Chinese Loans 1860-1911


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
LSH



Table of Contents


Chapter III.5 Chapter Conclusion
Chapter III.1 Chapter Introduction
Chapter III.? Military Loan
Chapter III.3 Railroad Construction
Chapter III.4 Yellow River Flood of 1887
Chapter IV.1 1st Sino-Japanese War
Chapter IV.3 Chapter Conclusion
Chapter IV.2 Hundred Day's Reform
Working Table of Contents, 3rd draft
Untitled File 4
Untitled File 3
Untitled File 2
Untitled File 1
Chapter III.6 Conclusion
Chapter II.2 International Relations, 2nd draft
Chapter II.3 Economy, 2nd draft
Chapter II.3 Economy
Chapter II.2 International Relations
Working Table of Contents, 2nd draft
Chapter II
Working Table of Contents
Bibliography
Timeline
Bibliography



Chapter III.5 : Chapter Conclusion (as of July 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

            Although, the Chinese government started to borrow money from European powers, most of the loans were asked by local governors. Thus, the total amount of the loan was not very large and financial status of the central government remained healthy. Also, national sentiment against foreigners still existed very strongly and many of Chinese people opposed asking loans from Western countries. Most importantly, China still maintained control of most of its territory despite revolts and war with European countries, and remained its capacity to raise money by tax. Using these favorable conditions, Chinese government tried to implement expensive reforms such as building railroads by itself rather than depending on foreign loans.
            In conclusion, it can be inferred that the financial status of Chinese government was good enough to implement modernizing reforms, and it still had a chance for successful modernization because of most of loans were used to build arsenals, dockyards, and railroads. However, this favorable condition did not last long. In 1894, the first Sino-Japanese war broke out, and China had to pay a great amount of indemnity to Japan for the defeat. Following this event, China lost series of major wars against foreign powers and had to borrow loans due to heavy indemnity rather than reforms. This change worsened the public finance and modernization of China after 1893.



Chapter III.1 : Chapter Introduction (as of July 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

            It is uncertain about the exact date when the Chinese government first borrowed money from other world powers. However, various dates from various sources stay around 1860, when China just started its modernization after its humiliating defeats in the first and the second Opium War. Because there was no major war against major world powers from 1861 to 1893 except Sino-French War (1884 ~ 1885), the Chinese government could control most of its territory and collect huge amount of tax which enabled it to maintain healthy national finance and seldom ask for foreign loans. In many cases, European countries and United States asked China to borrow their money to increase the economic influence in China. Also, the government did not spend much on indemnity to other countries. Actually, after the defeat in Sino French War, the Chinese government ceded Vietnam to France rather than paying large amount of indemnity. Thus, if loans were issued to China, most of them were for modernizing military facilities and constructing railroad, both of which helped China¡¯s development.



Chapter III.? : Military Loan (as of July 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

