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History of Education in Communist Countries

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Jeong, Hae Yoon
Term Paper, AP World History Class, June 2009

Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Education Theory in Marxist-Leninist Philosophy
III. Education of Communist Nations during the Pre-Communist Period
IV. Communist Education in General
IV.1 The Purposes of the Education
IV.2 The Goals of the Education
IV.3 Common Features of Education System in Communist Nations
IV.4 The Polytechnic Education
IV.5 Statistics
IV.6 The Later Years
IV.7 Limitations and Problems
V. The Soviet Union
V.1 The Early Years (1918 - 1920s)
V.2 The Mid Years (1930s - 1950s)
V.3 The Later Years (1960s - 1980s)
V.4 Limitations and problems
VI. China
VI.1 SSFA (Sino-Soviet Friendship Association)
VI.2 What Did Schools Teach ?
VI.3 The Cultural Revolution
VI.4 Limitations and Problems
VII. Eastern European Countries
VIII. Other Communist countries
VIII.1 Cuba
VIII.2 Vietnam
IX. Comparison of the Education of Communist Nations with Non-Communist Nations
X. Conclusion

I. Introduction
            The communist revolutions in the 20th century had their goal at creating total revolutions and establishing a new society different from the capitalist society. This new society required people with new loyalties, new motivations, and new concepts of individual and group life. Education was acknowledged to have a strategic role in achieving this revolution and development. Specifically, education was used to produce ardent revolutionaries ready to rebel against the old society and establish a new order and also to bring up a new generation of dexterous laborers to take up the various tasks of development and modernization. Also, education in the Communist states included a considerable amount of inculcation, both in special political and philosophical courses and in properly crafted courses of general education: history, geography, world literature (1). The Soviet format of education was imposed onto other Communist nations. Their education systems show variations from the Soviet model, but these tend to be minor.
            The Communist nations made enormous efforts to develop their educational systems, and they had many substantial achievements to their credit. China had over a million schools and more than 200 million students enrolled. In the Soviet Union, more than 40 million students enrolled in more than 100 thousand schools. The Communist regimes of Eastern Europe vastly expanded the school systems they adopted from the Soviet Union after the World Wars. In Cuba, Fidel Castro government's efforts to promote education in terms of raising literacy levels were a great success. These education systems have become the base of education even after the end of the Communist regime in many former-Communist nations.

II. Education Theory in Marxist-Leninist Philosophy
            Marxist-Leninist philosophy was the basis of the Communist education system. It emphasized the role of schools and youth organizations in educating students by indoctrination. For this the Communist societies paid a lot of attention to schooling. There had been great confidence that schools would be a major instrument for building the "New Communist Man". Such a person would work diligently, would have a clear insight into the dynamics of social change, would understand and be skilled in modern technology, and follow the tenets of Marxism-Leninism.
            According to Communist educational philosophy, a good, modern education is one that is polytechnic. Central to such an education is teaching about production and providing labor training and work experience to youngsters while they are in secondary and higher education. Marxist interpretations of the duty of the school include the job of teaching young people the leading role of material conditions of production in shaping social and political events (2). Young people should be given an understanding and some experience of the way production processes are organized; the social consequences of different ways of organizing production; and the importance of technological change.
            Marxism-Leninism also stresses atheist education and anti-religious propaganda in the schools. The main approach taken is to emphasize the superior quality of the answers which science, as opposed to religion, can give to the basic questions of human existence.

III. Education of Communist Nations during the Pre-Communist Period
            It is important to understand the education before the Communist regime took the main power in Communist nations in order to accurately assess the efficacy of Communist education. Many of the Communist nations did not start from a zero baseline. For example, in China, there were 340 thousand primary schools, 4 thousand middle schools and 200 universities and colleges existing before the Communist regime governed. These schools, and many teachers trained before 1949, are the foundation of the Communist educational system (3).
            A similar point can be made with respect to the Soviet Union. By 1914, Imperial Russia had 8 million young people enrolled at all educational levels; 112 thousand students were enrolled in ninety-one institutions of higher education; there were reckoned to be 12,586 public libraries in Russia with 8,900,000 volumes; and the daily circulation of newspapers equaled 2,729,000 copies. In 1920, 73 percent of the urban population and 44 percent of the total population (aged nine to forty-nine) were literate. Although the events of World War 1, the revolutions of 1917, foreign interventions, and civil war between Whites and Reds all imposed huge costs in terms of loss of life and property, by 1925 there still remained millions of persons with primary education and hundreds of thousands with secondary education (4). Therefore, it is important to recognize the substantial base from which the Communist education all began.

