Provinces and Central Government in the Republic of Korea 1948-2008

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

Sample Chapter
Working Table of Contents
Appendix 1 : Presidential Election Results by Province

Bibliography posted on Dec. 19th 2008 . . . go to Teacher's comment

Cumings, Bruce Korea¡¯s place in the sun. NY : W.W. Norton. 2005.
Jo, Yungwhan : The last struggle of Kim, Daejoong, (in Korean) May 26 2007.
Choi, Youngjin : The crisis of democracy and provincialism of Korea <>
Moon, soon bo : The cause, origin, and procedure of the provincialism election in Korea (in Korean)
Article : Grand National Party, from Encyclop©¡dia Britannica Online. 18 Dec. 2008 .
Article : Park Jung Hee, from Wikipedia
Article : Chun, Doohwan, from Wikipedia
Article : Roh, Taewoo, from Wikipedia
Article : Kim, Youngsam, from Wikipedia
Article : Kim, Daejung, from Wikipedia
Article : Roh, Muhyun, from Wikipedia
Article : Lee, Myungbak, from Wikipedia

Sample Chapter posted on Dec. 13th 2008 . . . go to Teacher's comment

Recent Provincialism (since the Election of 2007)
            The history of the political parties is very important in the history of provincialism in South Korea, since each political party tends to represent benefits of certain provinces. For example, the largest political party of Korea, the Grand National Party, or GNP, had been deeply associated with the province of Gyungsang.

1) The Recent History of the Grand National Party
            The Grand National Party had tended to lose its power from 1997 as the candidate of the Centrist Reformist Democratic Party-Kim,Daejung-was elected as the president, losing its lengthy grasp of the political power from the reign of Park, Jung hee. However, the party began to regain its former status as the leading party eventually on December 19, 2007, when its candidate Lee, Myung-bak won the presidential election. Moreover, in the April 2008 general election, the GNP secured a majority of 153 seats out of 299 and gained power in the administration and the parliament as well as most local governments.

2) The Current Provincialism under the Reign of the Grand National Party
            The fact that the GNP regained its power somewhat implies the possible Gyungsang-oriented policies of the government in the future, since the GNP had been deeply rooted in the province of Gyungsang. Furthermore, the presidential election of 2007 showed a deep conflict between two provinces: Gyungsang and Jeolla. The candidate who was born in Jeolla, Jeong Dongyeong, got over 90% of votes from the Jeolla province. The numerical data itself showed the somewhat irrecoverable conflict between two provinces.
            At this point, the prospect of provincialism to relieve itself seems very dim. One example of deepening provincialism would be the attempt of the current administration to revise the history texts. The new history texts somewhat exaggerate the achievements of Gyungsang-oriented presidents, including Park, Jung hee and Jun, Doowhan, while rather denouncing the administrations under Jeolla-oriented presidents, such as Kim, Daejung and Roh, Muhyun.

Working Table of Contents posted on Nov. 27th 2008 . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Introduction
II. Overview: Faint Provincialism existed through history of Korea
-Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392)¡¯s policy(favors Gyeongsang-do, hostile to Jeolla-do)
-Chosun Dynasty necessarily influenced by the policy of Goryeo Dynasty
=>but not intense provincialism
III.) The reign of Park Chung Hee
III.1. Initially, provincialism rarely existed
Ex) 74% of JullaDo elected Park Jung Hee
III.2.) Policies of Park Chung Hee favoring Gyeongsang-do
III.2.1) Industrialization centered in Gyeongsang-do
III.2.2) Construction of the first highway of South Korea which goes through Gyeongsang-do
III.2.3) 1971: the election policy of Park Jung Hee
=>the relationship between Jeolla and Gyeongsang got worsen.
IV.) The period from 1980-2007
IV.1.) 1980: Gwangju Incident => a milestone which aggravates the already crooked relationship between Jeolla and Gyeongsang
IV.2.) Jun Doowhan & Roh, Taewoo also favor Gyeongsang and inherit the basic policy of Park, Jung Hee
IV.3.) 1992: Kim, Youngsam: First non-military administration, but also favors Gyeongsang
IV.4.) 1997: Kim, Daejoong: The first victory of Jeolla
IV.5.) 2002: Roh, Muhyeon: Another victory of Jeolla
=>still greatly influenced by Gyeongsang-do
V.) Recent provincialism (Election of 20007
V.1) Still shows intense provincialism
Ex)Candidates of Jeolla-do usually get over 90% of votes from Jeolla-do
V.2) Grand National Party, or Hannaradang, which has its base in Gyungsang-do, gets a majority of votes from Gyungsang-do and its candidate Lee, Myungbak won the election.
V.2.1.) The number of residents of Gyungsang-do is much bigger than that of residents of Jeolla-do.
V.2.2.) A number of residents of Gyungsang-do moved to Seoul=>influences the votes of Seoul.
VI.) Conclusion
VII.) Bibliography

