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History of Manchuria

in full-page cartoons

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Kim, Min Woo
Term Paper, AP European History Class, November 2008

Table of Contents
I. Origin and definition of Manchuria
II. Manchuria before the Qing Dynasty
II.1 GoJoseon & Wi Man Joseon
II.2 Wuhuan, Buyeo, Okjeo, & Goguryeo
II.3 Balhae
II.4 Liao Dynasty & Jin Dynasty (1115~1234)
II.5 Yuan Dynasty & Ming Dynasty
III. Qing Dynasty & Republic of China
III.1 The Beginning of the Manchu Nation
III.2 Railroad constructions in Manchuria
III.3 Decline of the Qing Dynasty
III.4. Republic of China : the Warlord Era
IV Manchukuo
IV.1 History of Manchukuo
IV.2 Economy of Manchukuo
IV.3 Politics of Manchukuo
V After 1945
VI Conclusion

I. Origin and Definition of Manchuria
            Manchuria is a name given to a vast geographic region in northeast Asia. Manchuria is divided between China and Russia. The official Chinese term, in translation, is Northeast China, and historically referred as Guandong, which literally means "East of the Shanhaiguan Mountain" (1). This region is the traditional homeland of the Xianbei, Khitan, and Jurchen people, who built several dynasties in northern China. The region is also the home of the Manchus, after whom Manchuria is named. Manchuria was the homeland of several nomadic tribes, including the Manchu, Ulchs, and Hezhen.

II. Manchuria before the Qing Dynasty

II.1 GoJoseon & Wi Man Joseon
            According to Samguk Yusa, an 13th century Korean historical account, Gojoseon is an ancient Korean kingdom (15). Gojoseon is considered the first proper nation of the Korean people. According to Samguk Yusa Gojoseon was founded in 2333 BC by the legendary Dangun, who is said to be the grandson of heaven (2). It was centered in the basins of Liao ruling over Korean peninsula and Manchuria. After the era of GoJoseon from 2333 BC to 194 BC, there comes the era of Wiman Joseon since 194 BC to 104 BC.
            Wiman Joseon was the part of the Gojoseon period of Korean history, as stated in source (16). It began with Wiman's seizure of the throne from Gojoseon's King Jun and ended with the death of King Ugeo who was the grandson of Wiman. Wiman was the general from the state of Yan (West of Gojoseon) who submitted to Gojoseon's King Jun. Jun accepted and appointed Wiman as the commander of the western border region of Gojoseon. Despite the generosity that King Jun had demonstrated, Wiman revolted and destroyed Gojoseon and established Wiman Joseon in 194 BC. The capital became Wanggeom-seong which is Pyongyang these days.
            In this period Wiman Joseon expanded to control a vast territory and became strong economically by controlling trade between China's Han Dynasty and many nations at Manchuria. Emperor Wu of Han actually was afraid of Wiman Joseon¡¯s increased authority that it controlled most of the trade of Han in those days.

II.2 Wuhuan, Buyeo, Okjeo, & Goguryeo
            After GoJoseon dynasty collapsed, there were new countries being developed. There was Wuhuan at the west of Manchuria, Goguryeo in the middle, Buyeo at the north, and Okjeo at the south. First the Wuhuan was nomadic people who inhabited in northern China, which is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, and Shanxi. They were descended from the Donghu, who were defeated by the Xiongnu. Wuhuan was active throughout the latter half of the Han Dynasty and unlike other non-chinese people, Wuhuan was relatively cooperative with the imperial court (3). However around the fall of the dynasty in the 190s, Wuhuan had numerous wars near their region. Although various Wuhuan leaders led sporadic revolts throughout the third century, by the fourth century they had largely been displaced by the Xianbei.
            Buyeo is also reagarded as an ancient Korean kingdom in the Korean history book named Samguk Yusa (17). It is located from today's Manchuria to northern North Korea, from the 2nd century BC to 494. Buyeo was part of the GoJoseon before Gojoseon¡¯s downfall. The generals of GoJoseon established Buyeo. However, Buyeo separated itself to three branches which were BukBuyeo, DongBuyeo and Jolbon Buyeo. In the end its neighbor Goguryeo absorbs Buyeo in 494.
            Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula and extended into Manchuria (18). It existed from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century CE. There were two parts of Okjeo, which were Buk-Okjeo and Dong-Okjeo. They both were neighbors of Goguryeo and were absorbed as Buyeo was.

            Goguryeo was an ancient kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula, and south Manchuria. It was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea as stated in source (19). Goguryeo was an active participant in power of the Korean peninsula as well as foreign affairs with China and Japan. It was founded in 37 BC by Jumong, who was the prince of Buyeo (4). It was established since the 2nd century BC around the fall of Gojoseon. It was a major regional power in East Asia and Manchuria until it was defeated by a Silla-Tang alliance in 668 CE. After being defeated, its territory of Manchuria was divided among the Tang Dynasty and Balhae. Also there were nomadic states such as Khitan at the west of Goguryeo and to the east-northen side, there was Mohe.