IV. Communist Education in General IV.1 The Purposes of the Education
            The Communist states reformed and reeducated the ideals and philosophy of their citizens along the Marxist-Leninist philosophy. To accomplish this task, the schools, the higher educational institutions, and the youth movement played major roles. The Communist regime promoted education mostly for political reasons. It utilized schools as a basis for military force, for the facilitation of the ideological indoctrination of the masses, and for the establishment of the supremacy of the Communist culture as the only true socialist culture. Therefore, education in the Soviet Union and other Communist states serves a much wider purpose as the instrument for creating a new type of citizen with a new social order.
            The reduction of illiteracy in the Soviet Union did not automatically produce an independently thinking, politically sophisticated electorate. Rather, mass literacy was used to assure that the ideas of the dominant ideology received the widest publicity. Universal education under communism was proved to be an effective instrument for the indoctrination of an intensely narrow view of the world where only Soviet Union is in the sight. Higher education had been developed in a structure of thorough specialization and was intended not to enlighten young minds but to train them to perform certain well-defined professional tasks.

IV.2 The Goals of the Education
            When the Communists came to power in the Communist nations, they took up three educational tasks of major importance: (1) teaching many illiterate people to read and write, (2) training the personnel needed to carry on the work of political organization, agricultural and industrial production, and economic reform, and (3) remolding the behavior, emotions, attitudes, and outlook of the people (5). Millions of students were given intensive training to carry out specific programs; there were students for the enforcement of the agrarian law, the marriage law, the electoral law; some were trained for industry or agriculture, others for the schools, and so on. This method of training is the characteristic of Communist education in general. Though, the pedagogical ideals of the Marxist-Leninist Philosophy have by no means been always achieved. In practice, somewhat less ambitious interpretations were adopted.

IV.3 Common Features of Education System in Communist Nations
            Schools in Communist nations were organized in a highly centralized government-run system. They have the following characteristics in common: they are overwhelmingly secular in orientation; a common school is provided through at least grades seven or eight; little or no tuition charge is made; schools are mostly coeducational; the curricula are tightly prescribed, as are the textbooks, to reflect Communist orthodoxy; students are offered few electives; the ideal of polytechnic education is supposed to guide the content and practice of teaching and learning. Also, a very low priority is given to satisfying individual or family demand for education at the upper secondary and higher educational levels. In comparison, African and Latin American Communist countries have found it difficult to avoid the overdevelopment of secondary and higher sectors at the expense of elementary education.
            In support of the planned manpower approach in Communist countries, the school subjects were narrow and rigid, leaving little room for electives. As industry and commerce had developed, the need for new specializations emerged, and additional narrow courses of study in higher education were introduced. The policy was designed to conserve scarce educational resources by equipping young people with only what it was thought they needed to know and no more. This was because Communist planning found it difficult to assure that many of the jobs that the graduates will be occupying in ten to fifteen years time would still exist.

IV.4 The Polytechnic Education
            Marxist-Leninist philosophy greatly underscored the importance of polytechnic education. This education focused on teaching about production and providing labor training and work experience to the students while they were in secondary and higher education. Therefore the major feature of the ten-year school was its polytechnic character which was reflected in all subjects taught, special importance being attached to mathematics and the natural sciences. A wide range of contacts with work and working people was fostered through specific subjects such as industrial arts, gardening and through the pupils' own productive work in enterprises (6).
            In the Soviet Union, the ideals of polytechnic and labor education were in great favor in the early years of the Revolution but were downplayed from 1931 until about 1958, when they were revived with great fanfare under Khrushchev. After the he was ousted, requirements for work experience for students declined again but have been currently experiencing something of a revival in the changes announced in April 1984 for Soviet education. In China, enthusiasm for arranging practical work experience as part of the curriculum has fluctuated several times. East Germany has also embraced the polytechnic ideal, but has done so on a steadier and better-ordered basis by constituting its education as a basic right and a basic duty of all children.