            After several losses in wars against western countries, Qing dynasty realized the need to modernize its military facilities. Moreover, rebellions within the territory gave further incentive to strengthen its military with western weaponry.
            One of the major reasons for foreign loan was to modernize Chinese military, especially its navy. In 1861, Prince Gong built "Zongli Yamen", which dealt with foreign affairs with western countries, and supported Self-Strengthening movement. Before "Zongli Yamen" there was no Chinese government office dealt with foreign affairs; local governors had dealt with foreign affairs by themselves. However, Zongli Yamen was specialized office dealt with diplomacy, mainly with western countries, and led the adoption of western technologies. Self-Strengthening movement mainly focused on reforming military facilities and Chinese industry at the latter phases, rather than its social structure or government system. Prince Gong and Li Hong Zhang, who were in charge of this movement, used foreign loans, advisors and technology to adopt western weapons and build modern arsenals. They did not directly implemented reforms but financially supported local governors who tried to build arsenals and dockyards in Shanghai, Nanking, Tianjin, Ningbo, and Foochow with the aid of foreign advisors such as Leonce Verny and Prosper Giquel. In consequence, China came to have the 7th largest modern navy in the world at the peak of Self-Strengthening movement. (1) This project proved to be extremely expensive and inefficient. Because guns and canons produced in China was far inferior to those produced abroad, the Chinese government had to import foreign weapons even after it built several arsenals in its territory. Moreover, the government had to import every resources and important components for modern weaponry from Europe. Actually, until 1878, China had to import coal from Great Britain for it navy although it started to build its own navy from 1868. The government also paid for expensive foreign advisors and technicians. These costs were so large that Chinese government could not handle them without any loan. Thus, Chinese government borrowed 100,000 Dollars in 1864, and the same sum in 1884. (2)
            From 1861 to 1893, Chinese government also made war loans 15 times from Hong Kong, London, Berlin and Frankfurt (3). Because there was no war with major powers except Sino-French War and this war only happened from 1884 to 1885, it seems that these frequent war loans in this period are to fight for large-scale rebellions in the country such as Dungan Revolt (1862 - 1877), Panthay Rebellion (1856 - 1873) and to buy foreign arms in the process of suppression of these rebellions.

(1)      Baig Yang, 285
(2)      Goetzmann, William. N, Ukhov Andrey, 38
(3)      Goetzmann, William. N, Ukhov Andrey, 38



Chapter III.3 : Railroad Construction (as of July 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

            Despite a large cost and national sentiment against railroad, the need to build it became more evident after the mid 19th century. Commercial centers such as Tianjin and Shanghai developed very fast and government realized the need of modern transportation system. The government had to feed the growing of population in urban centers such as Beijing efficiently. Moreover, the danger of Europeans countries such as Britain, France, and Russia which came to share border with China and experience of humiliating defeat made some Chinese feel strong need for railroad for national defense. However, the Grand Canal, which served as a main Chinese transportation system, became very old and was often threatened by rebellions and foreign invasions.
            For western countries such as Britain, France, Germany and the United States, Chinese railroad construction was lucrative project and they tried to attract China to borrow money from them. They sent their engineers to technically support China and diplomats to persuade Chinese government officials.
            However, China built their railroad mainly by themselves. It still maintained control over its large territory, and ability to collect huge amount of tax from its subjects. Chinese government annually granted Li Hong Zhang, the director of railroad, the budget of 2,000,000 Taels (1) for railroad construction without practically any financial aid from abroad. He paid for most of imported materials imported with cash, and rejected any help from foreigners except few engineers. Some people even claim China borrow money only once from foreigners in this time period. (2)
            The cost of Chinese railway construction project is estimated about 80,000,000 Taels (3), and its time of construction several years. In the mid and late 19th century, China was the only country in the world which could practice such huge project by itself. Thus, Chinese government¡¯s ambitious railroad plan reflects its financial strength and pride as the wealthiest nation in the world.

(1)      New York Times, 1891.12.27
(2)      Goetzmann, William. N, Ukhov Andrey, 35
(3)      New York Times, 1891.12.27



Chapter III.4 : Yellow River Flood of 1887 (as of July 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

            In 1888, Chinese government got a loan to recover damage caused by Yellow River Flood in 1887. Yellow River had been prone to flooding for thousands of years, and the farmers living near the river had built dikes to contain rising water, caused by the silt accumulation on the riverbed. In 1887, days of heavy rain cause the riverbed to overcome dikes and caused a huge flood. 13000 square kilometers of low-lying plains in Northern China near was soon covered with the water. This deluge killed 900,000 - 2,000,000 people, destroyed homes of two million people, and destroyed agriculture settlement and commercial centers.
            Because this was one of the worst floods in Chinese history which Chinese people had never experienced for a long time, Qing dynasty had no capacity to deal with this calamity and finally borrowed money abroad.