II.3 Balhae
            After Goguryeo¡¯s downfall, the descendents of Goguryeo established Balhae in 698. Dae Jo young a former Goguryeo general established Balhae to be an independent state from Shilla or Tang Dynasty. Balhae occupied southern parts of Manchuria and Primorsky Krai, and the northern part of the Korean peninsula.
            The second King Mu felt encircled by Tang and Silla so he attacked Tang with his navy in 732. After their successful attack, Tang and Balhae made a compromise. Also he sent a mission to Japan in 728 to threaten Silla from the southeast. Balhae kept diplomatic and commercial contacts with Japan until end of the Kingdom. Balhae became a buffer zone for the region in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.
            The tenth King Seon controlled northeastern Manchuria and now Primorsky Krai of Russia. He led campaigns that resulted in the absorbing of many northern Malgal tribes and southwest Lesser Goguryeo Kingdom located in the Liaodong peninsula. Its strength was such that Silla was forced to build a northern wall in 721 as well as maintain active defences along the common border.
            It was defeated by the Khitans in 926 and most of its northern territories were absorbed into the Liao Dynasty while the southern parts were absorbed into Goryeo. Recent study suggests that the downfall of Balhae is largely due to the catastrophic eruption in the 10th century of Baekdu Mountain located at the center of Balhae territory. Ashes of this eruption can still be found in a large area, even in a sedimentary layer in northern Japan. This massive explosion century created tremendous volcanic ash, damaging the agriculture and even societal integrity. The Khitans took advantage of this natural disaster. The Khitans themselves eventually succumbed to the Jurchen people, who founded the Jin Dynasty. The Jin dynasty favored the Balhae people as well as the Khitans. They proclaimed Jurchen and Balhae are from the same family.

II.4 Liao Dynasty & Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)
            After Balhae's defeat the Liao Dynasty took place in Manchuria. It is also known as the Khitan Empire. It was an empire in East Asia that ruled over regions of Manchuria, Mongolia and parts of northern China proper. It was founded by the Yelu Clan of the Khitan people. The Tang Dynasty collapsed and Song Dynasty was born. Although it was originally known as the Empire of the Khitan, the Emperor Yelu Ruan officially adopted the name Liao in 947. The Liao Empire was destroyed by the Jurchen of the Jin Dynasty in 1125. However, remnants of its people led by Yelu Dashi established Xi (Western) Liao Dynasty 1125-1220, also known as Kara-Khitan Khanate, which survived until the arrival of Genghis Khan's unified Mongolian army (5).
            There were numerous battles in Manchuria. When the Khitan conquered the kingdom of Balhae, the border with Korea had been pushed to the Yalu River. In 993, the Khitan invaded Goryeo's northwest border with 800,000 troops. The Khitan withdrew and ceded territory to the east of the Yalu River when Goryeo agreed to end its alliance with Song Dynasty China. However, Goryeo continued to communicate with Song, having strengthened its position by building fortresses in the newly gained northern territories. In 1010, Emperor Shengzong of Liao led a massive invasion with 400,000 men, commanding the troops himself. He easily defeated the resisting army of General Gang Jo, who was executed by the Khitans. However, Gang Gam-chan urged King Hyeonjong to escape from the palace, and not to surrender to the invading Liao troops. King Hyeonjong followed Gang Gam-chan's advice, and managed to escape from the burning capital. A Korean insurgency began to harass the Khitan forces. Eventually, Shengzong ordered a withdrawal of the entire Khitan force; the Khitans lost the war, and didn't gain anything. In 1018, General Xiao Baiya of Liao invaded Goryeo with 100,000 men. This time, many officials urged to king to enter a peace negotiation, since the damage from the 2nd Koryo-Khitan War was so great and Goryeo was not able to recover from the damage. However Gang again urged the king to fight the Khitans, since the Khitan force was much smaller than the previous invasions. Gang volunteered to be deputy commander-in-chief of the Goryeo army, at the age of 71. He led about 200,000 men toward the Goryeo-Liao border. The first battle of the war was the Battle of Heunghwajin, which was won by General Gang by blocking a stream and then destroying the dam when the Khitans were mid-way through crossing. Xiao realized that the mission was impossible to achieve, and decided to retreat. General Gang knew that the Khitan army would withdraw from the war, and waited for them at the fortress of Kwiju, where he encountered retreating Khitans in 1019. The Khitans lost in a battle there. Following his victories in Third Goryeo-Khitan War, peace among three Asian empires temporarily settled; Goryeo established a long-term friendly relationship with Liao.

