Every social event paid special attention to the food and the British Memsahibs (34)
ran households that included chefs and
cooks. Many of them were highly trained to cater for the western palate. Often, the grand meals would have consisted of
game and poultry which was of poor quality so the cooks would often have to improvise by creating hybrid dishes such as
and homemade jam. Breakfasts would consist of omelettes seasoned with spices and the simple Indian dish of rice and
lentils known as kichidi turned into the British kedgeree with the addition of smoked kippers shipped from England. So
from morning, noon until night, all the meals became a fusion of western and eastern cooking traditions. Just as the British in
India had endeavored to replicate home comfort cuisine, they craved a little of the East and that was 'curry'.
The first recorded or published recipe for curry in Britain is by a woman known as Hannah Glasse. In her 1747 book 'The Art of Cookery'
which appeared in twenty editions throughout the Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries, her initial
recipe for 'curry' included the spices coriander seeds and pepper. Then by the fourth edition of the book, she added ginger and turmeric.
The use of hot spices was not mentioned, which reflected the limited use of chili in India ? chili plants had only been introduced into
India around the late 15th century and at that time were only popular in southern India. In 1861, 'Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management'
- a guide to running a home in Victorian Britain - printed a recipe for curry powder made with a veritable
selection of spices. The popularity of curry among the general public was enhanced by the invention of 'Coronation chicken', which used
curry to better is flavor, to commemorate the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953.
After 1947, when India eventually became independent from colonial rule, Indian cuisine was greatly influenced by the sub-continental
cuisine since the Indian land mass was divided into several countries, most notably Pakistan.
The cuisine of India has went through significant changes throughout the history of India. Especially, religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism,
Jainism, and Muslim as well as foreign invasions were major factors which greatly influenced the gastronomy of India. Looking at how
exterior elements, such as religions and foreign cultures, have constantly affected and developed the cuisine of India, the readers might
infer that although the cuisine of India has its own unique style, it was necessarily influenced by a number of external factors. This procedure
of cultural exchange has indeed assisted the cuisine of India to maintain its present remarkable quality and taste.
Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller
number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods.
Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family,
The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria
and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods
are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.
The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the history of India during which the Vedas, the
oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, were being composed. Scholars place the Vedic period in the second and first millennia BCE continuing up to the 6th century BCE based on literary evidence.
Mohenjo-daro(Mound of the Dead) was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization
of south Asia situated in the province of Sind, Pakistan. Built around 2600 BCE, the city was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the
civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete.
Harappa is an ancient settlement which existed from about 3300 BCE and is believed to have had as many
as 23,500 residents?considered large for its time. Although the Harappa Culture extended well beyond the bounds of present day Pakistan, its centres were in Sindh and the Punjab
Ayurveda( the 'science of life') is a system of traditional medicine native to India, and practiced in other
parts of the world as a form of alternative medicine. In Sanskrit, the word Ayurveda comprises the words ?yus, meaning 'life' and veda, meaning 'science'. Evolving throughout its history,
Ayurveda remains an influential system of medicine in South Asia
The Mah?bh?rata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.
The epic is part of the Hindu itih?sa (literally "history"), and forms an important part of Hindu mythology. It is of immense importance to the culture in the Indian subcontinent,
and is a major text of Hinduism.
Brahmin is the class of educators, scholars and preachers in Hinduism. It occupies the highest position
among the four varnas of Brahminical Hinduism.
Kshatriya is one of the four varnas (social orders) in Hinduism. It constitutes the military and ruling
order of the traditional Vedic-Hindu social system
Chandragupta Maurya, sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. 340 BCE, ruled c. 320 - 298 BCE),
was the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chandragupta succeeded in bringing together most of the Indian subcontinent. As a result, Chandragupta is considered the first unifier of India
and the first genuine emperor of India
The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. At its greatest extent, the
Nanda Empire extended from Bihar to Bengal in the west.
(15) Ashoka (304 BCE ? 232 BCE) was an Indian emperor, of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled from 273 BCE to 232 BCE.
Often cited as one of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests. His empire stretched from present-day Pakistan,
Afghanistan and parts of Iran in the west, to the present-day Bangladesh and Assam states of India in the east, and as far south as the Mysore state.
(16) The Gupta Empire was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 280 to 550 CE and covered
most of Northern India, parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan and what is now western India and Bangladesh.
(18) Khilji was an Indian ruling dynasty that was made-up of mamlukes (slaves). They were the second Muslim
dynasty who ruled the Delhi Sultanate of India. They ruled from 1290 to 1320 over a large area in Indian subcontinent.
(19) Ibn Battuta (born February 24, 1304; year of death uncertain, possibly 1368 or 1377) was Muslim scholar,
and at times a Qadi or judge. However, he is best known as a traveler and explorer, whose account documents his travels and excursions over a period of almost thirty years,
covering some 73,000 miles (117,000 km). These journeys covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world and beyond, extending from North Africa, West Africa, Southern
Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East
(19a) There is a brief mention about Ibn Battuta¡¯s travelogue in the period 1200-1500 AD of the following source:
(20) Dom Vasco da Gama was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the European Age of Discovery
and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.