Chapter IV.1 : 1st Sino-Japanese War (as of July 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

            In 1890s, the conflict between China and Japan was intensified. In 1882 military coup in Korea, Kim Ok-kyun affair, and Gapsin coup, they revealed their interest in Korean peninsula and conflicted over it. Finally, Japan which had prepared a war by constructing a railroad connecting Busan, the nearest port to Japan, and Seoul, the capital of Korea forced Korea to end the diplomatic relationship with China and started the war by attacking Chinese troops in Korea. (1894)
            Chinese people had regarded Japan as one of China's tributary states, so they believed Chinese navy and army, reformed in Self-Strengthening movement, will easily defeat Japan. However, Chinese army was defeated in Korea and its navy was also destroyed in Yellow sea. Finally, the United States of America mend the war, and China signed a humiliating treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895.
            In the treaty, China had to give up tribute from Korea and admit its independence. It also ceded to Japan in perpetuity and sovereignty of the Penghu group, Taiwan Island, and the eastern part of Liaodong Peninsula. Japan forced China to open four ports and grant most-favored nation treatment. The impact of the treaty was huge. Western powers ascertained China¡¯s powerlessness again after the First Opium War in 1842. Three countries, Russia, France and German, especially demanded Japan to withdraw from Liaodong Peninsula not because they wanted to restrain Japan¡¯s influence and Russia wanted Port Arthur. After Japan¡¯s withdrawal, Russia built a railroad connecting Port Arthur and Harbin, a project which Chinese government protested. In these series of intervention, Chinese government excerpt very little influence, and Chinese people¡¯s support to the government decreased.
            One of the most important damage China had to bear was a huge amount of indemnity. In the treaty of Shimonoseki, China had to pay indemnity of 200 million silver Kuping Taels (7.45 million kilogram of silver) to Japan. Moreover, after Japan gave up Liaodong Peninsula, it had to pay 30 million silver Kuping Taels (1.12 million kilograms of silver). 8 million kilograms of silver China paid was two and a half times the Chinese government revenue and 6.4 times Japanese government revenue. This great amount of indemnity devastated Qing dynasty¡¯s revenue, and it had to borrow money from foreigners to pay this debt. Before 1894, Chinese government mainly borrowed money for railroad or armory. However, in 1895 alone, Chinese government made four loans from London and Frankfurt with 6 % of interest to pay indemnity to Japan. Also, from 1899 to 1900, it borrowed 47.8 million Pound Sterling to pay Japan indemnity. Both the loan and the interest deeply damaged the balanced finance of the Chinese government and decreased the amount of revenue for constructive use such as railroad construction.

Notes

(1)      Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Shimonoseki
(2)      Naver Encyclopedia, http://100.naver.com/100.nhn?docid=146728
(3)      Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Sino-Japanese_War
(4)      Goetzmann, William. N, Ukhov Andrey, 36



Chapter IV.3 : Chapter Conclusion (as of July 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

            Before the First Sino-Japanese war, China could use most of its revenue and loan to develop its weaponry and infrastructure such as railroad. Despite few obstacles such as unequal treaties and conservatism in the court, China could develop itself with its vast revenue and leaders of modernization such as Prince Gong and Li Hong Zhang. Westerners still admitted China's great potential and Chinese government also decreased its foreign debt.
            The defeat in the first Sino-Japanese war impeded Chinas development and changed its process of modernization and financial independence with great amount of indemnity. China lost ability to modernize itself independently and had to depend of foreigners just to pay indemnity. Moreover, the fall of Self-Strengthening Movement and Hundred Day's Reform increased the power of conservative politicians such as Empress Dowager Cixi and Yuan Shikai in the court. These series of events finally result in the China¡¯s loss in Boxer Rebellion, which dramatically increased foreign power in China in 20th century compared to it in 19th century.