            The Jin Dynasty conquered Liao Dynasty. It was founded by the Wanyan clan of the Jurchens, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later, in 1115. In 1125, it successfully annihilated the Liao Dynasty which had held sway over northern China, including Manchuria and part of the Mongol region for several centuries. Also at this time, the Jin made overtures to the Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which Emperor Yejong refused. After taking over Northern China, the Jin Dynasty became increasingly Sinicized. About three million people, half of them Jurchens, migrated south into northern China over two decades. Starting from the early 13th century the Jin Dynasty began to feel the pressure of Mongols from the north. Genghis Khan first led the Mongols into Western Xia territory in 1205 and ravaged those four years later.
            In 1211 about 50,000 Mongols on horses invaded the Jin Empire and began absorbing Khitan and Jurchen rebels(6). Genghis Khan died in 1227 while his armies were conquering the Western Xia Dynasty. His son Ögedei Khan invaded the Jin Empire in 1232 with assistance from the Southern Song. The Jurchens tried to resist; but when Kaifeng was attacked, Aizong fled south. The Mongols looted the capital in 1233, and the next year Aizong committed suicide to avoid being captured, ending the Jin dynasty in 1234. Four centuries later, After thirty years of struggle, the Jurchen chief Nurhaci combined the three Jurchen tribes and founded the Later Jin Dynasty (1616-1636). Nurhaci's eighth son and heir, Huang T?ij?, later changed the name of his people from Jurchen to Manchu in 1635. The next year, he changed the name of the Latter Jin to Qing in 1636.

II.5 Yuan Dynasty & Ming Dynasty
            The Yuan Dynasty was founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of modern Mongolia, Manchuria, and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. Although the dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, he had his grandfather Genghis Khan placed on the official record as the founder of the dynasty or Taizu. The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty became Emperor of China by 1279, though Kublai Khan had also claimed the title of Great Khan.
            In the 17th century, the Mongols came under the influence of the Manchu, who founded the Later Jin Dynasty. In 1634, Ligdan Khan, last Mongol khan of the Borjigin clan, died on his way to Tibet. His son, Ejei Khan, surrendered to the Manchu and gave the great seal of the Yuan Emperor to its ruler, Hong Taiji. This event prompted Hong Taiji to establish the Qing Dynasty in 1636 as the successor of both the Northern Yuan Dynasty and the Ming Dynasty by 1644.
            However, the last years of the Yuan Dynasty were marked by struggle, famine, and bitterness among the populace. The dynasty was, significantly, one of the shortest-lived dynasties in the history of China. In time, Kublai Khan's successors lost all influence on other Mongol lands across Asia. Gradually, they lost influence in China as well. China was torn by dissension and unrest; outlaws ravaged the country without interference from the weakening Yuan armies. Since the late 1340s, people in the countryside suffered from frequent natural disasters such as droughts, floods and the ensuing famines, and the government's lack of effective policy led to a loss of the support from people. In 1351, the Red Turban Rebellion started and grew into a nationwide turmoil. In 1368 the M?ng Dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in the south (7).

            The Ming Dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. The Ming was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han. Although the Ming capital Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, which was itself soon replaced by the Manchu Qing Dynasty, regimes loyal to the Ming throne survived until 1662. Ming rule saw the construction of a vast navy and a standing army of one million troops. There were enormous construction projects, including the restoration of the Grand Canal and the Great Wall and the establishment of the Forbidden City in Beijing during the first quarter of the 15th century. Emperor Hongwu (1368?1398) rebuilt the China's agricultural base and strengthened the communication routes through the militarized courier system. It had an effect of creating a vast agricultural surplus that could be sold at markets.
            A remarkable tribal leader named Nurhaci (r. 1616?1626), starting with just a small tribe, rapidly gained control over all the Manchurian tribes. Under the brilliant commander Yuan Chonghuan (1584?1630), the Ming were able to fight off the Manchus repeatedly, thus blocking the Manchus from crossing the pass to attack Beijing (8). Unable to attack the heart of Ming directly, the Manchu instead bided their time, developing their own artillery and gathering allies. A large part of the Ming Army deserted to the Manchu banner. By 1636, the Manchu ruler Huang Taiji renamed his dynasty from the "Latter Jin" to "Qing" in 1625. He changed the ethnic name of his people from Jurchen to Manchu. In 1638 the Manchu defeated and conquered Ming China's traditional ally Joseon with an army of 100,000 troops.
            A peasant soldier named Li Zicheng mutinied with his fellow soldiers in western Shaanxi in the early 1630s. In 1640, masses of Chinese peasants who were starving, unable to pay their taxes, and no longer in fear of the frequently defeated Chinese army, began to form into huge bands of rebels. The Chinese military, caught between fruitless efforts to defeat the Manchu raiders from the north and huge peasant revolts in the provinces, essentially fell apart. Unpaid and unfed, the army was defeated by Li Zicheng. On May 26, 1644, Beijing fell to a rebel army led by Li Zicheng; during the turmoil, the last Ming emperor hung himself on a tree in the imperial garden right outside the Forbidden City.

