Public Perception of Nuclear Physics from Marie Curie to Hiroshima (NYT)

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

Appendix : New York Times Articles on Otto Hahn
Appendix : New York Times Articles on Nuclear Fission
Appendix : New York Times Articles on Niels Bohr
Appendix : New York Times Articles on Werner Heisenberg
Appendix : New York Times Articles on Albert Einstein & Atom
Appendix : New York Times Articles on Atomic Bomb

Appendix 1 : New York Times Articles on Otto Hahn (as of Feb. 6th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

List of relevant NYT Articles

Vast Energy Freed by Uranium Atom ; Split, It Produces 2 'Cannonballs,' Each of 100,000,000 Electron Volts Hailed as Epoch Making, New Process, Announced at Columbia, Uses Only 1-30 Volt to Liberate Big Force January 31, 1939
Vast Power Source in Atomic Energy Opened by Science; Report on New Source of Power May 5, 1940
Reich Exile Emerges as Heroine In Denial to Nazis of Atom's Secret; Nazi Exile Heroine in Drama of Atoms Life's Work Interrupted Test Repeated at Columbia Derived From Pitchblende August 7, 1945
Bomb is Surprise to Woman Pioneer; Dr. Meitner Says Hitler Tried to Force Her to Stay in Reich to Continue Atom Research August 8, 1945
The Story Behind the Atomic Bomb. Vast Enterprise of Governments Found The Great Secret August 12, 1945
Comments : Nothing about Otto Hahn on 22 December, 1938; 10 January, 1939, when he wrote a paper on the nuclear fission.
after the last article, there were a lot of articles

Appendix 2 : New York Times Articles on Nuclear Fission (as of Feb. 6th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

List of relevant NYT Articles

Nuclear Physics Studied at Smith; Dr. Karl K. Darrow Prepares to Amplify Work Begun on Theory of Metals December 29, 1940
Third Way to Split Atom Is Found By Halving Uranium and Thorium; Scientists at University of California Say Cleavage Creates Much Energy -- Tokyo Men Also Report Uranium Fission March 3, 1941
We Enter a New Era--the Atomic Age; Here is the momentous story of the atom whose energy science has now unleashed August 12, 1945
Comment : After the third article, articles about nuclear fission came out much more frequently than before

Appendix 3 : New York Times Articles on Niels Bohr (as of Feb. 6th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

