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The International Centre of Fascist Studies and Its Yearbook :
Survey of Fascism 1928
Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
Research Paper, December 2009
Table of Contents
II. The Purpose of Cinef and the Yearbook
III. The Executive Council of Cinef
IV. On Italian Fascism as Seen in the 1920s
IV.1 Problems in the Status Quo : 1920-1922
IV.2 The Rise of the Fascisti Movement
IV.3 Accession of Mussolini and Subsequent Changes
V. Why Fascism was Promoted as a Success by Cinef
VI. The Significance of the Year 1928
VII. Impact of Cinef
VII.1 Cinef Influence in Great Britain
VII.2 Cinef Influence in France
VII.3. Cinef Influence in Ireland
The word 'fascism' sounds several alarms, such as 'dictatorship', 'totalitarian'. In fact, in a world where democracy seems to be regarded as the
best form of government, Italian Fascism is discounted for its reliance on heavy propaganda and suppression of civil rights. On the other hand,
'socialism' is a smoke-signal word for 'Bolshevism' and 'communism', words that evoke images of an Orwellian dystopia for most parts of the
world. Post-WWI Italy was confronted with more than a thousand labor strikes every year, a failing economy spiraling into depression, and a
dysfunctional government that had no control over the rising working class. In more ways than one, the Fascisti movement may have seemed
appealing at the time to the Italian middle class.
In fact, before the stock market crash of 1929 and the rise of Nazi Germany, an institution named Cinef released in 1928 a Yearbook dedicated
to the study and understanding of Italian Fascism both as a political phenomenon and as a political model for other nations to follow. Looking
beyond hindsight of the fall of Italian Fascism, this study will examine post-war Italy from 1920 to 1928, see whether Italian Fascism was a
viable solution, and evaluate the significance of Cinef and its Yearbook published in 1928.
II. The Purpose of CINEF and the Yearbook
Cinef is the acronym for the International Centre of Fascist Studies, an institution organized in 1927 for the purpose of objectively researching
fascism and disseminating the acquired information to anyone interested in the topic. The objective of Cinef is stated in the preface of the
Yearbook by the President of the Executive Council of Cinef, H. de Vries de Heekelingen:
"Today we find ourselves in the presence of one of the most interesting social and political movements of the century, namely Fascism.
In order not to lose ourselves in this labyrinth [of data], a guide has indeed become indispensable; and the International Centre of Fascist
Studies (Cinef) has been founded for the purpose of providing this service to all honest searchers after the truth all the world over.
It is important to make it plain at the outset that the Cinef is in no sense an organ of propaganda. The international character of its Governing
Body and the very divergent political opinions of its members constitute a guarantee of rigourous impartiality.
The Institute proposes to publish, besides, a continuous ¡°Survey of Fascism¡± in the form of a Year Book, of which the present volume is
the first number. The contributors to the Year Books will be those persons indicated as pre-eminently entitled to speak with authority
upon the various subject treated."
However, as convincingly as the preface conveys Cinef council members¡¯ deep desire to give accurate and unadulterated information about
fascism, other sources discount the veracity of Cinef. One political science text says otherwise :
"In Europe during the early 1930s there were countless organizations established to study, encourage, and promote fascism. A major
group of this type was the Centre International d¡¯Etudes sur la Fascisme (Cinef) based in Lausanne, Switzerland. The official reason for
existence is fairly innocuous. Behind the veneer lay a far greater emphasis on the positive nature of fascism. The journal constantly
stressed the uniqueness of Italian Fascism as a way for other nations to solve their own problems."