III. The Qing Dynasty

III.1 The Beginning of the Manchu nation
            The Qing Dynasty, also known as the Manchu Dynasty was the last ruling dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in what is today northeast China (Manchuria). Starting in 1644 it expanded into China proper and its surrounding territories, establishing the Empire of the Great Qing. Originally established as the Later Jin Dynasty, in 1616, it changed its name to "Qing", meaning "clear" or "pure", in 1636.
            Nurhaci's policy towards the Mongols was to seek their friendship and cooperation, thus securing the Jurchens' western front from a potential enemy (9). Furthermore, the Mongols proved a useful ally in the war, lending the Jurchens their traditional expertise as cavalry archers. To cement this new alliance Nurhaci initiated a policy of inter-marriages between Jurchen and Mongolian nobility. Some of Nurhaci's other important contributions include ordering the creation of a written Manchu language based on Mongolian script, and the creation of the civil and military administrative system that eventually evolved into the Manchu Banners the defining element of Manchu identity, thus laying foundation for transforming the loosely knitted Jurchen tribes into a nation.
            The Treaty of Nerchinsk was the first treaty between Russia and the Qing Empire. It was signed in Nerchinsk on August 27, 1689 as a result of the Russian-Manchu border conflicts over the region of Priamurye. According to this treaty, Russia gave up its hopes of gaining access to the Sea of Japan, but established trade relations with the Qing Dynasty of China. The Russian outpost of Albazin, which had been a source of conflict between China and Russia, was to be abandoned and destroyed. The border between Russia and China was traced along the Stanovoy Ridge and the Argun River. After that there was the Treaty of Aigun which was the Russian-Chinese treaty that established the modern borders of the Russian Far East and northern China. It was signed on May 28, 1858. Since the 1700s, Russia had desired to become a naval power in the Pacific. It did so by establishing naval outposts near the River Amur watershed, encouraging Russians to go there and settle, and slowly developing a strong military presence in the region. China never really governed the region effectively, and these Russian advances went unnoticed.
            By the late 19th century, Russia was strong enough, and China weakened enough, for Russia to consider seriously the annexation of the Amur territories to the Russian crown. The resulting treaty established a Russo-Chinese border along the Amur River, further south than the original border. Under the terms of this treaty: Significantly, the Treaty of Aigun was never approved by the Xianfeng Emperor, and was largely superseded by the Treaty of Beijing in November 1860. The treaty of Beijing ended the lease the area known as Kowloon, and ceded the land formally to the British on 24 October 1860. The treaty ceded parts of Outer Manchuria to the Russian Empire. It granted Russia the territory that corresponded with the ancient Manchu province of East Tartary. The treaty is considered one of the unequal Treaties. Also in 1860, Qing China opened Manchuria for immigration of Han Chinese.

III.2 Railroad Construction in Manchuria
            In the 1800s, Imperial Russia was most interested in the northern lands of the Qing Empire. In 1858, Russia gained nominal control over a huge tract of land called Outer Manchuria thanks to the Supplementary Treaty of Beijing that ended the Second Opium War. But Russia was not satisfied, and as the Qing Dynasty continued to weaken, they made further efforts to take control over the rest of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria came under strong Russian influence in the 1890s with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok.
            The Chinese Eastern Railway was a railway in Manchuria. It connected Chita and the Russian Far East. The southern branch of the CER became the locus and partial casus belli for the Russo-Japanese War and the Second Sino-Japanese War. The administration of the CER and the Chinese Eastern Railway Zone was based in Harbin.
            A construction concession was granted by China in 1896 through northern Inner Manchuria, running from near Chita via Harbin to Vladivostok, and construction was drastically accelerated after Russia concluded a twenty-five year lease of Liaodong from China(10). Construction of the CER started in July 1897 along the line Tarskaya (east of Chita) - Hailar - Harbin - Nikolsk-Ussuriski. Officially, traffic on the line started in November 1901, but regular passenger traffic from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok across the Trans-Siberian railway started in July 1903.
            At this same time in 1898, a 880 km spur line, most which later formed the South Manchuria Railway, was started from Harbin down through eastern Manchuria, along the Liaodong Peninsula, to the port at L?shun. This town was known in the west as Port Arthur.
            The Chinese Eastern Railway was essentially completed in 1902, beating the stretch around Lake Baikal, by fourteen years. The Chinese Eastern Railway was important in international relations. After the Sino-Japanese War, Russia gained the right to build the Chinese Eastern Railway in Manchuria.
            During the Russo-Japanese War, Russia lost both Liaodong Peninsula and much of the South Manchurian branch to Japan. The rail line from Changchun to Lüshun transferred to the Japanese control now became the South Manchuria Railway.

