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India in the 18th Century


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Lee, Jin Hyuck
Term Paper, AP European History Class, June 2009



Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Brief Narrative History of India in the 18th Century
III. Important Keywords & Categorization
IV. The Mughal Empire
V. Rebels and Local Powers
V.1 Rajputs
V.2 Sikhs
V.3 Nawabs
V.3.1 Hyderabad
V.3.2 Awadh
V.3.3 Nawab of Bengal
V.4 The Maratha
VI. Foreign invasions
VI.1 Nadir Shah of Persia
VI.2 Ahmad Shah Abdali of Afghanistan
VI.3 The British East India Company
VII. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction
            India in the 18th century had to endure one of the most chaotic periods in its entire history. The Mughal Empire, which had dominated the Indian subcontinent for two centuries, began to decline with internal and external pressures. Following the decline of the empire, numerous local powers strived for independence, and foreign powers began to invade the area, further deteriorating the situation of India and promoting additional disorder.
            This paper primarily focuses on the analysis of chief factors, or background which had caused significant disruptions and fragmentation in the area. Since the circumstances of the Indian subcontinent in the period were indeed tumultuous and complex, this paper classifies events in the Indian subcontinent into main three categories, in order to provide convenience to the readers: those in the Mughal Empire, those concerning local powers of the Indian subcontinent, and those related to foreign powers.

II. Brief Narrative History of India in the 18th century
            Throughout the end of the 17th century, Aurangzeb brought the empire to its greatest extent, but his political and religious intolerance laid the seeds of its decline. He excluded Hindus from public office and destructed their schools and temples, while his persecution of the Sikhs of the Punjab turned the sect against Muslim rule and roused rebellions among the Rajputs, Sikhs, and Marathas. The heavy taxes he levied steadily impoverished the farming population, and a steady decay of the Mughal government was matched by a corresponding economic decline.
            After Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the empire fell into decline. The Mughal Emperors progressively declined in power and became figureheads, being initially controlled by various courtiers and later by rising warlords. Several Mughal Emperors were killed, often after only briefly occupying the throne. The Marathas, as well as powerful officials ruling 'Mughal provinces', in theory, recognized Mughal sovereignty. In actuality, however, the Maratha rulers, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Nawab of Bengal, the Kingdom of Awadh (Oudh) were independent. Especially, Marathas overran almost all of northern India after 1748.
            The empire also had to suffer from the depredations of invaders like Nadir Shah of Persia and Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan, who repeatedly sacked Delhi, the Mughal capital. Mughal rule was reduced to only a small area around Delhi, which passed under Maratha (1785) and then British (1803) control.

III. Important Keywords & Categorization
            From the narrative history of India, we could figure out that the situation of the Mughal Empire was deteriorating with rapidity. In order to simplify the intricate situation of the area, major events are categorized as followed. Based on the following categories, this paper will analyze the factors that motivated the fragmentation of the Indian subcontinent. Eight important points(which are written in bold words) elicited from the narrative history are:

            1) Aurangzeb and religious intolerance
            2) Rajput
            3) Sikh
            4) Nawabs (Hyderabad, Awadh, Bengal)
            5) Maratha
            6) Nadir Shah of Persia
            7) Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan
            8) British, or EIC

            This paper will focus on how each of the eight key points contributed to the disordered situation in the Indian subcontinent.

IV. The Mughal Empire
            Aurangzeb¡¯s achievements significantly affected the destiny of the Mughal Empire in the 18th century. He engaged in constant warfare, significantly increasing the size of his army, and launching numerous military campaigns all along the boundaries of his empire. From 1668, Aurangzeb also reformed a number of rules to force the subjects to follow Islam ideals and initiated several projects, in order to discriminate Hindu from Islam. He banned the construction of Hindu temples, forbade Hindu customs, and revived the tax imposed to non-Muslims, or jizyah.
            The combination of military expansion and religious intolerance produced devastating consequences. As the empire increased in size, Aurangzeb's chain of command weakened; the intolerant policy of Aurangzeb toward several religious groups, including Hindu, also provoked rebellions. The Sikhs of the Punjab increased in its military power and launched several revolts; the Marathas waged a long-lasting war with Aurangzeb, severely weakening the military power and finance of Mughal Empire. Even the former alliance and a crucial source of Mughal army, Rajputs, grew restive when Aurangzeb tried to interfere with their domestic affairs.
            Aurangzeb was indeed successful in extending the territory of the Mughal Empire, but his somewhat harsh political and religious intolerance seemed to play a vital role in the decline of the empire. Lane Pool Stanley, in his book Aurangzeb, and the decay of Mughal Empire, effectively relates the decline of the empire with fallacies in the policies of Aurangzeb. Stanley constantly demonstrates throughout his book that Aurangzeb¡¯s religious intolerance played a crucial role in the decline of the empire:

            ¡°Akbar's main difficulties lay in the diversity and jealousies of the races and religions with which he had to deal. It was this method of dealing with these difficulties which established the Mughal Empire in all the power and splendor that marked its sway for a hundred years to come. It was Aurangzeb¡¯s reversal of this method which undid his ancestors work and prepared the way for the downfall of his dynasty.¡± (1)

            ¡°In matters of religion the Emperor was obstinate to the point of fanaticism. In other matters he displayed the wisdom and judgment of a clear and thoughtful mind.¡± (2)

            ¡°Aurangzib possessed many great qualities, he practised all the virtues; but he was lacking in the one thing needful in a leader of men: he could not win love. Such a one may administer an empire, but he cannot rule the hearts of men.¡± (3)

            Through three excerpts, we can see that Lane-Pool Stanley clearly points out that the biggest fallacy in Aurangzeb¡¯s policies was his excessive obsession with religion and intolerant policies toward others, so that he ¡°could not win love.¡± There is also a line which supports religious fanaticism of Aurangzeb in Anecdotes of Aurangzeb, ¡°it would be my duty to extirpate all the (Hindu) Rajahs and their followers¡± (4). Such intolerance would evoke hostility and opposition from local powers, and one problem that emerged is described in the following excerpt: ¡°if his dynasty was to keep its hold on the country and withstand the slaughter of fresh hordes of invaders, it must rest on the loyalty of the native Hinduists who formed the bulk of the population, supplied the army, and were necessarily entrusted with most of the civil employments." (5)
            After Aurangzeb died in 1707, the situation in the Mughal Empire quickly began to worsen. In the war of succession, approximately 10,000 soldiers died, including many generals. When Bahadur Shah emerged as the victor, a number of structural problems were obvious. The central authority was significantly deteriorated. The emperor could no longer simply order an appointee to a new posting. It had become a matter of negotiation, the appointee using his friends at court to reverse or delay any undesirable posting. The center was receiving less and less information from outlying areas, and the financial position of the center steadily worsened. The extended conflict with the Rajputs had alienated the empire¡¯s most long-standing and loyal indigenous allies. Law and order and the safety of the roads were questionable in much of the empire. The situation of the Mughal Empire was indeed disruptive.

Map 1 : Rajasthan within the Republic of India (6)

V. Rebels and Local Powers

V.1 Rajputs
            After Aurangzeb¡¯s death, weakened central authority created new opportunities for aggrandizement by provincial officers. During the first three decades of the eighteenth century, nascent regional kingdoms in several northern provinces began to appear. The rajahs, or governors of the area, reorganized their administrations, all with the aim of strengthening their powers while still paying lip service to the emperor¡¯s authority. The northern provinces were edging toward stability within a loosened, decentralized imperial structure.
            In Rajasthan, the leading Rajput emirs energetically overturned the intricate imperial administrative controls imposed on that province. Rajputs dedicated considerable efforts into expanding their home territories, in order to build near-autonomous regional kingdoms. Furthermore, as the Mughal empire was gradually being burdened with difficulties, rajas stopped paying tribute.
            The desire for independence partially arose from the harsh treatments they were granted, dating back to the reign under Aurangzeb. The ruthless campaigns of Aurangzeb in Rajasthan as well as his religious intolerance, including revival of jizyah, significantly aroused anger of many rajputs: ¡°The insults which had been offered to their chiefs and their religion and the ruthless and unnecessary severity of Aurangzeb¡¯s campaigns in their(rajputs) country left a sore which never healed. A race which had been the right arm of the Mughal empire at the beginning of the reign was now hopelessly alienated, and never again served the throne without distrust. ¡° (7)