Though Cinef has been criticized as an organ of propaganda, it is also important to acknowledge the fact that Italy, Ireland, Spain and other
European nations in the aftermath of World War I had experienced bouts of Socialist and Communist uprisings, and therefore Italian
Fascism may as well have been a model for other nations. Additionally, without the hindsight of the Great Depression and the rise of Nazi
Germany, after the Fascisti took power, Italy did indeed experience a rise in its national income as well as increased industrial production
levels. To better assess the purpose of Cinef, it is important to take a look at the members of Cinef, their personal backgrounds, and their
III. The Executive Council of CINEF
The International Centre of Fascist Studies fulfilled its goals and objectives by publishing a yearbook, holding council meetings, and also
by publishing journals with key articles that were gleaned to form the yearbook itself. Not only that, Cinef formed an international governing
body with members of all European nationalities, with former ministers and notable professors of the academia. The Cinef also held
meetings in Lausanne, Switzerland. Finally, the organization¡¯s very first yearbook was published in New York and translated into English
so as to make it available to even the democratic states such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. What Cinef could
not do as an academic body, the powerful executive members could enforce through their political maneuverings and high influence over
the interested public.
In particular, the governing body of Cinef was comprised of significant individuals including former cabinet members, politicians, and
politicians who were renowned in their fields. H. de Vries de Heekelingen was the President of the Executive Council, and the former
professor at the University of Nijmegen; Giovanni Gentile was formerly Italy's Minister of Education under Mussolini, a member of the
Italian Senate, professor at the University of Rome and a member of the Grand Fascist Council; Edmund Gardner was a professor at
the University of London; Walter Starkie was a Professor at Trinity College, Dublin; Lord Sydenham was from London; Count Paul
Teleki was the former Minister of Foreign Affairs, as well as the professor at the University of Budapest; J.S. Barnes, the key translator
for non-English writers, was the Secretary-General of Cinef and well-known among the far-right in Great Britain.
Some of the above members had notable personal backgrounds as well as policies they implemented. The Secretary-General of Cinef,
J. S. Barnes seems to have been a committed follower of the Fascisti :
"Barnes was an Anglo-Indian who had been brought up in Italy by his grandparents. He would soon become infatuated with
fascism, becoming a member of the Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF) and a friend of Mussolini."
According to British Fascism 1918-1939: Parties, Ideology, and Culture, Barnes was a right-wing Catholic who believed that the
modern era needed to return to the philosophical values of the Catholic Middle Ages, a "spiritual, dualistic, and transcendental outlook on life"
that had been all but destroyed by the Renaissance and the modern secular age of liberalism. For Barnes, Fascism was "a definite
revolt against materialism, that is, against all forms of interpreting the universe from a purely naturalistic or purely individualistic standpoint."
J. S. Barnes was surprisingly a great admirer of the Jews, and considered the 'anti-semite' to be a 'fool.'
Though a syndicate of Fascism, he nevertheless supported it for its anti-material and anti-liberal characters, two considerable aspects
for any form of government.
Another important member on the executive council was Signor Gentile, the former Minister of Public Instruction under
Mussolini's cabinet in 1923. As minister, Gentile had instituted radical educational reforms: 1) suppressing superfluous schools,
2) mandating compulsory religious education, with the crucifix to be displayed in all schools, 3) limiting the number of students
who could receive free education at the expense of the state (only those students who had shown through competitive
examinations that they were worth educating could obtain free education), 4) restorating the study of Latin in all the schools
that prepared for the universities, and 5) requiring that students in order to continue their studies must pass all the examinations
of the preceding year.
Other members of Cinef such as Walter Starkie, Edmundo Rossini, Lord Sydenham of Combe of the Britons, and
Professor Edmund Gardner were also not objective scholars of fascism, but political advocates devoted to spreading its
cause in Great Britain.
IV. On Italian Fascism as Seen in the 1920s
IV.1 Problems in the Status Quo : 1920-1922
The economy was at a virtual standstill. In 1919-1920, factories were severely hampered in the matter of production on account of the
constant shortage of raw materials (steel and coal) and repeated labor troubles, resulting in long-drawn-out strikes and enforced periods
of idleness. Rehabilitaiton was slow and the government had a deficit of about 14 billion lire.