III.3 Decline of the Qing Dynasty
            The first Sino-Japanese war was the war between Qing and Japan trying to fight for the authority over Korea. The Qing lost and the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on 17 April 1895. China recognized the total independence of Korea and ceded the Liaodong, Taiwan/Formosa and the Pescadores Islands to Japan "in perpetuity". However, the Triple Intervention however forced Japan to give up the Liaodong Peninsula in exchange for another 30 million Kuping taels.
            Also the Li-Lobanov Treaty or the Sino-Russian Secret Treaty was a treaty signed on June 3, 1896 in Moscow on behalf of the Russian Empire and viceroy Li Hongzhang on behalf of China. The two powers concluded a defensive alliance against Japan, pledging mutual support in case of a Japanese attack. The treaty allowed Russia to increase its presence in Northeast China as Russian personnel and police received extraterritorial jurisdiction. It allowed the use of Chinese ports by Russia in the case of war and China's consent to the construction of the China Eastern Railway (a part of the Trans-Siberian Railway). The railway was nominally a joint project, but was in reality completely financed and controlled by Russia. China was forced to lease the southern tip of the Liaotung Peninsula to Russia and allow a railway line to be built connecting it to the main Russian line. Begin of railroad construction by the Russians started in 1898. Immigration of Han Chinese intensified. Construction of the Russian railroads in China increased the anti-foreign anger that came to a head in the Boxer rebellion of 1900. The Boxer Rebellion, or more properly Boxer Uprising, was a violent anti-foreign, anti-Christian movement by the ¡°Boxers United in Righteousness,¡± in China. In response to imperialist expansion, growth of cosmopolitan influences, and missionary arrogance, and against a background of state fiscal crisis and natural disasters, local organizations began to emerge in Shandong in 1898. These local groups attacked Catholic missionaries in Shandong in the summer of 1899 and gained strength on the slogan ¡°Revive the Qing, destroy the foreign.¡± With the tacit approval of the court, Boxers across North China attacked mission compounds. They killed missionaries and Chinese Christians. Chinese historians view the period between the Li-Lobanov Treaty and the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904 as the time of Russia's domination of the Chinese Northeast region, in political and economical terms.
            The Russo-Japanese War or the Manchurian Campaign was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden..
            The Russians were in constant pursuit of a warm water port on the Pacific Ocean, for their navy as well as for maritime trade. The recently established Pacific seaport of Vladivostok was only operational during the summer season, but Port Arthur would be operational all year(11). From the end of the First Sino-Japanese War and 1903, negotiations between the Tsar's government and Japan had proved futile. Japan chose war to protect its country by maintaining exclusive dominance in Korea, while all European countries expected Russia would win.
            The defeats of the Russian Army and Navy shook Russian confidence. The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed on 5 September 1905 in the U.S. naval station in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Witte became Russian Prime Minister the same year.
            Russia recognized Korea as part of the Japanese sphere of influence and agreed to evacuate Manchuria. Japan would annex Korea in 1910, with scant protest from other powers. Russia also signed over its 25-year leasehold rights to Port Arthur, including the naval base and the peninsula around it. Russia also ceded the southern half of Sakhalin Island to Japan.
            The Qing Dynasty was overthrown following the Xinhai Revolution, when the Empress Dowager Longyu abdicated on behalf of the last emperor, Puyi, on February 12, 1912. The collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912 brought an end to over 2,000 years of imperial China and began an extended period of instability of warlord factionalism.

III.4 Republic of China : The Warlord Era
            After Yuan Shikai's death, shifting alliances of regional warlords fought for control of the Beijing government. Despite the fact that various warlords gained control of the government in Beijing during the warlord era, this did not constitute a new era of control or governance, because other warlords did not acknowledge the transitory governments in this period and were a law unto themselves. These military-dominated governments were collectively known as the Beiyang government. The warlord era is considered by some historians to have ended in 1927. After Yuan Shikai's death, Li Yuanhong became the President and Duan Qirui became the Premier. The Provisional Constitution was reinstated and the parliament convened. However, Li Yuanhong and Duan Qirui had many conflicts, the most glaring of which was China's entry into World War I. Since the outbreak of the war, China had remained neutral until the United States urged all neutral countries to join the Allies, as a condemnation of Germany's use of unrestricted submarine warfare. Premier Duan Qirui was particularly interested in joining the Allies, because he would then use the opportunity to secure loans from Japan to build up his Anhui Clique army. The two factions in the parliament engaged in ugly debates regarding the entry of China and, in May 1917, Li Yuanhong dismissed Duan Qirui from his government.
            Duan's dismissal caused provincial military governors loyal to Duan to declare independence and to call for Li Yuanhong to step down as the President. Li Yuanhong summoned Zhang Xun to mediate the situation. Zhang Xun had been a general serving the Qing Court and was by this time the military governor of Anhui province. He had his mind on restoring Puyi to the imperial throne. Zhang was supplied with funds and weapons through the German legation who were eager to keep China neutral. On July 1, 1917, Zhang officially proclaimed that the Qing Dynasty has been restored and requested that Li Yuanhong give up his seat as the President, which Li promptly rejected. During the restoration affair, Duan Qirui led his army and defeated Zhang Xun's restoration forces in Beijing. One of Duan's airplanes bombed the Forbidden City, in what was possibly the first aerial bombardment in East Asia. On July 12 Zhang's forces disintegrated and Duan returned to Beijing.
            The Manchu restoration ended almost as soon as it began. During this period of confusion, Vice President Feng Guozhang, also a Beiyang general, assumed the post of Acting President of the republic and was sworn-in in Nanjing. Duan Qirui resumed his post as the Premier. The Zhili Clique of Feng Guozhang and the Anhui Clique of Duan Qirui emerged as the most powerful cliques following the restoration affair.

