The History of Confucian Education in China and Korea

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

Dedember 7th 2009
November 25th 2008
September 27th 2008
September 26th 2008
September 19th 2008
September 17th 2008
September 9th 2008
September 9th 2008

September 27th 2008 Go to KYK's Log

If you send me your entire file with one chapter added to it in the center, you make it difficult for me to find the change.
I have posted chapter 12.3, assuming this was the only change you applied.
You again write Chosun instead of Joseon.
Keep in mind, you still have to convert every Korean / Chinesew language phrase into an image (paintbrush, gif files please) simply numbering them image1.gif, image2.gif from the beginning. Even if one textstring appears repeatedly, always create a new file for it. Otherwise posting for me will be a nightmare.

November 25th 2008

Got a book for you :
W. Ayers, Chang Chih-tung and Educational Reform in China, Cambridge MA : Harvard UP 1971 [G]
If you search Internet Archive for Education China, you actually find a primary source in English Chang, Chih-tung, China's only hope (1901), online
Also W.A.P. Parsons, The Chinese: their education, philosophy, and letters (1881)

September 27th 2008 Go to KYK's Log

(1) many corrections implemented; considerable improvement.
(2) The Confucian education in Korea can be traced back to the time of Goryeo Dynasty, which lasted from 10th century to 14th century.
give precise data instead of centuries
(3) Taizu of Goryeo emphasized King Taizu of Goryeo (years)
(4) I assume, Guozijian also was located in Kaesong.
(5) Lee Sunggye dates
(6) Joseon also denied the social status of monks. In Goryeo, Monks were regarded equally as nobility. Monks were exempted from military service, drafted labor and taxation. Since there was a large incentive of becoming a monk, a large portion of Goryeo population became monk, weakening the national defenses and economy. To prevent such phenomenon, Joseon decided to deny the monks¡¯ status. Instead, Joseon exempted Confucian scholars from military service and drafted labor.
I do not quite understand : were, following the reforms, Buddhist monks in Joseon drafted for military service and forced labour ?
(7) provincial government or enter a Sungkyunkwan, the central university
When you write "a Sungkyunkwan", you state that there were than one institution of that kind. If this is not the case, skip "a"
(8) Lee Yulgok data
(9) Lee Hwang data
(10) Trade with Qing introduced Christianity and western science in Korea.
You might want to explain the nature of that trade, because it was not conducted by merchants. Other books emphasize that there was no trade. Also, that trade rather accidentally resulted in the introduction of Christianith in Korea.
(11) Because of the nationwide persecution, the Jesuits refrained from sending priests in Korea, impeding the introduction of western science and education in Korea. What about the French priests executed in Korea ? Korean Catholics might be outraged if you deny their existence.
(12) Heungseon Daewongun (1820-1898) . give also data of his rule.
(13) ... Korean government followed the policy of isolation, prohibiting any westerners on Korean soil. The only way for the prominent students to be educated in western way was to study abroad. The students, like Chinese students, also went to Japan, U.S and Europe dreaming of modernized Korea
Hee you confuse two phases : the isolation phase under aewongun, and the post-isolation phase. Give me the name of one Korean student who, while the Daewongun was still in power, went to the U.S. or Europe to study.
(14) Rhee Syngman, => Syngman Rhee
(15) , Japanese forced a pro-Japanese cabinet, Japan successfully pushed the Korean king for the appointment of a pro-Japanese cabinet
(16) Pro-Japanese cabinet first abolished Civil Service Examination year
(17) Nevertheless the new cabinet did not last long. 1895-1904 ?
(18) . In this treaty, Japan allowed America to colonize Philippines. How generous. the U.S. had taken possession of the Philippines in 1898. Japan recognized U.S. possession of the Philippines. In return, America allowed Japan to rule Korea. In return, the U.S. recognized Korea to be Japanese sphere of interest.
(19) In 1905, Japanese forced Gojong King Gojong
(20) Bosung Professional School which is today¡¯s Korea University, Whimoon School, Guanlip School which is today¡¯s Kyunggi high School, Myungsin Girl¡¯s school which is today¡¯s SookMyung Girl¡¯s high school, Daesung School year of opening, location
(21) General question : how were state officials in "Buddhist Goryeo" recruited ?