IV.5 Statistics
            Table 1 provides some of the basic data of education expansion between 1960 and 1981. In contrast to difficulties of the Communist countries in the economic aspect - the problems in increasing labor productivity, in modernizing the processes of production, in introducing and adapting new techniques, and in improving the quality of goods and services- education made a quantitative expansion. The Communist nations raised the schooling level of their populations at a very fast rate, so fast in fact that in the Soviet Union there have existed a surplus of the most highly educated alongside a shortage of workers with middle-level technical qualification. In China, too, college graduates had difficulty in finding jobs commensurate with their qualifications.

Table 1: Development of Education in Fifteen Communist Countries: 1960 and 1981, or Nearest Year Available (6a)
Countries listed in descending order of 1982 population size Enrollment as Percentage of the Age-group
Year Primary Secondary Higher
China 1960 109 % 21 % na
1981 118 % 44 % 1
Soviet Union 1960 100 % 49 % 11 %
1981 107 % 96 % 21 %
Vietnam 1960 na na na
1981 113 % 48 % 3 %
Poland 1960 109 % 50 % 9 %
1981 100 % 77 % 17 %
Ethiopia 1960 7 % na na
1981 46 % 12 % 1 %
Yugoslavia 1960 111 % 58 % 9 %
1981 99 % 83 % 22 %
Romania 1960 98 % 24 % 6 %
1981 103 % 68 % 11 %
North Korea 1960 na na na
1981 116 % na na
Afghanistan 1960 9 % 1 % na
1981 34 % 11 % 2 %
German Democratic Republic 1960 112 % 39 % 16 %
1981 95 % 89 % 30 %
Czechoslovakia 1960 93 % 25 % 11 %
Moçambique 1960 48 % 2 % na
1981 48 % 2 % na
Hungary 1960 101 % 23 % 7 %
1981 99 % 42 % 14 %
Cuba 1960 109 % 14 % 3 %
1981 107 % 75 % 20 %
Madagascar 1960 52 % 4 % na
1981 100 % 14 % 3 %

IV.6 The Later Years
            The high priority for education continued. This was true not only for the big nations of the Communist world but also for the smaller ones. The regimes in Eastern Europe and Cuba, for example, were explicit in their expectations from educational growth. There was sustained faith that knowledge is power, sustained respect for scholarship, and sustained confidence that truly objective knowledge will lend support to the Communist interpretation of reality. Above all, there was continued belief that an education system that is open to the masses; uniform through its first eight years; weighted toward science, technology, and labor experience; closely linked to youth organizations; and planned to conform to manpower requirements rather than to individual choices in its upper levels. (7)
            As the Communist societies grew older, there were some retreats from the utopianism that characterized their early years, along with increased recognition that the schools alone are not able either quickly or completely to create the "New Communist Man". Nevertheless, the basic faith in schooling as the chosen instrument for the consolidation of ideology and the promotion of economic development remained strong.

IV.7 Limitations and Problems
            Despite considerable progress and continued massive investment in education, the Communist education faced several limitations and problems. Those were juvenile delinquency, lack of commitment to high social and moral purposes, rising costs of education, the inflexibility of the school system in the face of rapidly changing social and economic demands, and labor allocation troubles.
            Lack of students' commitment to the political training given in obligatory lecture courses on Party history and historical materialism occurred because students knew that although satisfactory examination results in these subjects were required for graduation, good grades in subject examinations were more important for their employment. Moreover, the gap between the predictions of Marxist-Leninist social theory and what happens in the real world presented the students with a challenge and a problem.
            Additionally, the Communist nations' misuse of the educated and skilled labor force created further problems. Graduating students were assigned jobs which may not correspond to their major. Thus they often found that the economic system was not able to make efficient use of their knowledge and skills. The problem here is that Communist countries had made efforts to tie education and training closely to manpower needs, yet the outcome of these exercises was not particularly encouraging due to the misappropriate use of labor.

V. The Soviet Union
            The Soviet Union actively promoted education to solve its political, economic, and moral problems. Its Policy was based on the firm belief that men can radically improve society, and that in this task the school will play a leading role. The Soviet Union was the predecessor of Communist education, and soon other Communist nations adopted its education policy.