Chapter IV.2 : Hundred Day's Reform (as of July 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

            Humiliating defeat in the First Sino-Japanese war shocked Chinese people and ended Self-strengthening movement, which was proved to be useless. Many young scholars thought China need to change not only its military and industry but also fundamental political and social structures. Young Guangxu Emperor agreed with this and ordered the reform to Kang Youwei and his students. (June 1898)
            Kang and his students suggested several reform programs. They tried to modernized traditional exam system, eliminate sinecures in the government, create modern education system, change the government to constitutional monarchy, and apply principles of capitalism to Chinese economy. This radical course of reform aroused a great opposition from conservative politicians such as Empress Dowager Cixi. Finally, coup de tat led by Yuan Shikai and Empress Dowager Cixi terminated the reform.
            The impact of the reform itself was not very huge because it only lasted about 100 days. However, despite its short life, the fall of the reform made modernization of China slow and the Chinese government lost an important chance to recover financial and political damage in the Treaty of Shimonoseki due to inner conflict. The damage caused by this loss of chance becomes evident in China's humiliation in Boxer Rebellion in 1900.



Working Table of Contents (as of July 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I.) Introduction
II.) China before 1861
II.1) Domestic Politics
II.2) International Relations
II.3) Economy
II.4) Public Finances
III.) Foreign loan from 1861 to 1893 (before 1st Sino-Japanese war)
III.1) Chapter Introduction
III.2) Rebellions in late 19th century
III.3) Railroad Construction
III.4) Yellow River Flood 1887
III.5) Chapter Conclusion
IV.) Foreign loan from 1894 to 1901 (from 1st Sino-Japanese war to Boxer Rebellion)
IV.1) Sino-Japanese War
IV.2) Hundred day's reform
IV.3) Chapter Convlusion
V.) Foreign loan from 1901 to 1911 (from Boxer Rebellion to Chinese Revolution)
V.1) Chapter Introduction
V.2) Boxer Rebellion
V.3) Railroad Construction
V.4) The Consortium of 1909
V.5) Chinese Revolution
V.6) Chapter Conclusion
VI.) Motivation for Foreign Countries to Give Loan to China
VI.1) Financial gain : Diversification
VI.2) Diplomacy
VI.2.1) Great Britain
VI.2.2) Russia
VI.2.3) Japan
VI.2.4) France
VI.2.5) Germany
VII.) Influence of Foreign loan to China
VII.1) Diplomacy
VII.2) Government deficit
VII.3) Industry and Infrastructure
VII.3.1) War industry
VII.3.2) Railroad
VII.3.3) Others
VII.4) Weakened Financial Market
VIII.) Conclusion
IX.) Timeline
Bibliography

* Things to be added: Territorial conflict with Russia



Untitled File 4 (as of May 27th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

Untiltled File 4
            In 1888, Chinese government got a loan to recover damage caused by Yellow River Flood in 1887. Yellow River had been prone to flooding for thousands of years, and the farmers living near the river had built dikes to contain rising water, caused by the silt accumulation on the riverbed. In 1887, days of heavy rain cause the riverbed to overcome dikes and caused a huge flood. 50000 square miles of low-lying plains in Northern China near was soon covered with the water. This deluge killed 900,000 - 2,000,000 people, destroyed homes of two million people, and destroyed agriculture settlement and commercial centers.
            Because this was one of the worst floods in Chinese history which Chinese people had never experienced for a long time, Qing dynasty had no capacity to deal with this calamity and finally borrowed money abroad.