V.2 The Sikhs
            Religious intolerance launched under the Aurangzeb¡¯s reign also provoked opposition from Sikh. Since Sikh had a firm religious belief of its own, Aurangzeb¡¯s religious intolerance was harsh enough to induce opposition. Sikh established its distinct culture with the leader as Guru Gobind Singh, formalizing the religious practice in March 1699. Generally Sikhism has had amicable relations with other religions. However, under the punishments imposed by Aurangzeb, prominent Sikh Gurus were martyred by the Mughals for opposing its persecution of non-Islamic religious communities. Subsequently, Sikhism militarized to oppose Islamic hegemony.
            Some excerpts show that Sikh was a formalized religious group, and religiously intolerant attitudes toward them could greatly arouse them: ¡°Guru Teg Bahadur rightly refused to accept the standard which the Emperor Aurangzeb had in his mind to judge the so-called non-moslem goodness and Guru Teg Bahadur exhibited the spirit of a true spiritual hero, when he kept steadfast in showing that he himself was the greatest miracle of all miracle ... Aurangzeb, after having tried his utmost to convert Guru Teg Bahadur to Islam, and waiting for months in vain, ordered finally his beheadal¡± (8) As shown in the excerpt, Sikh was a religiously unified group who devoted their cause for their belief, but Aurangzeb¡¯s punishment and oppression has produced deep hostilities that would be continued throughout 18th century.
            As the Mughal Empire declined in power, Sikhs raided the empire as far as Delhi practically every year for plunder. They entered Delhi three times in 11 years from 1772 to 1783: in 1772, 1778 and 1783. In 1799, under the leadership of Maharajah Ranjit Singh, Sikh Empire was established, which was characterized by religious tolerance and pluralism with Christians, Muslims and Hindus in positions of power. The empire included Kashmir, Ladakh, and Peshawar.

V.3 The Nawabs
           
Map 2 : Hyderabad State, 1767 (9)

V.3.1 Hyderabad
            Whereas the rebellions by Rajputs and Sikh were primarily motivated by the religious suppression under Aurangzeb, quite a different story happened in Hyderabad. The uncertain circumstances of the Mughal Empire, combined with absurdness and jealousness of the emperor, provoked the independent feelings of Hyderabad.
            The founder of the present dynasty was Chin Kilich Khan, a capable man of courage who rapidly rose in favor of the Emperor. Although young, he was made Viceroy of the Deccan. He exercised absolute power in the area that he eventually excited the jealousy of the Emperor, who gave orders for his assassination. The task was entrusted to Mobariz Khan, the local Governor of Hyderabad; however, he not only failed in the attempt but he himself was slain.
            The following excerpt from Hyderabad affairs which demonstrates this event, suggests that the authority of the Mughal Empire was deteriorated to an embarrassing extent: ¡°The Nizam(of Hyderabad), who was a humorist, if of a somewhat grim kind, wrote to the Emperor congratulating him on the successful suppression of the revolt, sending him at the same time the head of the " traitor" Mobariz. This was in 1724, and henceforth Chin Kilich Khan, who assumed the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk conducted himself as an independent prince.¡± (10)
            The incident further strengthened the Nizam in his independence. Embarrassed with his mistake and frightened of retaliation, the Mughal emperor honored his Viceroy with the title of Asaf Jah, and with instructions "to settle the country, repress the turbulent, punish the rebels, and cherish the people." (11). This somewhat humiliating incident for the emperor itself reflects the devastated authority of the Mughal Empire.

Map 2 : Awadh, 1707 (12)