List of relevant NYT Articles

Dr. Bohr Discusses Bombarding Atoms; Tells His Yale Audience How Impinging Electrons Produce Different States November 9, 1923
Discusses Atom from New Point; Dr. Bohr, in Yale Lecture Takes Up the Theory of Spectral Lives November 14, 1923
Shows Vast Spaces Within the Atom ; Prof. Bohr Pictures Electron and Nucleus as Far Apart as Earth and Sun November 15, 1923
Pictures the Atom as a Small Solar System ; Dr. Bohr Advances Evidence to Support His Conception of a Nucleus With Planetary Electrons -- His Ideas May Revolutionize Science January 6, 1924
PHYSICIST ANALYZES BOHR ATOM THEORY; Prof. Frederick A. Saunders of Harvard Takes Both Radical and Conventional Viewpoints February 3, 1924
A MYSTIC UNIVERSE January 28, 1928
HOW TO EXPLAIN THE UNIVERSE ? SCIENCE IN A QUANDARY; One After Another the Theories Put Out by the Scientists Have Been Exploded and Now Science in Its Uncertainty Has Been Forced to Become Idealistic and to Drop the Idea of a Mechanical Universe A Universe of Spirit. Electrons and Electricity. The Max Planck Theory. Diffraction Phenomena. The Principle of Uncertainty. The Reign of Pure Chance. Einstein and the Ether. The Scientific Method January 11, 1931
SAYS SCIENTIFIC PARLEY BRINGS NEW ERA NEAR; Dr. Arthur H. Compton at Rome Praises Information Developed at the Congress October 18, 1931
Atoms of 8 Elements Broken; Millikan Hails Berkeley Tests May 21, 1933
Campton Pictures Atom 'Jungle'; 8 Elements Possible in Nucleus; Nobel Prize Winner Says Science Is Still Lost in Vastness of Atomic Interior, but Advances in Half Century Are Encouraging -- Scientists Open Prolonged Meeting at Chicago Today. June 19, 1933
NEW 'GUN' SPEEDS BREAK-UP OF ATOM; ' Deuton's Bullet' Frees Ten Times Its Own Energy, Scientists Are Told. BUILDING ELEMENT IS AIM Californian, at Chicago, Says Discovery May Mean Changing a Lower One Into a Higher. June 20, 1933
JEKYLL-HYDE MIND ATTRIBUTED TO MAN; ' Complementarity New Theory of Knowledge, Is Presented by Prof. Niels Bohr. ALL THINGS DUAL IN ASPECT We Can Know Only One at Any One Time -- Scientists Hail Theory as Revolutionary. June 23, 1933
Heavier Element Is Transmuted From a Lighter One by Science; Neutron, 'Weighed' by Prof. E.O. Lawrence, Proves Lighter Than Its Component Parts -- Denton, Split in Attack on Gold Atom, Yields Enormous Energy. SCIENCE ADVANCES IN ATTACK ON ATOM June 24, 1933
THE INDEFINABLE ATOM.; Science Abandons Picture for Mathematical Formulae July 9, 1933,?
SCIENTIFIC MEDAL AWARDED TO UREY; Willard Gibbs Award Goes to Professor in Columbia Who Discovered 'Heavy Water.' RESEARCH AID ACCLAIMED Compound With Double Mass of Hydrogen Has Added to Knowledge of Molecule February 10, 1934
NOBEL AWARD GOES TO PROFESSOR UREY; Columbia Scientist Gets the 1934 Chemistry Prize for Discovering 'Heavy Water.' ACHIEVEMENT WAS HAILED Seen as of Especial Value in Cancer Study -- Has Proved Great Spur to Research November 16, 1934
UREY EXPERIMENTING ON OXYGEN'S ISOTOPES; Nobel Prize Winner, on Way to Stockholm, Reveals Nature of His Latest Work February 13, 1935
THE WEEK IN SCIENCE: BOHR AND EINSTEIN AT ODDS; They Begin a Controversy Concerning the Fundamental Nature Of Reality -- The Telescope Penetrates New Depths of Space July 28, 1935
THREE NEW FORCES ARE FOUND IN ATOM; Cornell Physicist Says They Are More Powerful Than Any Other Known. THEIR NATURE A MYSTERY But Scientists at Ithaca Are Told by Dr. Bethe That They Hold the Universe Together July 4, 1936
LIGHT AND LIFE September 19, 1937
SCIENTISTS DISPUTE RELATIVITY POINTS; Bohr at Parley Challenges the Duc de Broglie's Views June 1, 1938
DATA ON QUANTUM FOUND INADEQUATE; View of Heisenberg, Given at Warsaw Meeting, Puts Limit on Present Calculations TESTS NEEDED, SAYS BOHR Eddington's Views Under Fire at Concluding Session of Physics Conference June 3, 1938
6 ELEMENTS FOUND IN URANIUM ATOM; Physicists Bare Discovery of Greatest Amount of Energy Liberated Thus Far REPORT WIDELY HAILED Professors Bohr and Fermi, at Columbia Meeting, Tell of Atomic 'Cannon Ball' Only One Named Till Now Research Is Cited February 25, 1939
The Week in Science; When Uranium Splits Doubtful Source of Power Cancer and X-Rays Neutron Possibilities News Notes March 5, 1939
NEW KEY IS FOUND TO ATOMIC ENERGY; Actino-Uranium Is Credited With Power to Release Largest Store Known on Earth A 'PHILOSOPHER'S STONE' When Separated in Pure Form It Can Yield 235 Billion Volts Per Atom of Its Own May 5, 1939
A Mixture of Physics and Fantasy March 17, 1940
SCIENTIST REACHES LONDON; Dr. N.H.D. Bohr, Dane, Has a New Atomic Blast Invention October 9, 1943
RESEARCH INSTITUTE IS SEIZED IN DENMARK; Germans Are Expected to Work on New Secret Weapon December 12, 1943
REPORT BY BRITAIN; 'By God's Mercy' We Beat Nazis to Bomb, Churchill Says ROOSEVELT AID CITED Raiders Wrecked Norse Laboratory in Race for Key to Victory REPORT BY BRITAIN TELLS BOMB DRAMA Thwarted by Own Tyranny Encouraged By British Laboratory in Norway Destroyed August 7, 1945
The Dramatic Story of the Atom--; From Radium to the Atomic Bomb August 12, 1945
Story of Scientists' 'Battle' for Atom Bomb Secret Revealed in Smyth Report; OUR AIRMEN TURN FROM BOMB-SIGHTING TO SIGHT-SEEING August 16, 1945
The Atom Engine: How Soon Will It Be?; It may take fifty years to harness atomic energy and put it to work for man's benefit August 19, 1945

