started its history from the Roman seizure of Celtic land of Vindomina. (5) As the city was located in very strategic point next Danube River, Romans changed its name into Vindobona and built fortress to defend themselves from outer powers. (6) Later in middle age, Vienna had been the center of many struggles for power. After Roman rule, Vienna was temporarily occupied by the Attila and Huns from the 5th to the 8th century C.E. (7) However, there is no certain record that proves Vienna was a part of Austria at the time of formation of Austrian state. Thus, we can only assume that Vienna may be the part of Austria at the beginning of the state.
            Under the rule of Babenberg family, Vienna was bordering next to Hungary. Vienna was an important site for trade and the city was really well-organized so that was mentioned as Civitas for the first time which indicates the well-ordered settlement. (8) Vienna is recorded also in Slavonic records and Hungarian records as it was the bordering city between these ethnic entities and was frequently attacked by these people. (9) Vienna grew rapidly during the crusades. Massive amount of people and goods flowed through Vienna during the crusades resulting in the growth of Vienna. (10)
            In 1278, Rudolf I defeated Ottokar II of Bohemia and began establishing Habsburg rule in Vienna. After the election of Duke Albert V as German king Albert II - who is famous for his expulsion of Jewish population in Vienna in 1421 and 1422, Vienna became the capital of Holy Roman Empire. (11) Under the Habsburg rule, Vienna was besieged by Turkish army for two times in 1529 and 1683. (12) In 1556, Bohemia and Hungary were added to imperial rule and many diverse ethnicities flowed into Vienna. The Turks failed in their first attempt because of cold weather and epidemics while Viennese were making holds behind the medieval wall. Second attempt was failed by the army led by Polish King Jan Sobieski. (13) However, the suburbs of Vienna were severely destroyed during the two attempts by Turkish army. Vienna was shortly occupied by French army under Napoleon in 1805 and 1809 (14) and became the meeting place for European power to settle orders in Europe after overthrowing Napoleon in 1814-1815. (15) Under the rule of Emperor Franz Joseph I, Vienna was expanded for the first time in 1850 by including some suburban areas. Vast population started to migrate into Vienna and the population of Vienna was steadily increased in these days. In 1873, Vienna held the great international exhibition.
            The history of Vienna, starting from the annexation of the region by Romans driving out Celtic population, annexed temporarily by Attila and the Huns, established first Austrian states under the Frankish rule and frequently attempted attack by Magyars and Turkish people during the middle ages - even was threatened by Mongolian army, having frequent interaction with Slavonic people and Polish people, had seen many diverse cultures clashing inside and outside of the city. The imperial capital became the center of art and music under Austria-Hungary Empire proving that multicultural aspect of Vienna as a corollary of complicated history around the city before 1920s.

II.1.2 Government and Administration
            Vienna is the capital city of Austria-Hungary Empire and had been used as the meeting place for foreign ambassadors alternatively with Budapest. (16) Vienna enjoys autonomy in communal matters but the governor and Diet of Lower Austria rules the city. The municipal council of Vienna is consist of 158 (in 1905) members elected by people and serve six-year period. In 1895, there was a struggle between the municipality and Austrian ministry because of the election of anti-Semitic leader Dr. Lueger (17) and this is an example of the multicultural aspect of Vienna as there was notable number of Jewish residences in Vienna.
            The city of Vienna went through several extensions during the 19th century. Vienna was heavily funded by "City Extension Fund". (18) In 1850, most area in Linienwall was included to Vienna and the second expansion in 1890 caused Vienna - after the first expansion with 9 districts - to include 19 districts by assimilating the suburban area near Linienwall and 20th district was included in 1900, 21th district Floridsdorf became the part of Vienna in 1904. The consensus data shows the expansion of the city by showing the dramatic population growth in the years of expansion caused by inclusion of more people in suburban area.
            Vienna was usually in trouble because of its diverse ethnicity causing Anti-Semitic movement or even Anti-Magyar movement in liberal administration. (19) Vienna was under the monarchy before World War I and multicultural aspect - especially the collision between diverse ethnicity within the city - has been a politically complicated problem before Austria turns into the Republic of Austria after World War I.