V.3.2 Awadh
            Kingdom of Awadh was no exception in that it protested to the rule of the Mughal Empire and initiated its own rule over the area. Saadat Khan Burhanul Mulk, who was appointed Nawab in 1722 and established his court, took advantage of a weakening Mughal Empire in Delhi to lay the foundation of the Awadh dynasty.
            The region of Awadh was characterized by disorder and frequent absence of governors. In response to disorder in Awadh, later governors were given unprecedented powers, notably over the fiscal and revenue system. In 1722, Burhan al-Mulk, the founder of the kingdom of Awadh, bundled all administrative authority in the province into his own grasp.
            Moreover, the majority of zamindars were engaged in widespread defiance of the Mughal authority and its revenue demands. For example, the Bais Rajputs of Banswara, who had been turbulent since the last years of Aurangzeb¡¯s reign, united under the banner of a single war leader and fought the Awadh governor in a three day battle at their central fortress. Besides, Afghan zamindars in Lucknow district remained in armed resistance to the governor throughout 1714. In the same year, virtually all the Rajput chiefs in Awadh district itself were in revolt. Such frequent resistance made collections from Awadh erratic, or modest at best. The financial situation of the Mughal Empire, therefore, severely deteriorated.
            Beginning from its third Nawab, the Awadh kingdom began to decline. It fell out with the British after aiding Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal, who lost in the Battle of Buxar by the British East India Company. Over time, the British gained control of more territories and authority in the state. In 1798, the fifth Nawab received opposition from both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. Then the British enthroned a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also replaced his troops with the British-run army. The treaty virtually made Awadh a vassal to the British East India Company; the state continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name till 1819.

V.3.3 The Nawab of Bengal
            From 1717 until 1880, three successive Islamic dynasties-the Nasiri, Afshar, and Najafi, ruled Bengal. The first dynasty, the Nasiri, ruled from 1717 until 1740. The founder of the Nasiri, Murshid Quli Jafar Khan, entered the service of the Emperor Aurangzeb and rose through the ranks before becoming Nazim of Bengal in 1717, a post he held until his death in 1727.
            Bengal was one of the wealthiest parts of the Mughal Empire. As the Mughal Empire began to decline, the Nawabs in the region grew in power, although nominally sub-ordinate to the Mughal emperor. They exerted great power in their own right and ruled as independent rulers, wielding virtually independent power over the region.
            After the last independent ruler of Bengal was defeated by the British forces of Sir Robert Clive in 1757, the Nawabs became puppet rulers dependent on the British. Mir Jafar, who was personally led to the throne by Robert, briefly tried to re-assert his power by allying with the Dutch. This plan, however, failed. The Nawabs were deprived of any real power and finally in 1793, when the nizamat(governorship) was also taken away from them, they remained as the mere pensioners of the British East India Company.

Map 4 : Maharashtra within the Republic of India (13)

V.4 The Marathas
            Not unlike all other powers that emerged and moved against the Mughal Empire, Maratha also had a history of suppression by the empire, especially in the War of 27 years, which started with an invasion of the Maratha empire by Mughals under Aurangzeb in 1681: ¡°The Mughal strategy toward Maharashtra (during the War of 27 years) was not subtle, just thorough. It consisted of steady pressure on Maharashtra¡¯s forts, beating Maratha forces in the field when they could bring them to a battle, and devastating Maharashtra¡¯s countryside¡± (14) We can infer that the brutal attitude of the Mughal troops toward the Maratha partially functioned as a basis for hostility between two groups. Furthermore, since the Marathi believed in Hinduism, the religious intolerant positions adopted by the Muslim Mughal Empire provoked the resentment of the Marathi.
            When the Mughal Empire began to decline after death of Aurangzeb, Maratha constantly plundered the empire. In the northern half of Maharashtra, Maratha bands regularly assaulted the Ahmadnagar area and plundered the suburbs of Burhanpur. In 1710, a Maratha band defeated the Mughal governor of Aurangabad and plundered part of the city. The same pattern continued in following years. The Mughal governor of Burhanpur was killed in 1711 defending the city from a Maratha band.
            The Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu. However, the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 suspended further expansion of the empire in the Northwest and reduced the power of the Peshwas. In 1761, after severe losses in the Panipat war, the Peshwas slowly started losing the control of the kingdom.