(21) Babur (February 14, 1483- December 26, 1530) was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a
series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of India. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan
through his mother.
(22) Kerala is a union state located in the south western part of India.
(23) Gravy is a sauce made often from the juices that run naturally from meat or vegetables during cooking. It
is a smooth, non-chunky liquid.
(24) Pilaf is a dish in which a grain, such as rice or cracked wheat, is browned in oil, and then cooked in a seasoned
broth. Depending on the local cuisine it may also contain a variety of meat and vegetables.
(26) Nuruddin Salim Jahangir(September 20, 1569-November 8, 1627) (OS August 31, 1569 ? NS November 8, 1627) was the
ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian ???????, meaning "Conqueror of the World," "World-Conqueror."
(27) Muhammad Shah Jahan I (January 5, 1592 ? January 31, 1666) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire in the Indian
subcontinent from 1628 until 1658. The name Shah Jahan comes from Persian meaning "King of the World." He was the fifth Mughal ruler after Babur, Humayun, Akbar, and Jahangir. Famous for
constructing Taj Mahal, one of the most beautiful buildings of the world.
(28) Nizam, a shortened version of Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning ¡®Administrator of the Realm¡¯, was the title of the
native sovereigns of Hyderabad state, India, since 1719, belonging to the Asaf Jah dynasty.
(29) Biryani is a family of primarily South Asian rice dishes made with spices, rice (usually basmati) and meat/vegetables.
It was spread throughout the Middle East and South Asia (and Southeast Asia to an extent) by Muslim travellers and merchants, and is very popular in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The
name is derived from the Persian word bery?(n) (?????), which means "fried" or "roasted".
(31) The East India Company (also the English East India Company, and sometimes the British East India Company, but
also known as the Honorable Company) was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading with India and China.
The oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies, the Company was granted an English Royal Charter, under the name Governor and Company of Merchants of London
Trading into the East Indies, by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600.
(34) Sahib is an Arabic term of respect, meaning Sir, master or lord, used in several languages including Hindi-Urdu (Hindustani), Bengali and Marathi.
(35) Chapati is a staple flat bread of South India, East Africa, and Western India. It is rather thin, unleavened cooked dough. It is a type of roti.
(35a) Hannah (Allgood) Glasse (1708-1770) published "The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy" in 1747. The book, which became the most
popular cookbook of the eighteenth century, stands out for its practical advice, common sense recipes, and careful organization. It was written for the common cook to help in the preparation of
economical meals. Glasse abandoned the "high polite [style]" of most cookbooks of the time to offer recipes and meal preparation advice to anyone "who can but read."
(35b) Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management was edited by Isabella Beeton and was first published as a book in 1861 by
S. O. Beeton Publishing, 161 Bouverie Street, London, a firm founded by her husband, Samuel Beeton. It had been previously published as a part work. It was a guide to all aspects of running a
household in Victorian Britain. Of the 1,112 pages, over 900 contained recipes, such that another popular name for the volume is Mrs Beeton's Cookbook. Most of the recipes were illustrated with coloured
engravings, and it was the first book to show recipes in a format that is still used today, ie with all the ingredients listed at the start.
Note : websites quoted below were visited in November/December 2008.
1. Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press, 1993.
2. Lee, Ok Sun. Crazy about India. Kimyoung Press, 2007. in Korean
3. Achaya, K.T. A Historical Dictionary of Indian Food. Oxford University Press, 2001.
4. Article : Cuisine of India , from Wikipedia
5. Article : History of Indian cuisine, from Wikipedia
6. Article : Sesame, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sesame
7. Article : Turmeric, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turmeric
8. Article : Vedic Period, from Wikipedia
9. Article : Mohenjo-daro, from Wikipedia
10.   Article : Harappa, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harappa
11. Article : Ayurveda, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayurveda
12. Article : Gupta Empire, from Wikipedia
13. Article : Gravy, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravy
14. Article : Jahangir, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janagir
15. Article : Biryani, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biryani
16. Article : Pilaf, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilaf
17. Article : Sahib, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sahib
18. History of Indian food, from History of Food
19. History of Indian food¡±, from History of Indian Food
20. Rinku Bhattacharya. A historical perspective of Indian food, from
History of Indian food and cooking.
21. Origins of Indian Cuisine, from
Indian food-its history, origins and influences.
22. Article : Mahabharata. from Encyclop©¡dia Britannica Online.
23. Article : Ibn Khald?n. from Encyclop©¡dia Britannica Online.
24. Article : East India Company, from
Encyclop©¡dia Britannica Online
25. Article : Chapati, hapati from Encyclop©¡dia Britannica Online
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