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The Boer War as portrayed in Punch (1898-1900)


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Kim, Hong
Term Paper, AP European History Class, May 2008



Table of Contents
I. Historical Context of the Boer War (British Imperialism in South Africa)
I.1 1814 (British Occupation of Cape Colony) - 1852 (Independence of Transvaal)
I.2 1852 (Independence of Transvaal) - 1877 (Assumption of British Sovereignty)
I.3 1877 (Assumption of British Sovereignty) - 1885 (Discovery of Gold in the Rand)
I.4 1885 (Discovery of Gold in the Rand) - 1899 (Start of the Second Boer War)
II. General Overview of the Boer War
II.1 First Phase : The Boer Offensive (October 1899 - December 1899)
II.2 Second Phase : The British Offensive (January 1900 - September 1900)
II.3 Third Phase : Guerrilla War (September 1900 - May 1902)
III. The Cartoons : Towards the War (January 1898 - September 1899)
III.1 Reason of Selection
III.2 Historical Context & Analysis/Interpretation of Individual Cartoons
III.2.1 Punch Cartoon of June 4, 1898
III.2.2 Punch Cartoon of April 5, 1899
III.2.3 Punch Cartoon of June 21, 1899
III.2.4 Punch Cartoon of September 6, 1899
III.2.5 Punch Cartoon of September 20, 1899
IV. The Boer Offensive (October 1899 - December 1899)
IV.1 Reason of Selection
IV.2 Historical Context & Analysis/Interpretation of Individual Cartoons
IV.2.1 Punch Cartoon of October 4, 1899
IV.2.2 Punch Cartoon of October 11, 1899
IV.2.3 Punch Cartoon of November 8, 1899
V. The British Offensive (January 1900 - September 1900)
V.1 Reason of Selection
V.2 Historical Context & Analysis/Interpretation of Individual Cartoons
V.2.1 Punch Cartoon of January 10, 1900
V.2.2 Punch Cartoon of February 28, 1900
V.2.3 Punch Cartoon of March 21, 1900
V.2.4 Punch Cartoon of April 18, 1900
V.2.5 Punch Cartoon of May 9, 1900
V.2.6 Punch Cartoon of June 13, 1900
V.2.7 Punch Cartoon of September 19, 1900
VI. Conclusion: What Punch did not Portray of the Boer War (Bias of Punch)
Bibliography



I. Historical Context of the Boer War (British Imperialism in South Africa)

I.1 1814 (British Occupation of Cape Colony) - 1852 (Independence of Transvaal)
            The Cape Colony was first established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652. It was subsequently occupied by the Dutch until in 1805, as a result of the Napolenic Wars, became the possession of the British. And later through convention signed in 1814, British occupation of the Cape Colony was made permanent. The British established an arbitrary government which suppressed the Dutch people in Africa (also known as the Boers or the Afrikaners), interfering with Dutch policies with the natives and abolishing slavery (Emancipation act ? December 1, 1834). Many Cape Dutch, unable stand British rule left the Cape Colony moving into regions later known to be Natal, Transvaal, and the Orange Free State. In 1843, the British government tried to assert their authority over Natal and the Dutch settlers and the Boers protested; this conflict was concluded in 1852 in the Sand River Convention, when the British government recognized the independence of the South African Republic (also known as the Transvaal Republic), and in 1854 that of the Orange Free State.

I.2 1852 (Independence of Transvaal) - 1877 (Assumption of British Sovereignty)
            In this period the British continued to intervene in the issues of the Orange Free Sate and Transvaal. It intervened with the wars between the Orange Free State and the native Basutos, Griquas, and Bantus, on behalf of the natives. And when diamonds were discovered near the Vaal which the Orange Free State initially claimed, the British intervened and seized the land. These events further raised the enmity between the Boers and the British. In 1877, when Transvaal was going through a crisis of currency inflation and threat of invasion from the Zulus, Britain proclaimed the annexation of Transvaal; the president and the Boer executive council made a formal protest but was ignored.

I.3 1877 (Assumption of British Sovereignty) - 1885 (Discovery of Gold in the Rand)
            In December 16 1880, the independence of Transvaal was again proclaimed and the First Boer War begun. The war was disastrous for the British where the Boers were prompt in taking the fields. In the Pretoria Convention of 1881 peace was concluded and independence is given to the Boers under the suzerainty of the Queen. In 1884, the Boers objected to the term of the Pretoria convention and through the London Convention of 1884 full independence was granted to the Boers with no reference to suzerainty.