VI. Foreign Invasions

VI.1 Nadir Shah
            Nadir Shah became the prominent leader of Persia, after conquering the Safavid and defeating Afghans. His thoughts now turned to Mughal Empire of the south, which was greatly declining in its power. He defeated the Mughal army at the huge Battle of Karnal in 1739. After this victory, Nadir captured Mohammad Shah and entered with him into Delhi.
When a rumor broke out that Nadir had been assassinated, some of the Indians attacked and killed Persian troops. Nadir reacted by ordering his soldiers to massacre the people of the city. During the course of one day (March 22) 20,000 to 30,000 Indians were slaughtered by the Persian troops. Mohammad Shah begged for mercy; in response, Nadir Shah agreed to withdraw, but Mohammad Shah had to hand over the keys of his royal treasury, and even yield the Peacock Throne to the Persian emperor. The Persian troops left Delhi in May 1739. The invasion of Persia caused India to severely suffer from a great amount of loss, in terms of population, military power, and treasury.
From the invasion by Nadir Shah, we can infer that the mid-18th century India was remarkably weakened. Many excerpts support this point. The following excerpt describes the event when Mohammad Shah begged for mercy on March 22 when Indians were massacred by Persian soldiers: "The Moghul Emperor had come to the Persian camp that day to sue for peace. He had returned after some hours of bitter humiliation ... (he was reminded to send) at once fifty of the most beautiful maidens of India, and as many slave boys, for the Shah's approval ... the women of India, except a few peasants, he (Nadir Shah) had not yet seen, and it was said that they were not without beauty" (15). It can be inferred that the dignity of the emperor of the Mughal Empire could be found nowhere; the empire was weakened to the helpless degree.
            A conversation between Nadir shah and an Indian girl also vividly demonstrates the fragmented and deteriorated situation of India in the period: ¡°Nadir smiled. ¡®They (the Mughal troops) could do nothing when they met my troops.' The girl said, ' My Lord, they have no leaders. The Moghul lords know nothing of war, and many are faithless to their salt.¡± (16). Not only did the Mughal empire was viewed as a helplessly faded empire by Nadir Shah, but it also lost credibility among its own people.

VI.2 Ahmad Shah Abdali of Afghanistan
            Ahmad Shah first crossed the Indus river in 1748; his forces sacked Lahore during the invasion. In the following year, the Mughal ruler had to cede Sindh and all of the Punjab to Ahmad Shah, in order to save the capital from being attacked. In his fourth invasion of India in 1756/1757, Ahmad Shah invaded many provinces in India, including Delhi. He did not, however, displace the Mughal dynasty, which remained in nominal control as long as its ruler acknowledged Ahmad's hegemony over the Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir. He instead installed a puppet Emperor, Alamgir II, on the Mughal throne. He married the daughter of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah. In 1757, Ahmad Shah captured Amritsar and sacked the Golden Temple, initiating the long lasting hostility between Sikhs and Afghans.

VI.3 British East India Company, or EIC
            The 18th century was an era when two notable European powers, France and Britain, struggled to achieve the superiority in India. The British East India Company (or EIC) was enlarging its power in India from early in the 17th century. It gained a number of trading posts and succeeded in a trade. Mughal emperors also showed some degree of favor to the company, especially toward the traders in Bengal (in 1717 completely waived customs duties for the trade). On the other hand, France also struggled to exert influence on the Indian subcontinent. Joseph François Dupleix, who was appointed the governor general of all French establishments in India in 1742, endeavored to acquire for France vast territories in India, and for this purpose he entered into relations with the native princes in the Indian subcontinent.
            Two powers¡¯ conflicts reached climax in the Seven Years' War (1756 ? 1763). As a result of the war, the French forces were defeated and their imperial ambitions were limited. Although French could maintain some territories, French ambitions on Indian territories were effectively laid to rest, thus eliminating a major source of economic competition for the EIC. In contrast, the EIC, with the endorsement of a disciplined and experienced army, was able to assert its interests in the Carnatic from its base at Madras and in Bengal from Calcutta, without facing further obstacles from other colonial powers.
            The EIC engaged in military conflicts with local rulers during its expansion. Robert Clive led company forces against Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, resulting in the conquest of Bengal and becoming the first British Governor of the area. This victory estranged the British and the Mughals, since Siraj Ud Daulah was a Mughal feudatory ally. However, the Mughal empire was already on the wane, being broken up into pieces and enclaves. Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan, the legendary rulers of Mysore, gave a tough time to the British forces. Having sided with the French, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the EIC. However, Mysore finally fell to the EIC forces in 1799, with the slaying of Tipu Sultan.
            Military actions, threats, and shrewd diplomacy aided the Company in preventing the local rulers from putting up a united resistance against it. From the Battle of Plassey in 1757 to the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, the EIC consolidated and began to function more as a nation and less as a trading concern.
            It is interesting to note some reasons why the EIC could succeed in the rapid conquest of the subcontinent of India. First is that India was totally fragmented and destabilized in the 18th century, with several local powers emerging and contending for dominance. The following excerpt describes such a favorable background for the EIC to expand its conquest of the Indian subcontinent: ¡°we may trace the rise of those powers (that of EIC), in the Peninsula of India, which appeared during this reign, partly from the Hindoo States and Princes reclaiming their independence, and partly from the officers, who had commanded in the Mogul Provinces, beginning to lay the foundations of those lesser sovereignties¡± (17).
            Other factors also contributed to the rapid colonization of India by the East India Company. The EIC possessed highly advanced technology and enhanced military equipments, thanks to the Industrial Revolution that was opportunely on its progress during the era. Equipped with high-tech weapons, the East India Company of Britain could conquer the Indian troops handily, although the EIC had only a few soldiers. Another significant factor that had led the company to take over India is that the company had a strong urge to colonize India. Due to the Industrial Revolution in its homeland, the EIC ardently sought for a place where manufactured goods could be sold and raw materials could be achieved. Such a trend of the period rendered the East India Company to be highly obsessed with imperialism, by colonizing the declining empire and seeking to enlarge its profit to the maximum degree.