II.1.3 Population
            Not all but many encyclopedias include population information in the article. The official regular consensus was conducted from 1869 under the rule of Emperor Franz Joseph I; thus the encyclopedia published before 1869 does not include much population information as the consensus before was not regular and inaccurate. (20)
            In 1800, the population of Vienna (old districts, before the expansion of the city in 19th century, was 231,050. In 1857, the population including suburbs - as in 1850, some districts of Linienwall was added to Vienna - was increased to 587,235 and in 1869 the population including suburbs was increased to 842,951 just as other big cities such as Berlin and Budapest was doubling and tripling their population. (21) In 1900 the population was increased into 1,727,073 including 26,622 military men after the second expansion of Vienna. (22)
            The proportion of diverse ethnicity and religion shows the multicultural aspect of Vienna. Among the population, German element is the most numerous; however diverse ethnicity such as Hungarians, Czechs, Slavs and Jews consist recognizable part of the population. (23) In 1900, among the 1,386,115 German-nationality population of Vienna (which means remaining 500 thousands of population were foreigners which shows Vienna as multicultural metropolis) 102,974 were Czechs and Slovaks, 4346 were Polish, 805 were Ruthenians, 1329 were Slovenes, 271 were Serbo-Croatians and 1368 were Italians. (24) Population of those who are not German-nationality was 133,144 of Hungarians, 2506 of Italians, 1703 of Russians, 1176 of French and 1643 of Swiss. (26) Jews are not officially recorded in encyclopedias but they were playing a big role in Vienna in some degrees. The table which shows the proportion of Jews among independents in the economic sectors in Vienna according to the census of 1910 shows that 10.47 % of people engaged in Industry, 16.95 % of people engaged in commerce and transport, 14.19 % of people engaged in Liberal professions, officials and military were Jews. (27) In the year of 1869, Jewish population was recorded 40,227 which was 6.6 % of the total population and relatively in 1890 and 1910 are each recorded 118,495 and 175,318 with 8.7 % and 8.6 % of total population (28) and Jewish people were mostly living in some specific districts such as District I, II and IX by consisting each 20.35 %, 33.95 % and 20.50 % of the total population of districts. (29) Not only ethnicity but also religions were diverse and comparatively impartially distributed throughout the city. Out of a population of 2,004,493, 1,767,334 were Catholics with 60,000 Protestants and about 150,000 Jews. (30) Old Catholics numbered 975, members of the Greek Orthodox Church numbered 3674, Greek Catholics numbered 2521 and Mahommedans numbered 889 (31) Though Catholic was the prevailing in the city of Vienna, other religions were tolerable for a long time and this trait made different kinds of religions to co-exist in the city.
            Vienna, as the capital of multinational empire, had diverse ethnicities and religions mingled in the 21 districts. The Empire was tolerant to its diverse people; thus, leading Vienna to become one of the multicultural metropolis in the 19th and early 20th century.

II.2 Istanbul
            Istanbul, currently the largest city in Turkey and second largest metropolitan area in Europe with the population of 12.6 million, had been another multicultural metropolis in history. (32) Being the capital of large historic empires, the Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Empire, large flow of population, trade and culture influenced the city, thereby creating a multicultural metropolis.

II.2.1 History
            The history of Istanbul dates back to the Greek city of Byzantium in 658 B.C.E. but declines after Rome besieged the city and get extensive damage in 196 C.E. (33) Roman Emperor Septimus Severus rebuilt the city of Byzantium and under the Roman rule.
            The real importance of the city is comes during the decline and the fall of Roman Empire. Emperor Constantine founded the city of Constantinople through the enlargement of old town of Byzantium. (34) After the death of Emperor Theodosius I in 395, the Roman Empire was separated permanently and Constantinople became the capital of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. (35) Located between the boundary of Europe and Asia (European side of the Strait), Constantinople served as the bridge between two continents and the city was tolerable of diverse ethnicity (not religion) because of the trade. (36)
            While West Roman Empire fell in 5th century, Byzantine Empire remained and flourished its unique strongly Greek-colored culture. Under the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople remained cultural unity and enjoyed trade between Italian cities and Arabian merchant for several centuries with continuous crusades which provided such advantage. (37) Constantinople was often threatened by the Muslims to its east side. In 14th century, Ottoman Turks started to interfere with Byzantine Empire, finally conquering on May 29, 1453 by Sultan Mehmet II. (38)
            Under the Ottoman Empire, as the capital of the Empire again, Constantinople - now Istanbul- began turning into a multicultural metropolis. Though Roman remains in Istanbul was severely destroyed or converted, rebuilt by Muslims, (39) Ottoman Empire was tolerant to many different religions - which is different from Byzantine Empire - as long as the people of different religion paid taxes. Istanbul still had some amount of Greek ethnicity under the Ottoman Empire which later result in Greek Rebellion of the Janissaries by Greek Patriarch Gregorios V in 1826. (40)
            Decline of Ottoman Empire even brought more cultural and ethnical diversity into Istanbul. Since the middle of 19th century, Istanbul was steadily losing its oriental character by the influence of western culture. (41) The portion of Muslim citizen went under 50 % by 1900 and the city lost its Muslim appearance in late 19th century.