I.4 1885 (Discovery of Gold in the Rand) - 1899 (Start of the Second Boer War)
            In 1885 gold was discovered in Witwatersrand beginning a rapid influx of foreigners into the republic creating two mining centers, Johannesburg and Barberton. Political conflict escalated between the Boers and the increasing body of settlers, known as the Uitlanders. The Boers were afraid that they would be outnumbered by the Uitlanders and lose political control of the republic. In fear of this, the Boers, in 1887, restricted suffrage to those of fifteen years of residence, which used to be two years in 1881. Discontent due to political underrepresentation and excessive taxes resulted in the Jameson Raid carried out by a British colonial statesman Leander Starr Jameson. It was intended to trigger an uprising of the Uitlanders, but failed. The Boers suspected the complicity of prominent British Imperialists, such as Mr. Cecil Rhodes, prime minister of the Cape Colony; the Jameson Raid did much to precipitate the Second Boer War. From June 2 to June 6, the Bloemfontein Conference was held in Bloemfontein, the capital of the Orange Free State, between President Kruger, the president of Transvaal, and Sir Alfred Milner, the governor of the Cape Colony. Starting from the Bloemfontein Conference, negotiations continued, but no resolutions were made due to the unreasonable proposals of Joseph Chamberlain, the colonial secretary of Britain. As time went on, it was evident that war was inevitable; finally in October 11, the Boer government declared war against the British and the Second Boer War started.

II. General Overview of the Boer War

II.1 First Phase : The Boer Offensive (October 1899 - December 1899)
            The Boers immediately started on the offensive by invading the Cape Colony and the Colony of Natal. The Boers laid siege to Mafeking on October 13 and Kimberley on the next day, the cities being on the borders of Transvaal and the Orange Free State respectively. A great concentration of British soldiers was at northern Natal under the order of General Sir George White; his army was dangerously dispersed and was defeated individually, leading to the siege of Ladysmith beginning on November 2 1899. Major British reinforcements arrived under General Redvers Henry Buller. He originally had planned to march straight up from Cape Town through Bloemfontein to Pretoria, but learning that cities were under siege changed directions to relieve the cities. The middle of December, known as the Black Week (from December 10 to 15), was a disastrous week for the British. First was the Battle of Stromberg on December 10. General Sir William Gatacre, in attempt to recapture a railway junction south of the Orange River, lost 135 troops and had over 600 captured. On the next day at the battle of Magersfontein, 14,000 British troops under Lieutenant-General Lord Methuen, attempted to relieve Kimberly. However, the British were fooled into a defensive position of trenches and lost 120 soldiers and 690 wounded. This prolonged the siege of Kimberley and Mafeking. The most disastrous of defeat on the Black Week was the Battle of Colenso on December 15 where 21,000 British troops commanded by Buller himself attempted to cross the Tugela River to relieve Ladysmith. Bombarded by the artillery fire of 8,000 Transvaal Boers in superior defensive positions the British suffered a defeat of 1,126 casualties

II.2 Second Phase : The British Offensive (January 1900 - September 1900)
            Buller repeatedly attempted to cross the Tugela River on January 19 1900 and on Febuary 5 1900; however, both attempts fail, defeated by Louis Botha, with high casualties. Due to his bad performance Buller is replaced as Commander in Chief by Field Marshal Lord Roberts. Roberts leaving command of Natal to Buller, massed further reinforcements to near the Orange River and launched an offensive on February 14. The city of Kimberley was relieved on February 15. Surrounding the retreating army of General Piet Cronje, Roberts, on February 18 to 27, forces Cronje to surrender with 4000 men, at the battle of Paardeberg. On the following day, Buller finally makes across the Tugela River relieving Ladysmith. Roberts further advanced into the Orange Free State, capturing Bloemfontein on March 13. Mafeking was also relieved on May 18, 1900. Roberts continued his advance and captured Johannesburg on May 31, and later, captured Pretoria, the capital of Transvaal on June 5. President Kruger and the remnants of the Transvaal Republic retreated into eastern Transvaal. Roberts and Buller continued in their advance and broke the final defensive position of Kruger at Bergendal on August 26