VII. Conclusion
            Throughout the paper, we could see that India in the 18th century was characterized by extreme chaos and fragmentation. The Mugal Empire which had dominated the Indian subcontinent before the 18th century, had to suffer from chaos after death of Aurangzeb; it not only had to experience a number of local powers emerging in the subcontinent, but also underwent a series of invasions by neighboring countries, notably by Nadir Shah. Most importantly, the British East India Company extended its influence into the area, signaling the beginning of colonization of the entire Indian subcontinent.
            Such domestic fragmentations as well as foreign invasions of India, clearly seem to derive partially from the exorbitant conquest and religious intolerance of the Mughal Empire that began under the reign of Aurangzeb. Enlarged territories gave the succeeding Mughal Emperors difficulty of maintaining the empire, and the harsh policies enacted toward local powers, particularly in terms of religion, severely aroused their oppositions. The disordered situations in India enticed foreign powers into the territory, especially the EIC, which was equipped with a strong imperialistic urge to colonize the area.
            The history of India in the 18th century demonstrates the procedure of deterioration and eventual collapse of a once powerful empire (Mughal), and its gradual colonization by the foreign power. However, the situation of the Mughal Empire was not limited to the empire alone. In fact, events that befell in the Indian subcontinent demonstrate the cosmopolitan trend (of colonialism and imperialism) that was beginning to spread throughout the world. European powers, having a reasonable urge to find new markets to sell their mass-manufactured products and seek places where they could achieve raw materials, began their centuries-lasting process of colonization throughout the world. Therefore, a series of incidents in India in the 18th century should be viewed not only as specific to the area, but as a microcosm of the cosmopolitan trend of imperialism initiated by the European powers.


Notes

(1)      Lane-Poole 1896 p.67
(2)      Lane-Poole 1896 p.87
(3)      Lane-Poole 1896 p.104
(4)      Sarkar 1917 p.53
(5)      Lane-Poole 1896 p.143
(6)      WHKMLA History of Rajasthan; used with permission
(7)      Lane-Poole 1896 p.142
(8)      Singh 1903 p.76
(9)      WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Hyderabad; used with permission
(10)      Ali 1889 p.205
(11)      McAuliffe 1904 p.174
(12)      WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Awadh, used with permission
(13)      WHKMLA History of Maharashtra, used with permission
(14)      Gordon 1998 p.92
(15)      Durand 1908 p.79
(16)      Durand 1908 p.105
(17)      Bruce 1810 p.117


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40.      Article : Nadir Shah. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. .
41.      Article : Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey. Encyclop©¡dia Britannica Online. .
42.      History of Rajasthan, from WHKMLA, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xrajasthan.html
43.      History of Maharashtra, from WHKMLA, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xmaharashtra.html
44.      Hyderabad, from WHKMLA Historical Atlas, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/histatlas/india/haxhyderabad.html
45.      Awadh, from WHKMLA Historical Atlas, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/histatlas/india/haxoudh.html
46.      Ali, Moulvi Syed Mahdi. Hyderabad Affairs.Talbot Bros, 1889.

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