II.2.2 Government and Administration
            Istanbul had municipal government divided into four sectors which are ruled by the administrator appointed by Sultan and subordinate to the minister of the interior. The city council has 24 members and the minister of interior is in charge of public infrastructures in the city. (42) The city is divided into 10 circles and each circle is again divided into several wards. Foreigners are granted rights of exterritoriality so that the disputes between foreigners are judged by foreign court rules and the disputes between foreigners and natives are judged by native court but foreigner¡¯s consulate is demanded to participate in the judging process. Foreigners are free to establish own school, hospital and perform their own religious act. (43) The right of foreigners was protected very prudentially as the city was multicultural metropolis.
            The modernization of city began in 1870s by the construction of railroads, bridges, buildings, telephone wire, and the use of electric lights. More and more westernized modern technology began to flow in and more foreigners flowed into the city with the modernization. Modernization of Istanbul changed the appearance of city Istanbul from Muslim city to modern city.

II.2.3 Population
            Population record of Istanbul dates back to 15th century. According to the census done in Ottoman Empire, Istanbul already had diverse ethnicity tolerated by Sultan by taxes. Until 20th century, the city was not totally ?though externally looked Muslim- Muslim. There were many Slavs, Greeks, Armenians and Jews were in Istanbul. According to the census of 1477, there were 9.486 houses occupied by Muslims, 3,743 by Greeks, 1,647 by Jews, 267 by Christians from Crimea. (44)
            During 19th century, the diversity of ethnicity and religion was more advanced than before until the Islam Reformation which took place in early 20th century. The number of population is not easily obtained because of too much flow of population around Istanbul; the population is generally estimated between 800,000 and 1,000,000 in 1909. Out of this number, 384,910 were Muslim, 152,741 were Greeks, 1,082 were Greek Latins, 149,590 were Armenians, 6,442, were Roman Catholics (native), 819 were Protestants (native), 4,366 were Bulgarians, 44,361 were Jews and 129,243 were foreigners. (45)
            Though the capital of Ottoman Empire, Istanbul had Muslim population below that numbered less than half of the total population. The Ottoman Empire was tolerant of diverse ethnicity and religions unless they cause harm to the Empire. Thus, Istanbul could be the multicultural metropolis in the 19th and 20th century before the fall of Ottoman Empire.

III. Encyclopedic Analysis on the articles of Vienna and Istanbul
            Different Encyclopedias used as primary sources sometimes give different information or portrays information partially. Also the different time of publication of encyclopedias shows different pattern in the order of articles or style of articles. Encyclopedias in the early days were not neutral as they are in modern days. There exists bias on encyclopedic articles by the portion of certain part of emphasis or elimination of specific subjects.