II.3 Third Phase : Guerrilla War (September 1900 - May 1902)
            From this period Boer Commandos adopted tactics of guerilla warfare. They moved to their hometowns and with the support of the locals and their knowledge of the local land, did everything they could to interfere with the operations of the British. They disconnected railways, cut off communication lines, and attacked small regiments of the British army. They were mobile in their actions and quickly hid themselves before reinforcements of the British arrived. The British were initially greatly damaged, unable to adopt to the guerilla tactics of the Boers, and poorly prepared due to Roberts¡¯s misconception that the war was over when the two capitals of the Boer Republics were occupied. But soon, the British revised their tactics against the Boers. They built block houses along the railways for protection of transportation; they implemented the Scorched Earth policy, intentionally destroying all the resources that could be useful for the Boers, burning farmland, destroying crops etc.; they also built concentration camps where they sent the women and the children. These policies, though harsh, receiving great international criticism, worked in starving the Boers into surrender. Commandos, such as Christiaan de Wet, Louis Botha, and Koos de la Rey resisted forcefully, but eventually were defeated. The prolonged war and the losses of British soldiers increased the calls for a peace settlement in British, and in 1902, the Treaty of Vereening was signed, which resulted in the annexation of the Boer Republics into the British Empire. The Boers were promised ?3,000,000 for reconstruction and eventual limited self-government granted in 1906 and 1907. The war was the most disastrous imperial war for the British with the loss of 22,000 soldiers, and served as a great turning point for British imperialism.

III. Towards the War (January 1898 - September 1899)

III.1 Reason of Selection
            Four cartoons were selected out of thirteen relevant cartoons. Cartoons not selected: cartoon of September 3, 1898; cartoon of October 15, 1898; cartoon of December 17, 1898; cartoon of March 22, 1899; cartoon of July 5, 1899; cartoon of August 9, 1899; cartoon of September 13, 1899; cartoon of September 20, 1899; cartoon of September 27, 1899. The cartoons that directly attributed to portraying the escalation of the war tension were selected. The first cartoon shows the disputes of British authority that roots from centuries ago; the second cartoon shows the contemporary conflict between the Boers and the Uitlanders; the third cartoon shows how the tension escalated; and at the fourth cartoon war is explicitly predicted.

III.2 Historical Context & Analysis/Interpretation of Individual Cartoons

III.2.1 Punch Cartoon of June 4, 1898

Fig. 1 : Punch Vol.114 p.259 June 4 1898

            Historical Context: The Boers in 1880, proclaiming their independence, started the First Boer War. In the resulting Pretoria Convention of 1881, independence was given to the Boers under the suzerainty of the Queen. Boers were discontent with the terms of the convention, and in the London Convention of 1884 full independence was granted to the Boers with no reference to suzerainty; however, they were still subject to the right of the British government to reject treaties formed by the republic with foreign powers.
            Analysis/Interpretation: The gag that is fallen on the ground is written "suzerainty", which refers to the article of suzerainty of the Queen written in the Convention of 1881. The Boers overcame suzerainty in the Convention of 1884, but still the British had the right to reject treaties of Boers made with other foreign powers, which is represented by Joseph Chamberlain pulling the dog who has the face of Kruger wearing a collar written "Convention 1884".

III.2.2 Punch Cartoon of April 5, 1899

Fig.2 : Punch Vol.116 p.163 April 5 1899

            Historical Context: In April and May, 1899, the grievances of the Uitlanders attracted great public attention; 21,648 Uitlanders signed a petition that was submitted to the British government.
            Analysis/Interpretation: In the cartoon, Kruger is the Headmaster of the Transvaal where the students are tied up and gagged so that they cannot speak. And the British inspector is questioning Kruger, holding the petition. This shows how Kruger acted as if the Uitlanders were treated fairly when the British complained about the petition.

III.2.3 Punch Cartoon of June 21, 1899

Punch Vol.116 p.295 June 21, 1899

            Historical Context: In mid 1899, the British were suspected to be preparing for a war against the Boers, which was later shown to be true
            : In front of Oom Paul (Kruger), Joseph Chamberlain is walking with two fierce looking dogs which he claims to be taking for a gentle exercise. The fierce looking dogs represent the preparations of war Joseph Chamberlain was suspected to be going through.