The government was nearly dysfunctional. After railway and postal strikes paralyzed the industry during January 1920, and the discontent
of the working classes, Prime Minister Nitti was forced to re-organize his cabinet in March, but in the end, the government could not stand
in the face of the Socialist opposition and resigned. A new ministry was formed under the former Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti, with
the cabinet including Liberal, Catholic, Radical, and Socialist members.
Thirdly, there was an agrarian revolution combined with Socialist efforts to take over the government. Seizure of landed estates by the
peasants developed into a systematic movement and new local authorities supplanted the central government. The Socialists had taken
advantage of this and urged the peasant to assume ownership of the land. The center of the new movement was Bologna. The adherents
flew the red flag with the inscription "Requisitioned by such and such a Cooperative." These acts were ratified in many instances
by the Socialist authorities. The individual right to property in the province had ceased to exist. It was a system of collective purchase
and collective farming. The unions fought against any attempt to build up private property in land.
The government had lost control over the proletariat labor class, and therefore had lost control over the industries as well. By September
1920, a large number of factories esp. in the metal-working region were in the hands of the workingmen and on many of them red flags
were flying. The General Confederation of Labor as represented by the Commission of Workers drew up a program containing provisions
guaranteeing more labor rights such as increased wages, reduced working hours, and recognition of labor unions. In industry the mass
of the workingmen were gaining the upper hand. There was a considerable Communist element in the Italian labor movement. Italian
Socialists threatened to turn it into a social revolution after the model of Russia, and there were many radical sympathizers with the
government of Lenin.
In 1921, the economic situation, much like that of the previous year, was deplorable, with the number of unemployed by the
end of the year being 512,000, affected by mostly the metal-working, textile, and building industries. Not to mention, the
inopportune drought of 1921 meant the lack of sufficient water supply to continue industrial plants at a full running capacity.
This reduced the number of working hours considerably in certain industries .
The government once again underwent a change in the ministry. Prime Minister was Giovanni Giolitti. However, the parliament was
once again dissolved for new elections. A new government was formed under Prime Minister Bonomi. The government, time after
time, proved itself unable to win a vote of confidence, therefore showing itself to be a weak institution without control over the national
civil war between the Socialists and the Fascisti.
In 1922, once again economic development was stymied by the industrial crisis caused by lack of resources and lack of government
control over the strikers. While the World War had greatly stimulated the extraction of certain metals such as iron ore and copper,
the industrial crisis made it impossible to keep production up to the high level that it had reached during the war, or even up to the
prewar levels. In 1913, Italy produced 603,116 metric tons of iron ore; in 1918, 694,677; finally, in 1921 it produced a mere 279,980
metric tons. Similarly for copper, it produced 89,487 metric tons in 1913; 82,302 in 1918; and only 22,700 in 1921.
The number of strikes in Italy registered by the Director General of Works in 1921, was 1045, and the workmen who participated
numbered 644,564, while the aggregate time lost was equivalent to 7,772,820 days. Compared with the average for the 10-year
pre-war period from 1905 to 1914, the 1921 statistics showed an increase of 152 strikes and 428,559 strikers. The strikes were
directly due to the industrial crisis. In the first 6 months of the year there were 392 strikes occasioned by laborers' desire for increased
wages or indemnity for the high cost of living. The estimated deficit for 1922-1923 of 2.8 billion lire was afterwards increased to
5 billion lire, and the estimate for 1921-1922 of 4.9 billion lire was increased to 6.5 billion.
IV.2 The Rise of the Fascisti Movement
During 1920, as an offset to the Red movements, the Fascisti organization grew in power. It had no definite programme but had a
strong national spirit. The Fascisti directed their efforts to counteracting the extreme Communists and Socialists. The central government
(Bonomi) was regarded almost criminally negligent, so the Fascisti organized a repressive movement in the northern provinces against
the radicals. Bands of young men called 'Blackshirts' seized Socialist headquarters. By May 1920 the Fascisti had organizations in all
the towns of northern and central Italy.