V.1 The Early Years (1918 - 1920s)
            The Soviet government invested between one-seventh and one-eighth of its total budget in formal education, and perhaps 7 percent of the Soviet national product went into providing formal education which is substantial compared with 3 to 5 percent spent by the Western developed countries (8). The new system of universal compulsory education was established for children. Millions of illiterate adult people all over the country, including residents of small towns and villages, were enrolled in special literacy schools. Independent subjects such as reading, writing, arithmetic, foreign languages, history, geography, literature, and science were abolished. Instead school programs were subdivided into "complex themes", such as "the life and labor of the family in village and town" for the first year or "scientific organization of labor" for the 7th year of education (9). However, such system was a complete failure, and in 1928 the new program completely abandoned the complex themes and resumed instruction in individual subjects.

V.2 The Mid Years (1930s - 1950s)
            ?Due to the failure of the education policies implemented during the 1920s, Soviet educational policy entered a new phase of development based upon an empirical orientation. Soviet planners and policy makers in education abandoned the blinders of ideology. They began to realize the harsh situation of Soviet society when framing their plans and to acknowledge that those facts must be diligently searched out, whether or not they corresponded neatly to the textbook categories of orthodox Marxist-Leninist theory.
            In the 1930s, the principal role of the secondary school was to prepare young people to enter higher education. The output of VUZ (higher education) graduates steadily increased to satisfy demand. However, by late 1950s there appeared a growing need for trained labor in the industrial and construction trades at middle-skill levels. It was decided that these needs would be met by education and training in both the general education secondary schools and in the vocational-technical institutions. The 1958 reform of education established compulsory polytechnic preparation of secondary school pupils, so that after completing seven or eight years of schooling at ages fourteen or fifteen, young people could be employed as workers.
            Meanwhile, Soviet educational costs per pupil enrolled rose sharply; the late 1950's marked the end of the peak period when the Soviet planners could still count on a relatively cheap and adequate supply of good-quality teachers. This led to the fluctuation of enrollments in schools of general education.

V.3 The Later Years (1960s - 1980s)
            In 1963 the secondary schools of the Soviet Union graduated 900 thousand students. However, less than a third of the total graduating class of the secondary school went directly into productive employment. Also, only about one-tenth of the graduates from the secondary schools entered either further study or work in the particular specializations for which they had been prepared in the general secondary school (10). The successive polytechnic reforms have thus failed to provide the economy with a large number of young people ready and trained for lower- and middle-level work.
            In 1965, after five years of experiment in work-study organization for the senior secondary schools, the senior secondary school course was cut back from three years to two years. The reason was that the output of production training had turned out to be hundreds of thousands of rather poorly skilled young laborers whose training costs were completely wasted in the economic sense because very few of them would later in life be engaged in those trades in which they had been trained. Whatever may have been the ideological returns to practical vocational training of secondary school children, the economic returns were slight.
            The latest school reform was launched in April 1984. By the beginning of the 1980s it was clear that the Soviet Union was again facing a crisis of labor supply. The annual intake into vocational training institutions was dropping, as were the numbers demobilized from the armed forces. There was virtually no reserve left to be mobilized for women into work. The authorities decided that a solution could be found by reorganizing the first nine years of education into a vocationally oriented school. At the same time, the vocational-technical institutions were reorganized as senior secondary vocational institutions in which students would be possible to gain a certificate of completion of secondary education.

V.4 Limitations and Problems
            Productive labor practice could be organized only in limited parts of the country. There were not enough buildings, instructors, machines, and tools. Also, there wasn't adequate experience in the organization of polytechnic education on the scale of the entire country. The school authorities tended to view labor training as an intrusion into their academic work and certainly as a reduction in the time available to them to teach the already heavily loaded academic curriculum. Moreover, Students were not permitted to choose their own type of labor training to suit their aptitudes and proclivities; instead, they were simply assigned to various enterprises by order of the school (11).

VI. China
            When the Communists came to power in 1949, they had no experience in government administration. Thus they turned to their ideological ally, the Soviet Union, for aid and guidance. Soviet advisers responded quickly, and Chinese education and culture, which had been westernized under the Nationalists, became Sovietized. An extensive propaganda campaign flooded the country with exaggerated praises of Soviet achievements in culture and education. Chinese leaders justified the indiscriminate imitation of the Soviet model on ideological grounds. That the Soviet Union was the leader of the socialist countries and the supremacy of the Soviet Union had proved the superiority of socialism over capitalism. Hence the emphasis on Soviet cultural supremacy was accompanied by the repudiation of all Western influence.