Untitled File 3 (as of May 27th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

Untiltled File 3
            Despite a large cost and national sentiment against railroad, the need to build it became more evident after the mid 19th century. Commercial centers such as Tianjin and Shanghai developed very fast and government realized the need of modern transportation system. The government had to feed the growing of population in urban centers such as Beijing efficiently. Moreover, the danger of Europeans countries such as Britain, France, and Russia which came to share border with China and experience of humiliating defeat made some Chinese feel strong need for railroad for national defense. However, the Grand Canal, which served as a main Chinese transportation system, became very old and was often threatened by rebellions and foreign invasions.
            For western countries such as Britain, France, Germany and the United States, Chinese railroad construction was lucrative project and they tried to attract China to borrow money from them. They sent their engineers to technically support China and diplomats to persuade Chinese government officials.
            However, China built their railroad mainly by themselves. It still maintained control over its large territory, and ability to collect huge amount of tax from its subjects. Chinese government annually granted Li Hong Zhang, the director of railroad, the budget of 2,000,000 taels (1) for railroad construction without practically any financial aid from abroad. He paid for most of imported materials imported with cash, and rejected any help from foreigners except few engineers. Some people even claim China borrow money only once from foreigners in this time period (2).
            The cost of Chinese railway construction project is estimated about 80,000,000 taels, and its time of construction several years. In the mid and late 19th century, China was the only country in the world which could practice such huge project by itself. Thus, Chinese government¡¯s ambitious railroad plan reflects its financial strength and pride as the wealthiest nation in the world (3).

Notes

(1)      New York Times Dec. 27th 1897
(2)      Goetzmann/Andrey p.38
(3)      New York Times Dec. 27th 1897



Untitled File 2 (as of May 27th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

Untiltled File 2
            After several losses in wars against western countries, Qing dynasty realized the need to modernize its military facilities. Moreover, rebellions within the territory gave further incentive to strengthen its military with western weaponries.
            One of the major reasons for foreign loan was to modernize Chinese military, especially its navy. In 1861, Prince Gong built "Zongli Yamen", which dealt with foreign affairs with western countries, and supported Self-Strengthening movement. Before "Zongli Yamen" there was no Chinese government office dealt with foreign affairs; local governors had dealt with foreign affairs by themselves. However, Zongli Yamen was specialized office dealt with diplomacy, mainly with western countries, and led the adoption of western technologies. Self-Strengthening movement mainly focused on reforming military facilities and Chinese industry at the latter phases, rather than its social structure or government system. Prince Gong and Li Hong Zhang, who were in charge of this movement, used foreign loans, advisors and technology to adopt western weapons and build modern arsenals. They did not directly implemented reforms but financially supported local governors who tried to build arsenals and dockyards in Shanghai, Nanking, Tianjin, Ningbo, and Foochow with the aids of foreign advisors such as Leonce Verny and Prosper Giquel. In consequence, China came to have the 7th largest modern navy in the world at the peak of Self-Strengthening movement (1). This project proved to be extremely expensive and inefficient. Because guns and canons produced in China was far inferior to those produced abroad, the Chinese government had to import foreign weapons even after it built several arsenals in its territory. Moreover, the government had to import every resources and important components for modern weaponries from Europe. Actually, until 1878, China had to import coals from Great Britain for it navy although it started to build its own navy from 1868. The government also paid for expensive foreign advisors and technicians. These costs were so large that Chinese government could not handle them without any loan. Thus, Chinese government borrowed 100,000 dollars in 1864, and also in 1884 (2).
            From 1861 to 1893, Chinese government also made war loans 15 times from Hong Kong, London, Berlin and Frankfurt (3). Because there was no war with major powers except Sino-French War and this war only happened from 1884 to 1885, it seems that these frequent war loans in this period are to fight for large-scale rebellions in the country such as Dungan Revolt (1862 - 1877), Panthay Rebellion (1856 - 1873) and to buy foreign arms in the process of suppression of these rebellions.