There was another severe conflict in Rome on July 26th. Early in November, there was a strike on the railways which resulted in
disturbances in Rome. The strike was followed by a declaration of a general strike, and the city for a time was without newspapers,
the employees in the newspaper offices having joined the stikers. The movement was largely directed against the Fascisti, the
trades unions declaring their intention to continue the strike until all the members of the Fascisti had left the capital.
In general the Communists appeared to be losing ground. Their attempt to develop a military organization which would offset the
Fascisti proved unsuccessful. Also, one of the members of the Fascisti issued a statement in which he sought to explain their
programme and prevenet misunderstandings. Meanwhile the Communist movement was offset by the unwillingness of the moderate
Socialists. On August 20, the Communists called for a general strike, but this was opposed by the Labor Confederation which
formerly had been on the side of the radical element.
Throughout the year there was a state bordering on anarchy, as the government was unable to enforce its authority over either the
Communists or the Fascisti, who waged war on one another. As time went on, the lawlessness of the Communists sank into
comparatively insignificance beside the growing power of the Fascisti, who became the chief political force in the Italian state.
After World War I, Italy seemed to be on the borderline of a Socialist takeover. However, the Giolitti government seemed unable to
cope with the situation and it tolerated disorders in order not to provoke a conflict. Since the government could not deal with the
radicals, the Fascisti, a loose body aiming to suppress violence by violence and opposing to the extremes of Socialism, rose in power.
The acts of violence on the part of the Fascisti became more frequent and their power during the summer and autumn of 1922 rapidly
increased. In August 1922, 12,000 workmen of the port of Genoa, under the control of the Fascisti drove out the Socialist officials
there. In August 21, the Italian railway men abandoned their alliance with labor and Socialism in favor of affiliation with the Fascisti.
These movements were furthered by the policy of the leader of the Fascisti, Signor Mussolini, who promosed a complete change of
the organization's attitude toward the Labor confederation if it would abolish the Socialist party.
The Fascisti gained public support precisely because it had usurped the powerless government and had acted in its place. Large
contributions were received from the industries, and gradually the peasants came in large numbers to the side of the Fascisti. The
Fascisti were successful in abolishing lockouts as well as strikes, and the forced the landed proprietors to bring uncultivated estates
under cultivation, and gave employment to labor. They also took over the running of factories and estates, giving their owners a
share of their profits. They also did find the need to reestablish labor unions, but under the condition that it should be forbidden to
strike or to carry out the policy of direct action. The ultimate aim of the Fascisti was to take possession of the government. Their
leader, Mussolini, declared at Milan, October 5, that there were two governments in Italy, a fictitious one led by Facta, and a
real one run by the Fascisti. Meanwhile the Fascisti was made into an efficient military organization.
IV.3 Accession of Mussolini ans Subsequent Changes
The congress of the Fascisti at Naples on October 24 made it clear that they were planning to take control. It demanded that the
king should invite Mussolini to form a government. There was a panic in the cabinet and the entire ministry resigned, but the king
invited Mussolini to Rome. Mussolini arrived at Rome in October 30 and received an enthusiastic welcome from the crowd.
Mussolini had 500,000 Black Shirts ready to fight on his behalf. There was no need for even a parliamentary majority, as a
single master presented a program that he intended to execute.
The Fascisti state was conciliatory in the beginning, and surprised many with the moderation of its policy. The new prime minister
promised to put an end to the conditions of terrorism, to insure respect for the laws and constitution, attempted to group the
various trade union organizations in a confederation with a view to promoting harmony and even granted general amnesty for all.
He rather seemed to be promoting a strong, liberal government.
However, Mussolini changed his policy to become more extremist as the extremists in the party attacked the policy of compromise.