III.2.4 Punch Cartoon of September 6, 1899

Punch Vol.117 p.114 September 6, 1899
IV. The Boer Offensive (October 1899 - December 1899)

IV.1 Reason of Selection
            Three cartoons were selected out of six relevant cartoons. Cartoons that were not selected: cartoon of October 4, 1899(2); cartoon of October 25, 1899; cartoon of October 25, 1899. The first cartoon is significant in that it shows a key attribute of the war, the alliance between Transvaal and the Orange Free State; the second cartoon was published in the day the war was declared, and it shows the stance of the British in response; the third cartoon, purposed to console the families left behind, shows the position Punch takes about this war.

IV.2 Historical Context & Analysis/Interpretation of Individual Cartoons

IV.2.1 Punch Cartoon of October 4, 1899

Punch Vol.117 p.163 October 4th 1899

            Historical Context : About two weeks before the war started at October 11, 1899, the Orange Free State declared that it would side with Transvaal in case of a war.
            Analysis/Interpretation : Three countries are represented in this cartoon, the British, Transvaal, and the Orange Free State. The British man telling to the man of the Orange Free State that he has no quarrel with him shows that the British did not want the Orange Free State to participate in the war as the side of the Transvaal as it already proclaimed

IV.2.2 Punch Cartoon of October 11, 1899

Punch Vol.117 p.175 October 11th 1899

            Historical context: On October 9, the Boers¡¯ ultimatum was given to a British agent in Pretoria. It demanded the immediate withdrawal of British troops from the borders of Transvaal and of the troops that arrived in Africa after June 1. When the British did not listen to the demands of Transvaal until the designated time, the war was declared, on October 11, 1899.
            Analysis/Interpretation : The part of the text, ¡°This time it¡¯s a fight to a finish,¡± is important. It refers to the First Boer War where the British were quickly defeated in the fields, and it shows the determination of the British in this war. Also the cartoon gives you the impression that the Boers started the war, which is true in that they first declared the war, but in reality was more forced into war by the British.

IV.2.3 Punch Cartoon of November 8, 1899

Punch Vol.117 p.223 November 8th 1899

            Historical Context : In this period, the British government, acknowledging the magnitude of the war at hand, sends great numbers of reinforcements into South Africa.
            Analysis/Interpretation : On the background of the cartoon there are people waving goodbye towards a leaving steamboat. The woman in the front, who Britannia is consoling, is crying for her husband who left to fight in the Boer war. We can see from this that many men left Britain for war. A point not to miss in this cartoon is that the young boy in front of her mother is wearing a wooden sword. The fact that even a child is wearing a sword shows how wide spread the atmosphere of war was in the British society of this period. This cartoon indirectly shows that the Punch is in support of the war, expressing that it is something we all must endure and fight for.

V. The British offensive (January 1900 - September 1900)

V.1 Reason of Selection
            Seven cartoons were selected out for 24 relevant cartoons. Cartoons that were not selected: cartoon of February 7, 1900; cartoon of February 21, 1900; cartoon of March 7, 1900; cartoon of March 7, 1900(2); cartoon of March 14, 1900; cartoon of March 28, 1900; cartoon of May 2, 1900; cartoon of May 9, 1900(2); cartoon of May 16, 1900; cartoon of May 30, 1900; cartoon of August 8, 1900; cartoon of August 29, 1900; cartoon of September 12, 1900; cartoon of November 14, 1900; cartoon of December 5, 1900; cartoon of December 12, 1900; cartoon of December 26, 1900. The cartoons were selected on the basis of whether or not they are significant in explaining the progress of war. Cartoons that were simply purposed to give better out looks of the war to the public or make fun of Kruger were not selected.

V.2 Historical Context & Analysis/Interpretation of Individual Cartoons

V.2.1 Punch Cartoon of January 10, 1900

Punch Vol.118 p.29 January 10th 1900

            Historical Context : Kruger from before the war in preparation had bought modern Mauser rifles and Krupp field guns using the monetary power gained through the gold discovered in Transvaal. During the war, illegal imports of the weapons of this sort continued.
            Analysis/Interpretation : Rifles, gun powder, and cannons are labeled "umbrellas," "polishing powder," and "farming machine" respectively. The image and the words of the Boer man show discontent of the British of the illegal imports of ammunition of the Boers.