Notes

(1)      Baik Yang p.285
(2)      Goetzmann/Andrey p.38
(3)      Goetzmann/Andrey p.38



Untitled File 1 (as of May 27th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

Untiltled File 1
            It is uncertain about the exact date when the Chinese government first borrowed money from other world powers. However, various dates from various sources stay around 1860, when China just started its modernization after its humiliating defeats in the first and the second Opium War. Because there was no major war against major world powers from 1861 to 1893 except Sino-French War (1884 - 1885), the Chinese government could control most of its territory and collect huge amount of tax which enabled it to maintain healthy national finance and seldom ask for foreign loans. In many cases, European countries and United States asked China to borrow their money to increase the economic influence in China. Also, the government did not spend much on indemnity to other countries. Actually, after the defeat in Sino-French War, the Chinese government ceded Vietnam to France rather than paying large amount of indemnity. Thus, if loans were issued to China, most of them were for modernizing military facilities and constructing railroad, both of which helped China¡¯s development.



Conclusion (as of May 27th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

III. China 1861-1894

III.6 Conclusion
            Although, the Chinese government started to borrow money from European powers, most of the loans were asked by local governors. Thus, the total amount of the loan was not very large and financial status of the central government remained healthy. Also, national sentiment against foreigners still existed very strongly and many of Chinese people opposed asking loans from Western countries. Most importantly, China still maintained control of most of its territory despite revolts and war with European countries, and remained its capacity to raise money by tax. Using these favorable conditions, Chinese government tried to implement expensive reforms such as building railroads by itself rather than depending on foreign loans.
            In conclusion, it can be inferred that the financial status of Chinese government was good enough to implement modernizing reforms, and it still had a chance for successful modernization because of most of loans were used to build arsenals, dockyards, and railroads. However, this favorable condition did not last long. In 1894, the first Sino-Japanese war broke out, and China had to pay a great amount of indemnity to Japan for the defeat. Following this event, China lost series of major wars against foreign powers and had to borrow loans due to heavy indemnity rather than reforms. This change worsened the public finance and modernization of China after 1893.



International Relations (as of May 27th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