VI.1 SSFA (Sino-Soviet Friendship Association)
            A major agency designed to popularize the Soviet model was the Sino-Soviet Friendship Association (SSFA), inaugurated in October 1949 immediately after the new regime was proclaimed. Headed by Liu Shaoqi, the second highest Chinese Communist leader, the association extended its activities to all parts of the country, with branch organizations in schools, factories, business enterprises, and government offices (12). In many schools more than 90 percent of the students became SSFA members. Throughout the nation, the SSFA sponsored exhibits, motion pictures, mass meetings, parades, and lectures to engender interest in the Soviet Union and in the study of Russian language, education, and culture.

VI.2 What Did Schools Teach ?
            From curriculum content to teaching methods, from the grading system to academic degrees, Communist China followed the Soviet model. Even the new youth organizations (which displaced the Boy Scouts and Girls Scouts) were comparable to that of the U.S.S.R. Russian replaced English as the most important foreign language. Schools also taught ideological and political indoctrination to all students and even adults. It consisted of learning basic tenets of Marxism?Leninism and studying documents describing the structure and objectives of the new government as well as major speeches and utterances of the party and government leaders. Its aim was to engender enthusiasm for the proletarian-socialist revolution and fervent support for the new regime. School regulations stipulated that 10 percent of the curriculum should be set aside for ideological and political study, but, in practice, ideology and politics were taught and studied in many other subjects, such as language, arithmetic, and history. Ideology and politics permeated the entire curriculum and school life, completely dominating extracurricular activities.

VI.3 The Cultural Revolution
            The Cultural Revolution was a period of widespread social and political upheaval in the People¡¯s Republic of China between 1966 and 1976 launched by Mao Zedong, the chairman of the Communist Party of China, resulting in nation-wide chaos and economic disarray (13). Mao Zedong issued an instruction sending millions of students and intellectuals into the rural areas for long-term settlement and reeducation. He asserted that the intelligentsia could overcome the harmful effects of bourgeois-dominated education only by identifying with the laboring masses through engaging in agricultural and industrial production. As a result of the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, higher education was greatly curtailed and production and labor were emphasized.

VI.4 Limitations and Problems
            Never before in the history of education in China had such an extensive effort been made to imitate the education of a foreign country on such a large scale within such a short period of time. Nevertheless, there were many reasons why the campaign did not produce many lasting changes in Chinese education. Russian education and culture had not been well known in China, and the nation was not psychologically prepared for such a sudden and intensive indoctrination to 'learn from the Soviet Union.' Moreover, students, teachers, and intellectuals in general, who would have reacted favorably to a reform to make education more Chinese, were skeptical of the wisdom of switching from Western influence to Soviet influence.

VII. Eastern European Countries
            After World War II, Eastern European countries, including East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Albania, Czechoslovakia, and Romania, all adopted educational systems that mirror substantial features of Soviet practice. They reconstructed their educational system in imitation of Soviet models with only minor adjustments to adapt them to their local conditions respectively. Most textbooks, especially those dealing with scientific and technical matters, were Soviet translations. Courses for teacher preparation were established in which the Russian language, Soviet methods of pedagogy and psychology, and Marxist-Leninist dialectics were taught by Soviet instructors.
            Eastern European countries' education system share common features with the Soviet model of education such as secularization of education; tying schools more closely to the requirements of planned economic development; widening educational opportunities, particularly for women, rural youth, and the poor; replacing a formal classics-oriented curriculum with one emphasizing mathematics and the natural sciences for all; and introducing strong elements of work-study and practical training into school programs (14).
            The Soviet model was proven useful for countries, like Albania, which sought to effectuate extremely rapid transformations of their backward, predominantly agricultural societies, marked by traces of feudalism, into modern, industrialized, and mass-participatory states. Thus although? several Eastern European countries split with or revolted to the Soviet Union later on, they maintained the Soviet-based forms of education. This is exemplified in Albania's case. Despite its split with the Soviet Union and allegiance to the Chinese branch of communism 1961, Albania's adherence to Soviet-based forms of education had endured (15).