V.2.2 Punch Cartoon of February 28, 1900

Punch Vol.118 p.155 February 28th 1900

            Historical Context : The battle of Paardeberg on February 18 to February 27, 1900, was one of the first major victories on the side of the British. Roberts forced Piet Cronje's army to surrender with 4,000 men after a siege lasting a week.
            Analysis/Interpretation : The message of this cartoon is clear, which is to celebrate the victory of the British troops at the battle of Paardeberg.

V.2.3 Punch Cartoon of March 21, 1900

Punch Vol.118 p.221 March 21st 1900

            Historical Context : On March 5, President Steyn of the Orange Free State and President Kruger of the Transvaal sent a telegram to Lord Salisbury, asking for a cessation of hostilities stating that the actions of the Boers were those of self defense and that they had no intentions to undermine the authority of the British. Though Steyn and Kruger were in a position asking for a truce, they clearly stated that independence of the republics is an indispensable condition for the peace of South Africa and that they will not stop fighting until this condition is met.
            Analysis/Interpretation : The ironical offer of the Boers, titled the "Handsome Offer," refers to the offer made in the telegraph on March 5. The cartoon is making fun of how the Boers never made such offers in the period of the Boer offensive and also of the fact that the Boers wish for all their demands to be accepted when they are the ones losing the war.

V.2.4 Punch Cartoon of April 14, 1900

Punch Vol.118 p.281 April 14th 1900

            Historical Context : When the direct appeal to the British failed, the two presidents turned to the powers of Europe. On March 13, they sent three delegates Wessels, Fischer, and Wolmarans. They arrived at Holland and were received kindly; however, the European powers were uniformly unfavorable, and their mission met no success
            Analysis/Interpretation : The cartoon shows Europa (representing the powers of Europe) refusing to meet gentlemen from Transvaal, which shows the unfavorable attitudes of the European powers towards the delegates of the Boers.

V.2.5 Punch Cartoon of May 9, 1900

Punch Vol.118 p.335 May 9th 1900

            Historical Context : The siege of Mafeking started at October 13 1899. The people experiencing the siege had to live through harsh conditions of hunger and fear of artillery bombardment. On May 18, Roberts finally was able to relieve Mafeking from its siege that had gone on for 217 days.
            Analysis/Interpretation : Baden-Powell, who commanded the defense of Mafeking during the siege of the Boers, is telling a woman, who represents Mafeking, to cheer up and hang on until May 18th, which was a promised date from Roberts (Bobs). This cartoon shows the wishful minds of the British of the plans of Roberts to relieve Mafeking.

V.2.6 Punch Cartoon of June 13, 1900

Punch Vol.118 p.425 June 13th 1900

            Historical Context : Roberts, after occupying Mafeking and Johannesburg, continued his advance and on June 5, captured Pretoria, the capital of Transvaal. Kruger retreated to eastern Transvaal and established his new capital at Machadodorp.
            Analysis/Interpretation : The title "Shifting his Capital" literally means that he moved his capital due to that it was captured to the British at June 5. That can also be seen by the sign in the back which shows that Kruger is going in the opposite direction from Pretoria. The cartoon also makes fun of Kruger's incredible statement that the monetary resource he takes with him was for state purposes.

V.2.7 Punch Cartoon of September 19, 1900

Punch Vol.119 p.209 September 19th 1900

            Historical Context : On September 11, President Kruger left South Africa on Dutch warship De Gelderland. He went to the Netherlands, the only place he was truly greeted.
            Analysis/Interpretation : Kruger leaving a large boat (written "Transvaal") on a small life boat represents his exile to the Netherlands on September 11. The large boat sinking means the fall of Transvaal. This indirectly shows that the British believed that the war was completely over when the two capitals were occupied and when Kruger exiled to the Netherlands. However, guerilla warfare continued, and the British unprepared were initially damaged greatly.