II. China before 1861

II.2 International Relations
            Chinese believed that they are the center of the world and decided the diplomatic policy of the Chinese empire based on this belief. Because China was able to sustain its economy independently with vast amount of agricultural production, it regarded foreign trade unnecessary. Traditionally, Chinese empires involved in trade with their subjugated countries because they regarded it as a responsibility as the world¡¯s greatest power to uncivilized people.
            Qing dynasty was not an exception. Until the 18th century, it was the greatest country on earth regarding its huge territory, large population, and flourishing economy. Its hegemony was evident in East, Central and South East Asia. Korea, Kingdom of Ryukyu and Vietnam were independent, but they identified themselves as servant of Qing dynasty and rendered tribute. Moreover, rulers in those countries called themselves "king" (in Korean "Wang"), which is lower than "emperor" (in Korean "Hwang Je") in Asian culture. In return, it legitimated its subjugated kings and allowed merchants of those countries to trade with it. Burma, Nepal and Thailand were also militarily defeated and became tributary states of it; Khanates in central Asia also paid tributes. However, Qing Dynasty did not exploit subjugated countries. Proud as a dominant country, it helped them by giving tributary states valuable items like teas, silvers, and silks and supporting them militarily in wars. This shows that the national pride rather than economic profit was a main motivation and goal of diplomacy policy of Qing dynasty.
            Europeans and Chinese first came into contact when the Portuguese merchant ship reached Canton (Guangzhou) in 1517. Portuguese seized and fortified Macau in 1557, and Dutch East India Company established their foothold in Taiwan in 1624. Although European merchants asked trade to Ming dynasty many times, it officially opened only one port, Canton, to western merchants.
            The relationship between Qing dynasty and European countries was imbalanced because Europeans wanted Chinese products more than Chinese wanted European products. Chinese people regarded European countries as its tributary states like its neighborhood and belittled European cultures as "barbaric". They thought Europeans vitally needed products such as tea and sea oak for survival. This unequal relationship was apparent in Chinese early laws on European trade. European merchants were unable to trade directly trade with Chinese people and had to sign contracts with Chinese agents. Also, they could not visit all districts of the city freely and hire Chinese people personally. Despite these regulations, Europeans still tried to make up to Chinese officers, and competed with each other to gain more advantages. merchants.
            Conflict between Great Britain and Qing dynasty began in 1793 when Britain sent a large diplomatic mission of 600 people to establish equal diplomatic relationship with China. When McCartney, the British representative, met Emperor Qianlong, he rejected to kowtow and surprised mandarins who regarded this courtesy natural. As the Emperor permitted McCartney to bow in British style, this incident was concluded, but this was the first official cultural conflict that a European did not submit to Chinese. During the negotiation, McCartney tried to establish equal diplomatic relationship with China. However, Chinese emperor still regarded Britain inferior and rejected British offer. Instead he ordered his servants to show British mission every part of China to boast of its military and vast territory. However, McCartney observed outdated Chinese industry and corrupted local administration, and concluded that Qing Empire is no longer the greatest power on earth.
            Great Britain imported great amount of silk and tea from China, and paid great amount of silver in return. To compensate trade deficit, Britain started to sell opium, cultivated in India, indirectly to China and caused serious problems in China such as outflow of silver and drug addiction. Lin Zexu, the governed of Canton, banned opium trade and confiscated all opium from British merchants to solve the problems. This caused minor conflict between Britain and Qing dynasty. This conflict was intensified when Britain took a marine who killed a Chinese without the agreement of Qing dynasty. Qing dynasty asked Britain to take him back, but British governor openly said he would not accept British people executed by Chinese government. Emperor Daoguang became furious and ordered to expatriate all British and to ban all kinds of trade with Britain. This order severely damaged Great Britain because its economy heavily depended on trade, so British parliament finally declared war against China (First Opium War, 1839) (1). Chinese people believed they are "the strongest country in the world" and Britain would fight desperately, but British warships easily defeated Chinese Junks. Because of the disadvantage in military technology, Chinese navy was defeated in Canton, Ningbo, and Chinghai When British finally attacked Nanjing, an important city to control the Great Canal, after a series of victories, China had to sign Treaty of Nanjing (1842) with Britain. This treaty forced China to establish official and equal diplomatic relationship with Great Britain, open 5 ports, lease Hong Kong to Great Britain, and admit British¡¯s extraterritoriality.
            After the first opium war and treaty of Nanjing, Western powers started to belittle China and tried to find any excuse for invasion. In 1856, Qing officials arrested the crews of Arrow, suspected of piracy and smuggling. British officials in Guangdong asked to return the ship and release crews because it was registered in Hong Kong. Moreover, they argued that Chinese soldiers mocked the British ensign. Finally, the war between Qing dynasty and Great Britain its allies, Russia, United States and the Second French Empire broke out (Second Opium War). Qing dynasty had to deal with Taiping rebellion, so it could not resist western army. Finally, Qing dynasty and Western allies signed series of unequal treaties: Treaty of Tianjin (1858), Treaty in Aigun (1858), Treaty of Beijing (1860). In consequence, Qing dynasty lost left bank of Amur River to Russia, established diplomatic relationship with France, United States and Russia, opened ten more ports, allowed foreign vessels to navigate freely on Yangtze River, and paid great amount of indemnity.

Notes

(1)