September 26th 2008 Go to KYK's Log

(1) revised table of contents okay
(2) Goryeo, Chosun, Korean names in general : use transcription used by Wikipedia (Joseon in place of Chosun etc.); there are other KMLA research papers on Joseon. Within WHKMLA I want a standardized spelling system to be used
(3) Before Gwangjong, give years of life/reign (also for other persons you mention)
(4) Second test was held in Guozijian, location ?
(5) Chosun Dynasty, in contrast to Goryeo Dynasty which was a Buddhist state, was a Confucian state. One of its main goals was to promote Confucianism and prohibit Buddhism.
Sorry, no. Buddhist monasteries continued to exist near Mt. Kumgang. Rephrase
(6) These parties favored selecting candidates from same Seowon, which also meant corruption in Civil Service Examination. Since exams were coordinated and graded by the bureaucrats, the exams easily corrupted.
Perhaps you explain who scored the exams; then your point of corruption may become more transparent and convincing.
(7) 1308, Guozijian transformed into Sungkyunkwan as it remains until today. That is Sungjyunkwan in Kaesong, not in Seoul ! I taught at Sungkyunkwan University before I came Here.
(8) In 1653, Hendrick Hamel arrived in Korea. Hendrik Hamel
(9) One of the ambassadors to Qing named Lee Seunghun even got baptized as Peter. date
(10) After his return to Korea, Christianity widely spread in Korea, carrying out weekly mass without any missionary. Read accounts on the history of Catholicism in Korea. They were soon prosecuted and ent into hiding
(11) With the legalization of Christianity that followed Heungseon Daewongun's abdication, date
(12) Lee Seungman, the first president of Republic of Korea, also attended Baejae Hakdang. Lee, however, was arrested in 1897 for anti-Japanese monarchy demonstration. He could not finish the curriculum in Baejae Hakdang. Instead of returning to Baejae, Lee went to America to study abroad and stayed in the U.S until Korean independence in 1945.
a. Syngman Rhee. b he left for the states in 1904, returned to Korea in 1910, left for the US again in 1919. See Wikipedia article As he wrote his name as Syngman Rhee, we have to follow that spelling.
(13) As Japanese defeated Qing in 1895, Japanese built a pro-Japanese cabinet in Korea as a result of this reform. This reform is Gap-O reform. Pro-Japanese cabinet first abolished Civil Service Examination and the class system that was reintroduced after Gap-sin coup failed. They also had social, political reforms, such as prohibiting early marriage, allowing widows to remarry.
You basically state that Korea did not lose her independence in 1904/05, but already in 1895. Better : A pro-Japanese government was formed in Korea, ...
(14) Kim Hong-jib, the leader of all these reforms, was forced to abdicate, and was killed by angry mobs in front of Royal palace
killed by an angry mob. Mob has no plural.
(15) Russians, however, were forced to leave after Japanese won Russo-Japanese war in early 20th century,
If you know precise dates, why do you use inspecific rough dates ? 1904/05,
(16) First, they stole the diplomatic rights of the Korean government. language. The rest of the world assumes that a naive Korean government requested Japanese protection. If you don't see it that way, convince, instead of insulting the Japanese.
Note (2) : There is a record of Civil Service examination in Shilla.
(a) when ? (b) don't just explain, give a reference - where did you find that piece of information ?
Note (3) : Instead of giving such a detailed explanation, you could have given a reference.

September 19th 2008 Go to KYK's Log

You have added chapters on the Qing Dynasty and on Korea.
(1) May I suggest that you break up the Korea chapter into sub-chapters; otherwise you are disappointingly summaric, and you will have an analysis based on an imbalanced comparison.
(2) You have corrected a few matters which I criticized in my comment to your first draft, but you left other parts of your 1st draft which I asked you to correct unaltered. Keep in mind, you still have to standardize spelling.
(3) Neither Jan Jansz Weltevree was the first westerner in Korea nor Hamel the first westerner to write about Korea; that honour falls to Father Gregorio de Cespedes, a Portuguese priest who accompanied the invading Japanese army in the 1590es.
I have completed your Tabkle of Contents according to the sub-chapters you included in the text and to the chapters you added.

(4) From now on, work on one chapter at a time and try to come up with a presentable version. To post complete drafts is a lot of work, takes a lot of space, and the danger to overlook a mistake (on my side) is relatively great.
(5) You might start putting together a glossary (image file) Term in Latin spelling, in Hanja (Traditional Chinese), in Modernized Chinese, in Hangul, explanation in English. As gif file; use paintbrush.
(6) Similarly bibliography as a gif file. Don't worry, the addition of titles / entries is easy, copy & paste.

September 17th 2008

Travelled to Kangneung yesterday, visited Ojukheon. There a signboard stated that Yulgok Yi Yi took the state examination 9 years in a row and took first place in it 9 years in a row. Now if you pass once, you are state official. Why would anyone want to take that test again ? Driving through the countryside I found a roadsign leading to a Sowon. It turned out to be a remorely located small place, the signboard explained that it provided room for 36 students. How do these Sowons fit into the system ?