VIII. Other Communist countries
            Other Communist countries that were less dominated by a Soviet presence such as Cuba, Vietnam had also borrowed a great deal from Soviet models of education.

VIIi.1 Cuba
            In 1960, Fidel Castro government's efforts in education had paid off impressively in terms of raising literacy levels, especially in the rural areas, and in opening what was formerly a highly class-bound, selective system to the entire population. They recruited 120,000 volunteer teachers, most of them young high school students. As a result Cuba's literacy rate rose to 97 %. In 1979, fully 71 percent of the Cuban population aged twelve to seventeen was reported to be attending secondary school which was 22 in 1970. Also, 19.2 percent of those aged twenty to twenty-four were in higher education which was 3.7 percent in 1970 (16).

VIII.2 Vietnam
            Before the 1950s, poverty was the major obstacle to learning, and secondary and higher education were beyond the reach of all but a small number of upper class people. The Chinese Confucian educational system was used until around 1954 when Vietnam was divided: Saigon in the south and Hanoi in the north. Those rival regimes broadened educational opportunities. South Vietnam used the United States' system, while North Vietnam implemented Marxist-Leninist philosophy. Both governments accomplished this despite the shortage of teachers, textbooks, equipment, and classrooms and despite the disruptions of war in the 1960s and early 1970s.
            In 1975, Vietnam was unified by the North Vietnam and the Communist system spread throughout the country (17). The educational system in 1987 was designed to make education more relevant to the nation's economic and social needs. These reforms combined theory with practical application and emphasized the training of skilled workers, technicians, and managers

IX. Comparison of the Education of Communist Nations with Non-Communist Nations
            Comparing the figures in table 2 with those in table 1, it turns out that non-Communist nations made larger developments in education between 1960 and 1981. While poor Communist Mozambique nearly doubled its primary enrollment ratio between 1960 and 1981, imilarly poor non-Communist Nepal went from 10 percent to 91 percent. Also, while highly industrialized Communist nations, such as the Soviet Union and Hungary, doubled their higher enrollment ratios, non-Communist Japan and Norway did even better.

Table 2: Development of Education in Ten Noncommunist Countries: 1960 and 1981, or Nearest Year Available (17a)
Countries listed in descending order of 1982 population size Enrollment as Percentage of the Age-group
Year Primary Secondary Higher
India 1960 61 % 20 % 3 %
1981 79 % 30 % 8 %
Japan 1960 103 % 74 % 10 %
1981 100 % 92 % 30 %
Greece 1960 102 % 37 % 4 %
1981 103 % 81 % 17 %
Chile 1960 109 % 24 % 4 %
1981 115 % 57 % 13 %
Jordan 1960 77 % 25 % 1 %
1981 103 % 77 % 27 %
United States 1960 118 % 86 % 32 %
1981 100 % 97 % 26 %
Norway 1960 100 % 57 % 7 %
1981 100 % 97 % 26 %
Nepal 1960 10 % 6 % na
1981 91 % 21 % 1 %
Egypt 1960 66 % 16 % 5 %
1981 76 % 52 % 15 %
Philippines 1960 95 % 26 % 13 %
1981 110 % 63 % 26 %

X. Conclusion
            The history of education in Communist countries begins from the 1920s when the Russian Revolution occurred.?Marxist-Leninist philosophy was the basis of the Communist education system. It emphasized the role of schools and youth organizations in educating students by indoctrination. It utilized schools as the basis for the facilitation of the ideological indoctrination of the masses and for the training of the ¡°New Communist Man.¡± When the Communists came to power in the Communist nations, they took up three educational tasks of major importance: teaching many illiterate people to read and write; training the personnel needed to carry on the work of political organization, agricultural and industrial production, and economic reform; remodeling the behavior, emotions, attitudes, and outlook of the people.
            The Soviet Union actively promoted education to solve its political, economic, and moral problems and its form of education was soon imposed onto other Communist nations. They reconstructed their educational system in imitation of Soviet models with only minor adjustments to adapt them to their local conditions respectively. After World War II, most of the Eastern European countries adopted educational systems that reflect substantial features of Soviet practice. Other Communist countries that were less dominated by the Soviet presence such as Cuba, Vietnam, and China also borrowed a great deal from Soviet models of education
            In comparison to the noncommunist nations¡¯, the Communist nations¡¯ developments in education between 1960 and 1981 were relatively poor. The reasons for this might be interpreted by the Communist educations¡¯ several limitations and problems, which were juvenile delinquency, lack of commitment to high social and moral purposes, the inflexibility of the school system in the face of rapidly changing social and economic demands, and labor allocation troubles. In addition, the rising costs of education enabled productive labor practice to be organized only in limited parts of the countries.
            Paris was the city where the conference which contracted the treaty of Versailles had been held. The treaty of Versailles had a few defects that later on caused problems. The government of France changed at the interval of approximately 3 years between the left and right wing. During this period the infamous Stavisky scandal occurs, enraging the citizens of Paris (of course the whole public of France too). The governments turn out to be ineffective for solving the problems in Paris and France. In that situation France enters the World War ¥±, being hardly prepared for the war.