VI. Conclusion: What Punch did not Portray of the Boer War (Bias of Punch)
            The bias of Punch can more be seen in the things that it did not portray. Largely, Punch did not portray three aspects of the war.
            First is the British action of forcing Transvaal to war. With the excuse of the grievances that the Uitlanders were assumed to be going through, the British continuously attempted to interfere with the domestic policies of Transvaal and demanded certain changes. When disputes escalated, conventions such as the Bloemfontein Convention were held, and in these conventions the British made proposals to Transvaal that they could not accept. When Transvaal was ready to accept a certain level of concessions, the British raised the level of demand, which left the Boers no option but war. The Punch only presented the Boers declaring (starting) the war, which would give a reader the impression that the Boers were aggressor. The Punch was biased in that they changed the aggressing actor in the Boer War.
            Second are the battles that the British lost. The British, in the period of October? December 1899, continuously lost disastrous battles, especially in December 10-15, known as the Black Week. This was a very embarrassing event for the British, and conveniently, the Punch has no cartoons about the Boer war in December. This situation is juxtaposed with when the British is victorious in the war starting from January 1900; the progression of the war is shown every week. As shown, the Punch was biased in omitting the negative results of the war.
            Third are the damages of the guerilla warfare. The guerilla resistance seriously started in 1901, which is out of the scope of the period in discussion; however, the earlier stages of the guerilla warfare started off earlier in 1900, such as the guerilla attack at Sanna¡¯s Post on March 31. Punch does not mention about these casualties, showing the bias of Punch that it did not fairly present every aspect of the war, only the ones that were favorable for the British.
            In conclusion, it is clear that Punch was more biased in favor of the side of the British, and this is a natural considering the circumstances of a war. There are cartoons that made fun of British imperialism and the imperialistic policies of Joseph Chamberlain, which shows that the Punch was not completely biased for the British. However, most of those cartoons that have a negative connotation of British actions were published in a period before the start of the war. This is a natural consequence, understanding that when a national emergency situation starts out, the role of a newspaper shifts from criticizing and making fun of the government¡¯s actions to supporting the government and consoling the families and the public left in Britain; Punch was no exception.


Bibliography

Primary Sources
Punch Cartoon Library, in an email dated June 2nd 2008, was so generous to permit the usage of Punch cartoons in students' papers as this one. Punch Cartoon Library does offer full-size decorative prints of individual cartoons for sale.
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.114 p.259 June 4 1898; Vol.116 p.163 April 5 1898, p.295 June 21 1899, Vol.117 p.114 September 6 1899, p.163 October 4 1899, p.175 October 11 1899, p.223 November 8 1899, Vol.118 p.29 January 10 1900, p.155 February 28 1900, p.221 March 21 1900, p.281 April 18 1900, p.335 May 9 1900, p.425 June 13 1900, Vol.119 p.209 September 19 1900


Secondary Sources
Note : websites quoted below were visited in May 2008.
1.      Chapter: "Unification", pp.54-83 in, Ross, Robert. A Concise History of South Africa. Cambridge : UP, 1999
2.      Chapter: "The British, Boers and Africans in South Africa, 1850-80", pp.144-178 in, Ajayi, J. F. Ade, ed. General History of Africa. Volume 4. Paris : UNESCO, 1989.
3.      Chapter: Zulu and the British, pp.123-133 in, Dijk, Lutz van. Looking at Aftican History for the First Time. Korean translation by. Ahn In Hoi. Seoul : Woongjinthinkbig, 2004.
4.      Chapter: Colonial invasion and colonial rule, pp.333-359 in, IIliffe, John. African History. Korean translation by Lee Han Kyu, Seoul : Isan, 2002
5.      "Orange Free State." The International Year Book. 1898. p.585. New York : Dodd, Mead & Company, 1899.
6.      "Transvaal." The International Year Book. 1898. p.779-783. New York : Dodd, Mead & Company, 1899.
7.      "Kruger." The International Year Book. 1899. p.474. New York : Dodd, Mead & Company, 1900.
8.      "Transvaal." The International Year Book. 1899. p.775-789. New York : Dodd, Mead & Company, 1900
9.      "Kruger." The International Year Book. 1900. p.522-523. New York : Dodd, Mead & Company, 1901.
10.      "Orange Free State." The International Year Book. 1900. p.610-611. New York : Dodd, Mead & Company, 1901.
11.      "Transvaal." The International Year Book. 1900. p.868-877. New York : Dodd, Mead & Company, 1901.
12.      Article "Boer" from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 2008. 31 May 2008. .
13.      Article "South African War" from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online 2008. 31 May 2008. .
14.      Article "Southern Africa", from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online 2008. 1 June 2008. ..
15.      Article "Kruger, Paul", from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online 2008. 2 June 2008. ..
16.      Article "Second Boer War", from Wikipedia 31 May 2008.
17.      Article "Cape Colony", from Wikipedia 31 May 2008.
18.      Article "New Imperialism", from Wikipedia. 1 June 2008.
19.      Article "Victorian Era", from Wikipedia 1 June 2008.


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