III.1 Periodic Comparison
            The comparison of different or same encyclopedias regarding the articles of Vienna and Istanbul shows certain pattern or writing style of encyclopedia. In the article dealing with Vienna (Wien) in Brockhaus Bilder Conversations-Lexikon of 1809 does not have sections divided while more recent encyclopedias such as Encyclopedia Britannica of 1911 - with general description of Vienna followed by 5 divided sections and Meyers' Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905 with detailed subdivisions with such as districts, buildings, popoulation, industries, etc. (46) Older encyclopedias have the tendency to describe the city with narrative style of history which was pursued by Ranke and his followers. The 19th and 20th century was the time of the development of history and as Ranke's style of recording history prevailed during the early and mid-19th century, encylcopedic articles are also in the style of Ranke.
            More modern sources either have longer, detailed articles of several subdivisions by paragraphs and titles at the beginning of the paragraph like Meyers' Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905 or have shorter, but more concise by focusing more in the physical condition of the city (Wien) by eliminating excessively long historical backgrounds and overly small details like Brockhaus¡® Kleines Konversations-Lexikon of 1911. (49)

III.2 Bias in Encyclopedia
            Though encyclopedias should be neutral, they are not. Actually no single history can achieve total neutrality to everyone in the world. Encyclopedias are not externally biased but they certainly contain some features of bias in their articles.
            Articles dealing with Istanbul were more biased than articles dealing with Vienna. For the first thing, even the name Istanbul was not found through the search engine inside of the website of Classic Encyclopedia. No article is written on "Istanbul" in Encyclopedia Britannica of 1911. To find the articles on Istanbul, it is necessary to find articles on Constantinople. In German encyclopedias, there was no article written under the keyword "Istambol". The keyword itself was in Brockhaus' Kleines Konversations-Lexikon of 1911 and Pierers¡® Universal-Lexikon of 1857 but no articles were written under the keyword but stated to refer to the articles on "Constantinopel" or "Konstantinopel" (51) while in those days were called Istanbul.
            The encyclopedias are mostly published in Europe which was predominated by Christian authority. Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire and the seat of Christianity which made some articles not only using the name Constantinople but also deals with the balance of the article between European history and Muslim history of the city partially. The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914 - again no article on Istanbul but on Constantinople - writes mostly about the history of Constantinople under the Byzantine Empire and the history of church in the city and writes only 3-5 lines on Turkish rule while under the Ottoman Empire, most of the churches in Constantinople were destroyed and mosques were raised. (53) As the encyclopedia itself is named Catholic Encyclopedia, it is inevitable that there should exists bias. However not only in Catholic encyclopedia, in Encyclopaedia Britannica of 1911 also mainly deals with the history of Byzantine Empire and has a short section on Turkish rule of Constantinople which is less than half in length. (54)
            Encyclopedias were also affected by political entities which made encyclopedias not neutral and contain some biases which should be cautiously censored by the student of history with certain degree of skepticism.

IV. On More Sources
            Different sources can give different information on same subject. More sources are helpful to do cross-examination and parallel reading to determine and achieve maximum neutrality and separate bias from the facts. Also by compare and contrast, good observations can be made on the sources themselves by studying differences between many sources.

IV.1 Modern Sources
            Modern encyclopedias have different structure and style of writing from the encyclopedias of a century ago. It is obvious that modern sources dealing with same cities contains different portion and contents from the older sources as there exists a gap of century. However, by just observing the difference in organization and portion of contents, good observations on older encyclopedias are made.
            In Doosan EnCyber Encyclopedia article on Vienna starts with the summary of Vienna with a table which states the area and population of Vienna. After the summary, there comes the narrative which is also longer version of summary which contains all kind of aspects starting from physical conditions such as climate, topography and brief history and feature of the culture. After this narrative of summary, several subdivisions in detail with history, society and culture follow. (55)
            In Wikipedia article on Istanbul, though Wikipedia is the encyclopedia free of writing by anyone, has certain format. The article starts with brief summary on the city with its origin of the name and location followed by several subdivisions of Names, History, Geography, City Arrangement, Administration, Demographics, Economy, Infrastructure, Transportations, Architecture, Urbanism, Life in the city, Education, Sports. Also there are the pictures of the map of Istanbul and famous places. (56)
            Looking at the two modern encyclopedias, Doosan EnCyber encyclopedia has concise and useful key information on Vienna rather than longer, undistinguishable lengthy articles of the Nordisk familjebok of 1921. (57) Wikipedia article on Istanbul has more detailed information on many subdivisions unlike many other encyclopedias on Istanbul have the most portion only in history.