He feared an anti-Fascisti opposition. A minoirty seemed ready to unite with the Communists, and the majority seemed inclined
toward trade unionism under D'Annunzio. Not to mention, there was political division among the Fascisti themselves and the great
industrial leaders who had supported Fascism feared the massing of powerful trade unions, as it would impede the financial
measures promised by Mussolini, which was to take the lowest possible direct taxes and the highest possible indirect taxes, which
would involve lower wages and longer hours.
Mussolini then demanded full powers from Parliament, in order to suppress the secret intrigues of the opponents of the Fascisti state.
This was seen as the Second Revolution, after the March on Rome (the first revolution). On December 16, a great council of
Fascisti met under the presidency of Mussolini, and taking the place of the regular government, decided on a course that increased
the dictatorial power of the Fascisti rulers in Italy. It decided to suppress all armed organizations, whether Fascisti, Nationalists, or
followers of D'Annunzio, but at the same time to build a national militia of 80,000 men to consist exclusively of Fascisti and to be
under the orders of the president of the council, namely Mussolini. Trade unions inclined favorably to Fascisti broke off all their
negotiations with other trade unions and became and independent part of the Fascisti organization. Not only that, the official organ
of the Fascisti, the Popolo d'Italia, openly demanded the suppression of freedom of the press and called for the death penalty for
those opponents of Fascism, who had been spared after the revolution of October 27. Many opponents at the end of the year were
leaving Italy by 1922.
While the anti-democratic movement of Bolshevism was opposed by all the governments in Europe, Fascism on the other hand
was viewed favorably as a counteractive force against Socialism.
V. Why Fascism was Promoted as a Success by CINEF
There are three primary reasons as to why Italian Fascism was seen as a relative success by Cinef: 1) values promoted,
2) relatively peaceful transition, 3) huge empirical success in Italy as seen in the economic development and political
stability attained since Mussolini's rule in 1922. The values of Fascism were seen as principles that went directly against
individualism and Humanism, the latter two being ideologies that went on to create the "present menace of a dictatorship
of the proletariat." In fact, Cinef celebrated Fascism as a principle based upon "eternal" values very different
from those proclaimed as "eternal" in 1789 (French Revolution ideals of Equality, Liberty, and Fraternity), and also
reveled that the old principle looked to the definite closing of the individualistic era.
Secondly, Italian Fascism was seen by Cinef as a relatively peaceful revolution. The Yearbook admitted that "Fascism
established itself in Italy as the result of a violent revolution, provoked by the threat of Communism. For a considerable time
the country was virtually in a state of civil war." At the same time, the Yearbook takes note of the fact that the revolution
of 1789 in France or that of 1917 in Russia were far more violent than the Italian Revolution, despite the fact that all three
reforms brought about equally great changes onto the lives of its citizens.
Perhaps most importantly, Fascism in Italy brought significant benefits to the state in terms of economic development and political
stability. Only two years after Mussolini's rule, the unemployment rate in Italy decreased by half to a total of 119,000 unemployed
in September 30, 1924, as compared to 473,000 in September 1924. According to the United States Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce, with few exceptions the principal industires of Italy prospered and developed. The metallurgical industry
recovered largely from its depression, and the textile industry production actually surpassed that of England's.
On the other hand, Cinef neglected to address the infamous Matteotti Murder of June 1924, in which the young Socialist
deputy Matteotti was seized by five assailants related to Mussolini's party and was killed after struggle. Additionally,
the extreme element of the Fascisti favored a rigid control of the press, severe penalties for the circulation of false news
pertaining to civil disorder, and government intervention in all labor contracts and sentencing the death penalty for persons
seeking to betray the nation.
However, Cinef had a firm stance on the issue of "individual rights and liberty." In an article titled "The Liberty
of the Press", Cinef member Ermanno Amicucci quoted Fascist Italian Senator Tanari from a debate on the fascist
press limitation law: "The idea of liberty is in itself an abstract one. Political liberty falls into two subdivisions : there
are the liberties of the private citizen on the one hand, and on the other, the corresponding and even more justifiable
liberties of the State, the authority of which, at a given historical moment, is acknowledged by the vast majority of citizens."