(1)      John Connelly 1956 p.390
(2)      Noah 1986 p.45
(3)      Noah 1986 p.38
(4)      Cultural Progress in the U.S.S.R 1958. pp.12-14.
(5)      Article : Education under Communism, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Edition
(6)      The German Democratic Republic. Berlin: Panorama DDR. 1983. pp. 178-179
(6a)      World Development Report 1984

(7)      Communist Education, from CERC
(8)      Article : Education in the Soviet Union, from Wikipedia
(9)      Article : Education in the Soviet Union, from Wikipedia
(10)      I. Kaplan, O putiakh sokrashcheniia tekuchesti kadrov (Moscow: Profizdat, 1964); I. Kaplan, Rabochii klass SSSR (Moscow: Nauka, 1965), 186.
(11)      Noah 1965 p.55
(12)      Article : Education under Communism, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Edition
(13)      Article : Cultural Revolution, from Wikipedia
(14)      Grant 1969 p.8
(15)      Thomas 1969
(16)      Cowan / McLean 1984
(17a)      World Development Report 1984


Note : websites quoted below were visited in May-June 2008.
1.      Chapter:?Split of Albania from the Soviet Union pp. 115-125 John I. Thomas. Education for Communism: School and State in the People's Republic of Albania. Hoover Institution Press. 1969.
2.      Chapter: Introduction p. 8, Education during Communist regime pp.148-180 Nigel Grant. Society, Schools and Progress in Eastern Europe. Oxford, Pergamon Press. 1969.
3.      Chapter:?Marxist-Leninist Philosophy pp. 16-34 Wasyl Shimoniak. Communist Education: Its History, Philosophy and Politics. Chicago, Rand McNally. 1970.
4.      Chapter:?Education in the USSR pp. 127-165 Seymour M. Rosen. Education and Modernization in the USSR. Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley. 1971.
5.      Chapter: Statistical returns pp.12-14 U.S.S.R. T?S?entral?noe Statisticheskoe Upravlenie. Cultural Progress in the U.S.S.R. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 1958.
6.      Chapter: Education, employment, and development in Communist societies pp. 37-58. Harold J. Noah. Patriarchy, Party, Population, and Pedagogy. Atlanta: Georgia State University. 1986.
7.      Chapter: Education p. 390 John Connelly. The Sovietization of East German, Czech, and Polish Higher Education. Captive University. 1956
8.      Chapter: Cuba pp. 67-75 R.Cowan and M. McLean. International Handbook of Education Systems, vol. III, New York: John Wiley. 1984
9.      Article: Soviet Education's Unsolved Problems pp.54-56, 64-65. Harold J. Noah. Saturday Review Vol.48 No.34. August 21, 1965
10.      The World Bank. World Development Report 1984. New York: Oxford University Press. 1984
11.      Article : Paris during the World Wars. from MSN Encarta
12.      Article: Education under communism. From Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition
13.      Articles: Communist propaganda, from Wikipedia
14.      Articles: Education in the Soviet Union, from Wikipedia 15.      Articles: Education in the People's Republic of Poland, from Wikipedia
16.      Articles: Cultural Revolution, from Wikipedia
17.      Albania - Education under communist rule. From U.S. Library of Congress, Country Studies : Albania
18.      Vietnam - Education under communist rule. From U.S. Library of Congress Country Studies : Vietnam
19.      Communist education, from CERC's Electronic Book
20.      The influence of Communism on career development and education in Romania. From The Free Library
21.      Education in Cuba, from The Cuban Experience

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