IV. Manchukuo

IV.1 History of Manchukuo
            The Republic of China begins after the Qing Dynasty in 1912. However, Puyi founded Manchukuo in Manchuria in 1934. Manchukuo was a puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. The region was the Qing Dynasty's historical homeland, created by former Qing Dynasty officials with help from Imperial Japan in 1932. The state was founded and administered by Imperial Japan, with Puyi, the last Qing emperor, as the nominal regent and emperor (12).
            Manchukuo's government was abolished in 1945 after the defeat of Imperial Japan at the end of World War II. By the Qing Dynasty and Manchukuo racial equality immigration policy in their homeland, Manchus formed a minority in Manchukuo, whose largest ethnic group were Han Chinese. There were also Koreans, Japanese, Mongols, White Russians and smaller minorities. The Mongol regions of western Manchukuo were ruled under a slightly different system in acknowledgement of the Mongolian traditions there.
            Between World War I and World War II Manchuria became a political and military battleground between Russia, Japan, and China. Japan moved into Outer Manchuria as a result of the chaos following the Russian Revolution of 1917. A combination of Soviet military successes and American economic pressure forced the Japanese to withdraw from the area, however, and Outer Manchuria returned to Soviet control by 1925.
            After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the former Emperor of China, Pu-Yi, was invited to come with his followers and act as the head of state for Manchuria; he accepted this request. On 18 February 1932 the "State of Manchuria" was declared to exist and recognized by Japan. Chinese in Manchuria organized volunteer armies to oppose the Japanese and the new state required a war lasting several years to pacify the country.
            The Japanese initially installed Puyi as Head of State in 1932, and two years later he was declared Emperor of Manchukuo with the era name of Kangde or "Tranquility and Virtue". Manchukuo thus became the Great Manchurian Empire, sometimes termed Manchutikuo. Zheng Xiaoxu served as Manchukuo's first prime minister until 1935. Puyi was nothing more than a figurehead and real authority rested in the hands of the Japanese military officials. An imperial palace was specially built for the emperor. All of the Manchu ministers served as front-men for their Japanese vice-ministers, who made all decisions.
            In this manner Japan formally detached Manchukuo from China in the course of the 1930s. With Japanese investment and rich natural resources, the area became an industrial powerhouse. Only 23 out of 80 then-existing nations recognized the new state. The League of Nations declared that Manchuria remained rightfully part of China, leading Japan to resign its membership in 1934. Although the Chinese government did not recognize Manchukuo, the two countries established official ties for trade, communications and transportation.
            Prior to World War II, the Japanese colonized Manchukuo and used it as a base from which to invade China. In the summer of 1939 a border dispute between Manchukuo and the Mongolian People's Republic resulted in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol. During this battle, a combined Soviet-Mongolian force defeated the Japanese Kwantung Army supported by limited Manchukuoan forces.
            On 8 August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan in accordance with the agreement at the Yalta Conference, and invaded Manchukuo from outer Manchuria and Outer Mongolia. This was called Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation.

            The Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation began on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of Manchukuo. The Soviets conquered Mengjiang, as well as northern Korea, southern Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands. The Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation, along with the two atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, combined to break the Japanese political deadlock and force Japan's surrender (13). Japan's decision to surrender was made before the scale of the Soviet attack on Manchuria, Sakhalin, and the Kurils was known, but had the war continued. Manchuria, cleansed of any potential military resistance by Soviet forces, provided the main base of operations for Mao Zedong's forces, who proved victorious in the following four years of civil war in China. Before leaving Manchuria, however, Soviet forces dismantled its considerable industry and relocated it to restore industry in war-torn Soviet territory. During the Soviet offensive the Army of Manchukuo, theoretically a two hundred-thousand-man force, well armed and trained along Japanese lines, performed poorly and whole units surrendered to the Soviets without firing a single shot. Emperor Kang De had hoped to escape to Japan to surrender to the Americans, but the Soviets captured him and eventually extradited him to the communist government in China, where the authorities had him imprisoned as a war criminal along with all other captured Manchukuo officials. After Japan surrendered in 1945, Manchukuo was also freed to the people¡¯s republic of China.