September 9th 2008 Go to KYK's Log

(1) In table of contents : 5. The Sui Dynasty; atop chapter 5 : V. Sui. Standardize.
subchapters not listed in Table of Contents. List them.
Compile a Working Table of Contents for the Research Paper (with Qing, Korea).

(2) II.2 Taoism, Daodejing, Dao I assime Taoism can also be spelled Daoism; standardize
(3) Zhang'an, Chang'an standardize
(4) Xingxueyundong, Xinxue Yundong standardize
If you are not sure how, look up respective article in English edition of the Wikipedia

(5) Create reference list as gif file; here I omitted bibliography because of Chinese characters

(6) Confucianism, since 500 BC, served as a principle philosophy in North East Asia in terms of culture.
Confucianism emerged in c.500 B.C. to become the principle philosophy in East Asia
(7) Confucianism was established by Confucius (551 BC ~ 479 BC) who is from nowadays Shandong province
.. who is from Qufu in modern Shandong province
(8) At two spots in the text, there is a gap in the narration as I could not turn a Chinese character phrase into html.

(9) "Record of Three Kingdoms", could this be the Romance of the Three Kingdoms ?

More comments to come. Ganse

September 9th 2008

reference to your term paper

(1) Before the Han Dynasty
(2) Confucianism, since 500 BC, served as a principle belief for China, Korea and Japan. belief = religion. Better : philosophy or value system. Since 500 BC in Korea ? How do you define Confucianism ? Japan never introduced Confucian state examinations; Vietnam (Tongking) did.
(3) Confucianism not only controlled political systems, but also taught officials and students
Confucianism is an ideology and can not control or teach anything. Confucianism, over extended periods of time, was state philosophy; students and officials studied and were tested on Confucian classic texts and values.
(4) Strangely he served in Qin court, not in his own court
This implies that he was king of country A but served as a minister or so in Qin. better "he did not serve at the court of his native country .."
(5) that everyone would subjugate under a powerful monarch
Genghis Khan subjugated many peoples; the peoples submitted to him.
(6) Although legalism might seem practical, bringing real unification under Qin Dynasty ..
Sorry, no philosophy could have caused the unification of China, the armies of Qin did. Better : providing legitimacy to the unification by conquest of China under the Qin Dynasty ..
(7) Legalism was too oppressive ..,
Can a philosophy be oppressive ? Perhaps Legalism failed to balance the power/authority of the monarch by justice toward those he ruled.
(8) Chinese poetries : poetry doesn't have a plural. Either Chinese poetry or Chinese poems.
(9) Taixue, Guozisi, Guozijian, Guozixue - help. If I am correct, 'guo' means 'state'. You can use these terms, but try to explain them better. (10) Seen from China, Korea and Vietnam are not overseas.
(11) Tang also established academies all around the country. Shuyuan was first introduced during Tang in 725.
First I assume that the Tang Dynasty left the capital at Zhang'an. So far the history of educational institutions you narrate is focussed on the administrative capitals. Here you emphasize academies elsewhere, but you don't tell your reader where Shuyuan was located.
(12) Ryuku => Ryukyu
(13) Those from the same academy tended to dominate the seat ..

confusing. Better : The graduates from a particular academy would form a faction at court ...
We have to work on your sensitivity in the choice of verbage.

Historical Matters :
(14) Terms in Chinese History : Hundred Schools of Thought; Warring Era
Read an English text on the history of China in that period and use terms English readers are familiar with instead of coming up with your own translation. Use consistent capitalization of names.
(15) A historical question : When did Emperor Wu rule ? Perhaps when you introduce a name, add the years of his rule in brackets
(16) Manchu was by then under the rule of Goguryeo, one of the states of Korea
As I understand, the Manchu state was established only around 1600; so be careful when you use the term for a period prior to that. 'What presently is referred to as Manchuria' would be okay.
While I do know that the Korean media and Korean historians claim Goguryeo to be a Korean state (and thus imply it not to have been a Chinese one), a statement like this without support, written to an international readership is not advisable. Either skip 'one of the states of Korea' or add a footnote in which you refer to a publication which discusses the matter in detail. In case you do so, you are no longer obliged to argue your point.

For every person you introduce, give life data (precise or, if not available, approximate).
This paper calls out for a glossary, which you write as an image file (gif-format).

I have learned a lot from your paper; Confucian state examinations are not as simple as most Westerners tend to believe.
In order to turn this into a research paper, we should (a) extend the time period until the abolition of Confucian state examinations and (b) add a section on the history of Confucian edication in Korea.
It seems to me that for you the difficulty is not to obtain the information required, but to communicate it in English in a way which avoids confusion and provides the reader with a maximum of information; you should benefit more from a research paper as many of your schoolmates, as you need to improve on this weakness of yours if you want to succeed in an English-speaking academic environment.