In short, Cinef felt no moral qualms about downgrading "democracy" or "individual rights" as these words held no real
benefits for the people, who would only abuse their conferred rights to make matters difficult for the government. The
dangerous strikes of the proletariat and Socialist tendencies had in fact, sprung from the working class' insistence on more
worker rights at the expense of the nation.
VI. The Significance of the Year 1928
A large part of the initial success Cinef had can be attributed to the year in which it was published: 1928. The world lacked
hindsight of the events that happened afterwards, and therefore people¡¯s judgments about fascism were not shadowed with
any biases regarding anti-Semitism or totalitarian military states, which the Italian government grew to become. The year right
after 1928 is when Italy¡¯s economic success under fascism began flailing. With the onset of the stock market crash in 1929,
the Great Depression wrought discontent among civilians. Forceful and more hard-line government later came into power in Germany
with Adolf Hitler, and he adopted and reinforced Mussolini¡¯s fascism and nationalist policies to invade neighboring Poland and other countries.
Soon after the events of 1929, Italian Fascism became associated with extreme racism, concentration camps, totalitarian regimes;
the political branch was degraded and no longer became publicly acceptable, especially in established democratic countries
such as France and Great Britain. Therefore, when reading about Cinef and evaluating the group¡¯s actions, one must also be
careful to make judgments without hindsight.
VII. Impact of CINEF
VII.1 CINEF Influence in Great Britain
Cinef is now a defunct organization that is no longer in existence, but during its active days in the 1920s, it was able to impact
British fascism in several ways. By publishing its activities it provided an important source of propaganda for the far-rightists
of Britain who had wanted to learn about fascism from a solid theoretical and intellectual point of view. The intellectual body
comprising Cinef gave the entity much credibility. Also, Cinef went on to influence other pro-fascist bodies, such as the
Liberty League of Great Britain, organized by former-Cinef member Lord Sydenham of Combe, a former Governor of
Victoria, Australia, and Madras, and a prominent anti-semite. Other than the Liberty League, various small fascist
organizations such as the Imperial Fascist League, National Political League, and the National Propaganda Movement Central
were all influenced by the works published by Cinef.
VII.2. CINEF Influence in France
As expected, from the introduction paragraph of the Yearbook¡¯s chapter on France (¡°The Fascist Idea in France¡±) Cinef
condemns the revolutions of 1789 and 1848 as volcanic eruptions that served to throw up lava that buried the ¡°truth¡±.
About the political circumstances in France, 1928, Cinef acknowledges that there is no ¡°fascist party or movement¡± in the
sense that there is no such organized force in France disciplined under a commanding fascist leader. However, the Yearbook
states that there is great support for a State that is capable of coordination and protection of national activities. Cinef states
that the parliament, the distorted elections, and groups such as the Freemasons and the Socialists are hindering the State from
doing its necessary job. At the same time the French people are deemed to be too fond of individualism, and are for a more
fascist movement in mind only, but not willing enough to carry these desires out in action.
Instead of exhorting all of the French to carry out fascist principles, or make it seem as though they are doing so, Cinef
attempts to promote a few select groups of Fascists. They include the Action Francaise and the Jeunesses Patriotes.
Though the Yearbook is still generally considered propaganda material, Cinef intellectuals still discern between fascist
groups on the right path, and those who stray from the way they believe fascism should be promoted. Cinef actually does
not fully promote the Action Francaise, deeming it too out of touch with the people, and too tightly closeted and made
accessible only to an intellectual elite. As for the Jeunesses Patriotes, Cinef declares it united by "ardent patriotism, an
unfailing devotion to the cause of order, to the principles of authority, family, and religion." Coincidentally, Jeunesses
Patriotes was trained for action against Communists in France. Cinef was able to present through the Yearbook its own
opinions about various fascist movements in France.