IV.2 Economy of Manchukuo
            Prior to Japanese intervention, the sole industry was the Mukden Arsenal, property of Chang Hsueh-liang, the Manchu Dictator. However, the Japanese established various types of factories and developed industries, mining products from Fushun Pehnshiu and Fusin, establishing locomotive and railway industries for manufacturing and repairing railway machinery, locomotives, in Kantoshu, during the Manchukuo Empire period. During 1937 the Japanese Government with the Japanese Army commissioned the industrialist Yoshisuke Aikawa to organize and direct the Manchuria Industrial Development Company and guided in centralizing the local mining and heavy industry (13). These government empires organized and implemented two five-year plans during the 1930s. These five-year plans contributed to pushing the industrial development quickly into form. The heavy industry provided materials for construction, machinery, tools, tool machines, locomotives, small vessels, airplanes, automobiles and trucks, hand and heavy weapons and munitions for the Japanese and Manchu armies, candies and foods, cement, liquor and beer, bread and flour, synthetic gasoline and shared oils, tar, vegetable and synthetic oils, electric devices, mining equipment.
            On the other hand, Manchukou received from Japan certain quantities of scrap iron for iron and steel processing and at same time export unfinished products, coal, iron-derived steel products. Other Manchukuan products were rudimentary and modern farming equipment, industrial paint, boots, rubber articles, processed leather products, milk and cheese, carpets, glass, blankets, colours, dyes and inks, bricks, industrial paper and raw cellulose, fabrics, etc. These last areas are covered for local production of many tailors and hilanders, and overall modern textile factories with imported cotton. There were 500,000 spindles and fabric factories which annually produced 25,000 tonnes of cotton fabrics. Joining this industry was the dye and coloring industry.
            When the Russians arrived in Manchukuo, much of this plant and factories was sent to the Soviet Far East and Siberia for a value of 858,000,000 U.S. dollars, but the Russians took only the most modern industrial equipment, laboratories, hospitals, destroying the ancient machines for theirs. They took electric power plants, mining equipment, machine tools, and other items, but the last models only during 1945-47.
            During Japanese administration, they constructed 6,500 km of roads. By Japanese initiative they founded a local airline which linked airports in Dairen Mukden, Harbin, and other points, with a hub in Hsinking. The principal railway lines are the East Chinese Railway, constructed for Russians and expanded by the Japanese, and Peking-Mukden railway with Railway Centers in Mukden and Harbin. In 1931 the South Manchurian Railway Company invested, representing the Japanese Government, 27 % of capital in mining ,3 % in Iron & Steel investments, 8 % in Ports, with other minor inversions (the Yamato Hotel, Tuitsuike Hotel in Tangkatzu spa, merchant and fishing vessels, electricity power plants, local institutions, schools, research institutes for farming, geology, and mining, sanitation and medical, public services, public architecture). Much of these stayed in the Japanese government's hands and the rest was held by private Japanese, Chinese, and Manchu local investors. In 1935 there were 8,500 km of active railways, of which 80 % were classified as "State railways", 1,100 km were owned by the private company Manchuria Railway, and the other 1,760 km belonged to North Manchuria Railway.

IV.3 Politics of Manchukuo
            Historians generally consider Manchukuo a puppet state or colony of Imperial Japan because of the Japanese military's strong presence and strict control of the government administration; Chinese historians generally refer to the state as 'false Manchukuo'. Manchukuo was proclaimed a monarchy on 1 March 1934, with Puyi assuming the throne under the reign name of Emperor Kang-de. Puyi was assisted in his executive duties by a Privy Council, and a General Affairs State Council. This State Council was the center of political power, and consisted of several cabinet ministers, each assisted by a Japanese vice-minister. The commanding officer of the Kwantung Army in Manchukuo was simultaneously Japanese ambassador to Manchukuo. He functioned in a manner similar to that of a British resident officer in British overseas protectorates, with the power to veto decisions by the emperor. The Legislative Council was largely a ceremonial body, existing to rubber-stamp decisions issued by the State Council. The only authorized political party was the government-sponsored Concordia Association, although various emigre groups were permitted their own political associations.

Map of North East China divided into states in 2000. (14)

V After 1945
            The Soviet Union invaded from Soviet Outer Manchuria as part of its declaration of war against Japan. From 1945 to 1948, Inner Manchuria was a base area for the Chinese People's Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. With the encouragement of the Soviet Union, Manchuria was used as a staging ground during the Chinese Civil War for the Communist Party of China, who was victorious in 1949. During the Korean War of the 1950s, 300,000 soldiers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army crossed the Chinese-Korean border from Manchuria to recapture North Korea from UN forces led by the United States(14). In the 1960s, Manchuria became the site of the most serious tension between the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. The treaties of 1858 and 1860, which ceded territory north of the Amur, were ambiguous as to which course of the river was the boundary. This ambiguity led to dispute over the political status of several islands. This led to armed conflict in 1969, called the Sino-Soviet border conflict.
            With the end of the Cold War, this boundary issue was discussed through negotiations. In 2004, Russia agreed to transfer Yinlong Island and one half of Heixiazi Island to China, ending a long-standing border dispute. Both islands are found at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, and were until then administered by Russia and claimed by China. The event was meant to foster feelings of reconciliation and cooperation between the two countries by their leaders, but it has also sparked different degrees of discontents on both sides. Some Chinese have criticized the treaty as an official acknowledgement of the legitimacy of Russian rule over Outer Manchuria, which was ceded by the Qing Dynasty to Imperial Russia under a series of Unequal Treaties, which included the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Convention of Peking in 1860, in order to exchange exclusive usage of Russia's rich oil resources. As a result of these criticisms, news and information regarding the border treaty were censored in mainland China by the PRC government. The transfer has been ratified by both the Chinese National People's Congress and the Russian State, but has yet to be carried out to date.