IV.2 Other Sources
            Other sources such as International statistics books are helpful to proof read the primary sources. In Catholic Encyclopedia, the number of people in different religion is comparatively very vaguely estimated than Catholics of Vienna by stating that 767,334 were Catholics with 60,000 Protestants and about 150,000 Jews. (58)
            Not only statistics but also pictures and even historical novels can be the sources. However, many sources can be distractive. Other sources must be used carefully with certain amount of skepticism to be neutral and do parallel reading to make better observations on history.

V. Source Criticism
            Sources used in the paper are mostly primary sources from the historical Encyclopedia of the specific era. However, primary sources are not always trusted and sometimes it is more biased or twisted than is the secondary sources. Not only biased but unless the student of history is multilingual, possible errors can be made during the process of translation. Using primary sources as references is a proper way of studying history but must be followed by cautiousness and source criticism to minimize such errors and mistakes.

V.1 Reliability of the Sources and Possible Errors.
            Though sources are primary sources, reliability must be always checked before accepting sources as the facts. One thing that must be remembered is the difference between the publication date and the date of when the actual article was written. Thus, the incident happened between the date of article and date of publication can be missed and not portrayed on the article though the encyclopedia is published after the incident.
            Translation engine can also make possible errors. Gothic font causes the problem of image-transcription engine unable to distinguish between s and f, v and w and some other letters. Also, translation engine are not perfect which can lead the student to the totally nonsense of translated article. When the breaks between the sentences are not correct, translation engine does not translate helpfully and though when user makes no mistakes, translation engine itself is not perfect which makes student to cross-examine the sources of his own language and translated version of primary sources in order to minimize the errors and make high-possibility deduction when faced non-sense translation.

V.2 Selection of the Articles and Sources
            Sources are selected from the list of the encyclopedias posted on WHKMLA in order to show the analysis of the sources more efficiently as the research on the cities contains mostly same contents from encyclopedias to encyclopedias. Catholic Encyclopedia is selected to show externally biased article and other German sources are used to compare the similar encyclopedia with different time of publication (i.e. Brockhaus) and selected to pursue efficiency as Swedish Encyclopedia had too much error and trouble using image-transcription engine which caused waste of much time.
            Articles are selected from the sources by using some keywords translated from English to German such as ¡®population¡¯ into ¡®Bevölkerung¡¯ and ¡®history¡¯ into ¡®Geschichte¡¯ and only the part which containing such keyword is translated for efficiency.

VI. Conclusion
            Before World War I, both Vienna and Istanbul were both capital of the Empires and multicultural metropoleis of the era. Vienna as the border of different ethnic groups had diverse ethnicity and religions which made the city into multicultural metropolis. However, the advent of Republic of Austria and later of the Nazis gives decline to this multicultural aspect of Vienna. Istanbul, the capital of Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire, eventually became the multicultural metropolis under the Muslims as they were tolerant of many religions unless they cause problems. Istanbul originally had diverse ethnicity as it was one of the trade cities that are located between Europe and Asia and tolerance of Ottoman Empire made such ethnic diversity to develop into multicultural aspect of the city. The decline of Ottoman Empire brought more diversity as western influence was flowing into the city eroding the external appearance of Muslim city. The diversity went on until the Islam reformation of early 20th century.
            On studying multicultural aspects of these two cities by using primary sources of historical encyclopedias, the need for source criticism and techniques for minimizing the possible error was desperate. Primary sources are not always reliable for some reasons and they are also biased as well as secondary sources. However, primary sources were useful in cross-examining the fact by finding the differences and similarities of the same articles in sources. Sources in other languages are partially and efficiently translated by studying the pattern and organization of the encyclopedias and translating the part which is needed for the paper. Primary sources are great historical resources that can be used in study of history; however, they are only useful when appropriate techniques and certain amount of skepticism are used.