Appendix 1 : Presidential Election Results by Province posted on Nov. 23rd 2008 . . . go to Teacher's comment

Presidential Election of 1971

Candidates / Province Park, Junghee Kim, Daejoong
Seoul 40.0 59.4
Gyunggi 48.9 49.5
Gangwon 59.8 38.8
Chung-Buk 57.3 40.7
Chung-Nam 53.5 44.4
Jeon-Buk 35.5 61.5
Jeon-Nam 34.4 62.8
Gyung-Buk 75.6 23.3
Gyung-Nam 66.9 32.1
Jeju 56.9 41.4
National 51.1 45.3

Presidential Election of 1987

Candidates / Province Roh, Taewoo Kim, Youngsam Kim, Daejoong Kim, Jongpil
Seoul 29.9 29.1 32.6 8.2
Gyunggi 41.0 28.1 22.1 8.7
Gangwon 49.3 26.1 8.8 5.4
Chung-Buk 46.9 28.2 11.0 13.5
Chung-Nam 26.2 16.1 12.4 45.0
Jeon-Buk 14.1 1.5 83.5 0.6
Jeon-Nam 7.3 1.0 91.3 0.3
Gyung-Buk 68.1 26.5 2.5 2.3
Gyung-Nam 36.6 53.7 6.9 2.6
Jeju 49.8 26.8 18.5 4.5
National 36.6 28.0 27.0 8.1

Presidential Election of 1992

Candidates / Province Kim, Youngsam Kim, Daejoong
Seoul 36.4 37.7
Gyunggi 36.4 37.7
Gangwon 36.6 31.9
Chung-Buk 38.3 26.0
Chung-Nam 36.3 28.6
Jeon-Buk 5.7 89.1
Jeon-Nam 3.5 93.4
Gyung-Buk 62.5 8.8
Gyung-Nam 72.8 10.9
Jeju 40.0 32.9
National 42.0 33.8

Presidential Election of 1997

Candidates / Province Kim, Daejoong Lee, Hoichang
Seoul 44.9 40.9
Gyunggi 38.9 35.9
Gangwon 23.8 43.2
Chung-Buk 37.4 30.8
Chung-Nam 46.7 26.4
Jeon-Buk 92.3 4.5
Jeon-Nam 96.0 2.4
Gyung-Buk 13.1 67.3
Gyung-Nam 13.9 53.3
Jeju 40.6 36.6
National 40.3 38.7

Presidential Election of 2002

Candidates / Province Lee, Hoichang Roh, Moohyun
Seoul 44.96 51.30
Gyunggi 44.19 50.65
Gangwon 52.48 41.51
Chung-Buk 42.89 50.42
Chung-Nam 41.23 52.16
Jeon-Buk 6.19 91.59
Jeon-Nam 4.63 93.39
Gyung-Buk 73.47 21.65
Gyung-Nam 67.52 27.08
Jeju 39.93 56.05
National 46.59 48.91