VI. Conclusion
            Manchuria has quite a long history worldwide. Despite its unique and long history, it did not have a long period as its own nation. The only period Manchuria was ruled by the homeland people (the Manchu) was the Qing Dynasty. It indeed was prosperous in the beginning by vast amount of land. However, by the intrusion of the west and Japan, it resulted a not so happy ending. Land were stolen by treaties and people suffered from wars. Also there was Manchukuo which was merely a puppet state for the Japanese. Another tragedy of the Qing Dynasty is that it is recognized as a Chinese Dynasty by lots of scholars, not a dynasty of the Manchu themselves. Only because Manchu was the territory of the other previous dynasties of China, it was stated as the last Chinese dynasty in history.
            Manchuria was the center of attention especially during the 20th century. For Russia, it had the warm sea port that could operate for all four seasons. For Japan, as stated above, it was perfect to manufacture heavy industry, which was basically military weapon. For China (Qing), it was their homeland and it was the key to reach the Pacific Ocean and expand to Korea. Therefore, Manchuria was always on guard to be taken by strongest nation. In that sense, Manchuria¡¯s situation was similar to Korea during that era.
            To put in on a bigger scale, Manchuria was a region of numerous conflicts since the start of history. It was fertile enough for agriculture and fantastic for heavy industry to develop. To attain this land of opportunity, there was the heritage of Koreans in the beginning and also during the Japanese colonization. Then came the nomadic tribes settled down known as the Jurchen(Manchu) and then came the Hans immigration from the 1860s. In the end, Russians and Japanese came in also. Therefore, even today, there are lots of debates going on with Manchuria and some cry out independence for Manchuria. However, China is still the owner of Manchuria and by the ambience it is sure that China will never going to give up even though China has to alter some parts of history.

Notes (1)      Article : Manchuria, from Wikipedia
(2)      Article : Samguk Yusa, from Wikipedia
(3)      Article : Wuhuan, from Wikipedia
(4)      Article : Goguryeo, from Wikipedia
(5)      Article : Liao Dynasty, from infoplease
(6)      Article : Jin Dynasty, from 1911encyclopedia
(7)      Article : Yuan Dynasty, from Wikipedia
(8)      Article : Ming Dynasty, from 1911encyclopedia
(9)      Article : Start of the Qing Dynasty, from infoplease
(10)      Timeline : Manchuria Railroads, from WHKMLA
(11)      South Manchuria Railway Company 1980 p.187
(12)      Baring 1932 p 58
(13)      churia, Land of Opportunities 1980, p 141
(14)      Whigham 1987 p 195
(15)      Article, Gojoseon, from Wikipedia
(16)      Article, Wi Man Joseon, from Wikipedia
(17)      Article, Buyeo, from Wikipedia
(18)      Article, Okjeo, from Wikipedia
(19)      Article, Goguryeo, from Wikipedia

Bibliography Note : websites quoted below were visited in October 2008.
SMRC 1980.      South Manchuria Railroad Company, Manchuria, Land of Opportunities, New York, The Company,1980
Williamson 1870      Alexander Williamson, Journeys in North China, Manchuria, and Eastern Mongolia, NY : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1870
Hosie 1901      Alexander Hosie, Its People, Resources and Recent History, Methuen 1901
Baring 1932      Baring, Maurice, With the Russians in Manchuria, London : Methuen, 1932
Whigham 1987      Whigham, Henry James, Manchuria and Korea, London : Isbister, 1987
Wikipedia : Manchuria      Article : Manchuria, from Wikipedia
?      From Wikipedia, map by Nanshu,
Wikipedia : Gojoseon      Article : Gojoseon, from Wikipedia
?      From World History Maps, map by Thomas Lessman,
?      From World History Maps, map by Thomas Lessman,
?      From World History Maps, map by Thomas Lessman,
Wikipedia : Okjeo      Article : Okjeo, from Wikipedia
?      From World History Maps, map by Thomas Lessman,
Wikipedia : Buyeo      Article : Buyeo, from Wikipedia
?      From World History Maps, map by Thomas Lessman,
Wikipedia : Goguryeo      Article : Goguryeo, from Wikipedia
?      From World History Maps, map by Thomas Lessman,
Wikipedia : Balhae      Article : Balhae, from Wikipedia
?      From Wikipedia, map by Ian Kiu,
Wikipedia : Liao      Article : Liao Dynasty, from Wikipedia
?      From Wikipedia, map by Louis le Grand,
Wikipedia : Jin      Article : Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)
?      From Wikipedia, map by Pryaltonian,
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?      From Transsib Maps, map by Trans-Siberian Web Encyclopedia,
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?      From Wikipedia, map by Emok,
Wikipedia : Economy of Manchukuo      Article : Economy of Manchukuo, from Wikipedia
?      From Wikipedia, map by Dove,
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?      From WHKMLA, map by WHKMLA,
WHKMLA      Time line of Manchuria, from WHKMLA,
WHKMLA      Manchuria, from WHKMLA,
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Infoplease : Manchuria      Article : Manchuria, from infoplease
Experience Festival : Manchuria      Manchuria History, from Experience Festival,
Badley      Invasion of Manchuria, from Badley info,

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