VII.3. CINEF Influence in Ireland
The title of Cinef¡¯s article on Ireland is not necessarily about a fascist movement in the country, but rather, whether
there exists such a movement or not. "Whither is Ireland Heading ? It is Fascism? Thoughts on the Irish Free State",
written by Walter Starkie is an individual¡¯s take on five years (1923-1928) in Ireland and how the political situation
has developed from a state of constant warfare into an attempt to build a stronger, more disciplined government.
However, the article lacks credibility by basing some of the opinions about the Irish with a few select personalities,
such as that of George Bernard Shaw¡¯s. At the same time, Starkie makes up for his sentimental and questionable
views by noting societal developments such as the extreme regionalism in Ireland the trend of government-sponsored
industrialism in the country.
Interestingly, Cinef takes the fascism movement and its beginnings in Italy and compares it the then-current political
situation in Ireland. For example, Cinef notes with how the change in the Irish national education curriculum is similar
to the change in Italy, which was headed by Signor Gentile when he was the Minister of Education in Mussolini¡¯s cabinet.
"The programme for the primary schools has been changed so as to make is more simple and national. And, just
as Professor Gentile in his reform took into consideration the regional nature of Italy, so too in Ireland attention has
been given, in selecting programmes, to the needs of each locality." Also, Cinef notes how their fascist regime
rose from the social crisis after the World War. Then the articles states that the first task that Ireland as a new state
had was financial reconstruction after their civil war. "We might date the beginning of new Ireland from September
10th, 1923, when her representatives were welcomed at Geneva in the League of Nations. The first task was a
financial one; it was necessary to save the country from complete bankruptcy after the disastrous war." For both
Italy and Ireland, war had brought more losses than victories, and for both, had brought upon the State the responsibility
The government in Ireland had from 1923 and onward, reduced the powers of the parliament, eliminated many offices
such as that of the Lord Chancellor, reduced the number of High Court judges, and became unpopular because of its
totalitarian tendencies. However, by the end of the article, Cinef deems that it is still too early to see whether the State
of Ireland is veering towards Fascism or not.
In 1928, only six years after the Fascisti took over the Italian Parliament, former ministers, university professors, and those with
specialized knowledge on fascism published a yearbook titled Survey of Fascism: Vol I. The International Centre of Fascist Studies
(Cinef), from its headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland, proposed Fascism as a political model for other states under the threat of
Socialism to follow. Having examining only the events from 1920 to 1928 for a more objective historical perspective, Fascism in
Italy did bring about stability and economic development. Nevertheless, because members of Cinef were proponents of fascism,
the Yearbook is not objective as it should be and is disproportionately favorable towards Fascism. Despite the biases presented,
Cinef played a role in gathering extreme-rightists from Great Britain, promoted nascent fascist movements in France, and juxtaposed
Italian Fascism, a perfect case model, to the political circumstances of another post-war, hard-line State country, Ireland.
The Yearbook was short-lived and only published in 1928. Meanwhile, the timeliness of the publication date is remarkable:
just a year before the stock market crash, and long before anti-Semitism came into play. Also, the relative objectiveness
that only an intellectual group with a non-militant approach could portray, all make Cinef a notable group that could have
had more influence over the world had it not been discontinued.
Note : websites quoted below were visited in June 2009.
Primary Sources :
1. CINEF, A Survey of Fascism, The Year Book of the International Centre of Fascist Studies,
Volume I, 1928. Ernest Benn Limited. Hazell, Watson & Viney Ld. London and Aylesbury.
2. The New International Year Book, Dodd, Mead & Co. New York.
Volumes 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928
Secondary Sources :
3. Griffin, Roger. Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science, p.225
4. Linehan, Thomas. British Fascism 1918-39: Parties, Ideology and Culture.
Studies in Modern History, p.46, p.74, pp.128-130, p.194
5. International Historical Statistics: Europe 1750-1988. p.160, p.842, p.849, p.895
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