Appendix 4 : New York Times Articles on Werner Heisenberg (as of Feb. 6th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

List of relevant NYT Articles

DETAILS CONCEPTS OF QUANTUM THEORY; Heisenberg of Germany Gives Exposition Before British Scientists September 2, 1927
HYDROGEN THEORY UPSET BY CHEMIST; Bonhoeffer, a German, Splits Supposedly Indivisible Element Before American Society. BLOW TO TEXT-BOOKS Parahydrogen and Orthohydrogen Are Demonstrated atMinneapolis Meeting.WAVE MECHANICS IN LINE Dr. H.S. Taylor Hails "Greatest Chemical Achievement of 1929,"Rivaling Einstein Verification. Demonstrates the Theory. Akin to the Einstein Puzzle. Limited Number See the Feat. Many Practical Papers Read September 11, 1929
COMPTON TO OFFER NEW VIEW OF ATOM; Chicago Physicist Will Contest Mechanistic Theory on Basis of X-Ray Studies. EVOLUTION IDEA REVISED Scientist Assumes a "Directive Intelligence" and Exalts Man'sImportance In Cosmos. Looks to a "Directive Intelligence." Changing View of Evolution. Cosmic Importance of Man May 25, 1930
DR. COMPTON 'SEES' INSIDE THE ATOM; Tells Ithaca Scientists Electrons Are Diffused in It Like Raindrops in Clouds.REVELATION MADE BY X-RAYProfessor Says the World MayNever Get Nearer 'View' ThanBeam-Refraction Gives.CRYSTAL STRUCTURE SHOWN Professor Zwicky of California Tellsof Discoveries Which May AidMetal Strengths. Similar to Moon Hale Accuracy Now Possible. Many Theories Are Discarded. Revelation Was Predicted. Crystal Atoms Are Orderly. Properties Can Be Changed. Slipping Strength Is Low. Sessions Are Ended June 22, 1930
HOW TO EXPLAIN THE UNIVERSE? SCIENCE IN A QUANDARY; One After Another the Theories Put Out by the Scientists Have Been Exploded and Now Science in Its Uncertainty Has Been Forced to Become Idealistic and to Drop the Idea of a Mechanical Universe A Universe of Spirit. Electrons and Electricity. The Max Planck Theory. Diffraction Phenomena. The Principle of Uncertainty. The Reign of Pure Chance. Einstein and the Ether. The Scientific Method January 11, 1931
REVEALS MEASURE OF SPACING IN ATOM; Compton Tells of His Finding One-Billionth of an Inch Between Helium Electrons.SEES EXPLANATION NEAR Discards Early Atomic Theories--Expects a New Principle Soonto Popularize Television. Discards Old Atomic Theories. Sees a Solution Near March 25, 1931
The Atom: 1932 Style; THE NEW CONCEPTION OF MATTER. By C.G. Darwin. 190 pp. New York: Macmillan Company. USD 3 February 28, 1932
LAYS RADIO ACTIVITY TO BOLTING NEUTRON; Prof. Helsenberg of Leipzig Re- veals a New Theory at the Michigan Physic Symposium. MORE LIGHT ON NUCLEUS Apparent Paradoxes Are Accounted For In the Close Affinity of Electrons to Protons August 17, 1932
In His Latest Book He Attempts to Clarify the Implications of Twentieth-Century Physics; THE NEW BACKGROUND OF SCIENCE. By Sir James Jeans. New York: The Macmillan Com- pany. 301 pp. USD 2.50 May 28, 1933
RUTHERFORD COOLS ATOM ENERGY HOPE; Sees 'Moonshine' in the Talk at Present of Releasing Power in Matter. NUCLEUS OFFERS PROBLEM Conversion of Energy Into Matter Is Reported at the Leicester Meeting. RUTHERFORD COOLS ATOM ENERGY HOPE September 12, 1933
A Tour of the Atom's Interior; INSIDE THE ATOM. By John Langdon-Davies. Illustrated by Betty Barr. 184 pp. New York: Harper & Brothers. USD 2 January 14, 1934
ELECTRON THEORY OF DIRAC REVISED; California Scholars Dispose of Main Difficulties but Obtain Original Results. EXTEND HEISENBERG LAW Two Limitations to Experimental Knowledge Set Up by Oppenheimer and Furry. ELECTRON THEORY OF DIRAC REVISED February 18, 1934
Force 40 Times That of Electricity Is Discovered in Hearts of Atoms; Carnegie Scientist Tells Physicists That 1,200,000-Volt 'Gun' Measured Power That Holds Universe Together -- The Convention Hears 'Sixth Sense' Traced to Skin. NEW COSMIC FORCE IS FOUND IN ATOMS May 2, 1936
MAN'S APPROACH TO KNOWLEDGE; Sir Arthur Eddington Makes Clear the Real Meaning of Science December 24, 1939
REICH YEAR BEHIND ON ATOMIC BOMB; Munich Physicist Relates Work in Germany--1939 Prediction on Uranium Weapon Cited Background Supplied 1939 Prediction Cited August 13, 1945