Notes (1)      Term Paper Topics 12th Waves 2009 May, WHKMLA
(2)      Multicultural Metropolis,
(3)      Stevenson 1999
(4)      Vienna, Wikipedia
(5)      Wien, Herders Conversations-Lexikon of 1854
(6)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(7)      Wien[2], Pierer's Universal-Lexikon of 1857
(8)      Wien, Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905
(9)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(10)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(11)      Wien[2], Pierer's Universal-Lexikon of 1857
(12)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(13)      Wien[2], Pierer's Universal-Lexikon of 1857
(14)      Wien, Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905
(15)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(16)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(17)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(18)      History of Vienna, Wikipedia
(19)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(20)      History of Vienna, Wikipedia
(21)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(22)      Wien, Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905
(23)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(24)      Wien, Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905; Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(26)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(27)      Table 7. The proportion of Jews among independents in the economic sectors in Vienna according to the census of 1910, in : Beller 1989 p.48
(28)      Table 5. The Jewish population of Vienna, in : Beller 1989 p.44
(29)      Table 6. Highest density of the Jewish population in Vienna in 1910 by district, in : Beller 1989 (30)      Vienna, Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914
(31)      Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(32)      Istanbul, Wikipedia
(33)      The Strait and the City, up to c.658 BC, in : Freely 1998, p.3-12
(34)      Constantinople, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(35)      Freely, John, The Imperial Capital, 337-395, in : Freely 1998, p.48-57
(36)      Constantinopel, Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon of 1809
(37)      Konstantinopel, Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905
(38)      Constantinople, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(39)      Konstantinopel, Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905
(40)      Konstantinopel, Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905
(41)      History of Istanbul, Wikipedia
(42)      Constantinople, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(43)      Constantinople, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(44)      History of Istanbul, Wikipedia
(45)      Constantinople, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(46)      Wien, Brockhaus Bilder Conversations-Lexikon of 1809; Vienna, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911; Wien, Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905
(49)      Wien, Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905; Wien, Brockhaus Kleines Konversations-Lexikon of 1911
(51)      Istambol, Brockhaus Kleines Konversations-Lexikon of 1911; Istambol, Pierers' Universal-Lexikon of 1857
(53)      Constantinople, Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914
(54)      Constantinople, Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911
(55)      Vienna, Doosan EnCyber, Naver Online Encyclopedia
(56)      Istanbul, Wikipedia
(57)      Wien, Nordisk Familjebok of 1921
(58)      Vienna, Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914

Note : websites quoted below were visited in June 2009.

Primary Sources
(1)      Article : Wien, from Herders Conversations-Lexikon of 1854, in German, posted by Zeno
(2)      Article : Vienna, from : Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911, posted by Classic Encyclopedia
(3)      Article : Wien[2], from : Pierer's Univesal-Lexikon of 1857, in German, posted by Zeno
(4)      Article : Wien, from : Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905, in German, posted by Zeno
(5)      Article : Constantinople, from : Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition of 1911, posted by Classic Encyclopedia
(6)      Article : Constantinopel, from : Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon of 1809, in German, posted by Zeno,
(7)      Article : Konstantinopel, from : Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon of 1905, in German, posted by Zeno,
(8)      Article : Wien, from : Brockhaus Kleines Konversations-Lexikon of 1911, in German, posted by Zeno
(9)      Article : Istambol, from : Brockhaus¡¯ Kleines Konversations-Lexikon of 1911, in German, posted by Zeno
(10)      Article : Istambol, from : Pierers¡¯ Universal-Lexikon of 1857, in German, posted by Zeno
(11)      Article : Constantinople, from : Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914, posted by New Advent
(12)      Article : Wien, from : Nordisk familjebok of 1921, in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg
(13)      Article : Vienna, from Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914, posted by New Advent

Secondary Sources
(14)      Term Paper Topics 12th Waves 2009 May, WHKMLA.
(15)      Multicultural Metropolis, from : Wroclaw. Official pages of Wroclaw Municipality,
(16)      Stevenson, Joseph M. The Modern City as a Multicultural Metropolis : Consumer, Civility and Collegial Triangles, 1999, accessed via Questia.
(17)      Article : Vienna, from Wikipedia
(18)      Article : History of Vienna, from Wikipedia
(19)      Beller, Steven Vienna and the Jews 1867-1938 A cultural history, Cambridge University press, 1989
(20)      Article : Istanbul, from Wikipedia
(21)      Freely, John Istanbul - The Imperial City, Penguin books, 1998
(22)      Article : History of Istanbul, from Wikipedia <>
(23)      Article : Vienna, Doosan EnCyber, Naver Online Encyclopedia, in Korean

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