Appendix 5 : New York Times Articles on Albert Einstein & Atom (as of Feb. 6th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

List of relevant NYT Articles

CAUSE IS EFFECT, EINSTEIN SUGGESTS; He Tells German Scientists It Is Doubtful in Mathematics Which Is Which. APPLIES IDEA TO CONDUCT Starting From Uncertainty, He Says Actions May Produce Will Power Instead of the Reverse November 6, 1931
MILLIKAN PICTURES SHOW ATOM SMASHED; Photographs Taken by Associate Reveal Release of Energy Under Cosmic Ray Impact. SEES HIS THEORY GAINING Back From Europe, He Reports Scientists Regard It 'Worthy of Study' but Not Proved. Talked With Einstein. ATOM IS SMASHED IN MILLIKAN PHOTOS Sees Agreement on Facts. Sees Overspecialization December 3, 1931
ELECTRICAL THEORY UNIFIED BY GERMAN; Prof. Max Born Presents a Reconciliation of New and Old Concepts. EINSTEIN SET PROBLEM He and Others Sought to Combine Maxwell Equations With Quantum Hypothesis August 25, 1933
EINSTEIN ATTACKS QUANTUM THEORY; Scientist and Two Colleagues Find It Is Not 'Complete' Even Though 'Correct May 4, 1935
Einstein in Vast New Theory Links Atom and Stars in Unified System; A Pattern Is Envisaged by Him and Dr. Rosen in Structure of Space and Matter That May Harmonize Relativity Rules and Quantum Conception, Hitherto Unreconciled by Scientists July 5, 1935
LORD RUTHERFORD, PHYSICIST, IS DEAD; British Nobel Prize Winner, 66, Famous as Atom-Smasher, Dies After Operation October 20, 1937
VISION EARTH ROCKED BY ISOTOPE BLAST; Scientists Say Bit of Uranium Could Wreck New York April 30, 1939
Einstein Bars Comment On Atom Bomb at Present August 8, 1945
Abroad; The Promethean Role of the United States Not Launched Lightly Power to Shape the Future August 8, 1945

Appendix 6 : New York Times Articles on Atomic Bomb (as of Feb. 6th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

List of relevant NYT Articles

ULTIMATE TRUTHS SOUGHT IN THE ATOM; Efforts of Science to Smash It Approach Rock Bottom Of the Universe ULTIMATE TRUTHS SOUGHT IN THE ATOM ULTIMATE TRUTHS ARE SOUGHT IN THE ATOM Scientists, in Their Efforts to Smash It, Are Shattering Many of Their Old Ideas as They Near the Rock Bottom of the Universe May 24, 1936
The Week in Science; Explaining the Sun Two Processes Now Seen Nitrogen Nucleus Formed The Risk From Bombs Effort of Concentration News Notes NO BOMBS CAN ENTER December 25, 1938
Another Bomb Sight Is Patented; One Device Corrects Plane's Aim; New Englander Develops Dual Telescopes to Calculate Main Factors in Dropping Missiles on Target PATENT IS GRANTED ON NEW BOMBSIGHT October 4, 1942
How Long Will the War Last?; Events seem marching to an early climax but some major factor are still unknown July 23, 1944
GREAT BATTLES RISING TO A CLIMAX IN EUROPE; Allies Win Spectacular Successes -- Germans Guard Their Rocket Coast August 20, 1944
GERMANS ARE STILL STRIVING TO PERFECT NEW V WEAPONS; Rocket, Atom, Freezing and Plague Bombs And an 'America Bomber' on Their List
NEW YORK BOMBER BUILT IN GERMANY; De Seversky Says Principal Bar to Use Was Its High Rate of Fuel Consumption June 8, 1945
Comment : Maybe some articles mentioned about atomic bomb in the middle of texts. I picked articles which seemingly show relation to atomic bomb in the title.
There are numerous articles after the Hiroshima was bombarded (approximately 30 articles were written in one day ? August 7, 1945)