Economy (as of May 27th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

II. China before 1861

II.3 Economy
            In the early 17th century, Chinese economy was devastated because of destruction and population decrease in the late Ming dynasty. Population was less than 150 million, and Eastern china was so crowded that people needed to reclaim border territory and improve farming technology. These problems were solved as new crops such as potato and corn enabled farmers to reclaim border regions, especially western China, and cultivation of grain spread to southern China. Improved breed of rice enabled double cropping and dramatically increased agricultural production. Commerce also began to flourish. Delta region in Yangtze River started to be commercialized rapidly and became the center of trade in Southern China and Southeast Asia. Grain, cotton, silk and tea were cultivated for commercial purpose and widely traded throughout the state. These progresses were possible because of high level of domestic and political stability in Qing dynasty and efficient policies such as encouraging reclamation of western land by tax favor, improving irrigation facility and promoting commerce.
            During the 18th century, economy prosperity and population increase was maintained and even facilitated because of influx of silver to Chinese domestic market, which meant the increase of money supply. Trade with Europe increased 5 times between 1720s and 1760s, and 8 times until the end of 18th century. China exported more and more pottery, silk and tea to Europe, but rarely imported products from Europe. This imbalanced trade increased the influx of silver and caused steady inflation which activated commerce. Between 1620 and 1820, the amount of silver increased 0.9% while the price of grain increased 0.7% (1). Low inflation despite increase in money supply demonstrates that small scale of increase of productivity existed in this period. Economic growth in 18th century enabled population increased to about 300 million.
            However, prosperity in 18th century disguised the imminent saturation of Chinese economy which would result in depression. Excessive farming greatly harmed environment: forest was destroyed, farming land became barren and excretions of livestock used as fertilizer polluted farming lands. These environmental disruption gradually decreased productivity of agriculture. Also, booming commerce greatly depended on influx of silver from Europe, so if the amount of silver in Chinese domestic market would decrease, Chinese commerce would stagnate.
            Until the beginning of the 19th century, Chinese economy remained in favorable conditions, but it became worse in the mid 19th. First, ruined farmland and crowded border regions could not afford population increases anymore. Actually, rate of increase in population dropped from about 0.7% to 0.3% during the mid 19th century, proving that production could no longer support population increase. Second, in the 1820s, China started to import opium against its own will, and lost great amount of silver. About from a quarter to a half of silver flown in from 1700 to 1820 flew out from China because of opium trade (2). Moreover, Chinese people started to store silver coins instead of using them in market. These changes caused 40 percent of deflation from 1820 to 1850 (3), increasing in the value of silver coin. Farmers had to pay tax by silver, so they had to sell more products. Government could not reduce tax or finance public works to reinvigorate economy because it had to fight back rebellions throughout china. Also, in the 19th century, prevalent corruption natural calamities harassed Chinese people, and government could not deal with them appropriately. As a result, Qing dynasty lost credibility among common people.

Notes

(1)      Richardson p.19
(2)      Richardson p.21
(3)      Richardson p.22



Economy (as of February 25th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

II. China before 1861

II.3 Economy
            In the early 17th century, Chinese economy was devastated because of destruction and population decrease in the late Ming dynasty. Population was less than 150 millions, and Eastern china was so crowded that people needed to reclaim border territory and improve farming technology. These problems were solved as new crops such as potato and corn enabled farmers to reclaim border regions, especially western China, and cultivation of grain spread to southern China. Improved breed of rice enabled double cropping and dramatically increased agricultural production. Commerce also began to flourish. Delta region in Yangtze River started to be commercialized rapidly and became the center of trade in Southern China and Southeast Asia. Grain, cotton, silk and tea were cultivated for commercial purpose and widely traded throughout the state. These progresses were possible because of high level of domestic and political stability in Qing dynasty and efficient policies such as encouraging reclamation of western land by tax favor, improving irrigation facility and promoting commerce.
            During the 18th century, economy prosperity and population increase was maintained and even facilitated because of influx of silver to Chinese domestic market, which meant the increase of money supply. Trade with Europe increased 5 times between 1720s and 1760s, and 8 times until the end of 18th century. China exported more and more pottery, silk and tea to Europe, but rarely imported products from Europe. This imbalanced trade increased the influx of silver and caused steady inflation which activated commerce. Between 1620 and 1820, the amount of silver increased 0.9% while the price of grain increased 0.7% (1). Low inflation despite increase in money supply demonstrates that small scale of increase of productivity existed in this period. Economic growth in 18th century enabled population increased to about 300 millions.
            However, prosperity in 18th century disguised the imminent saturation of Chinese economy which would result in depression. Excessive farming greatly harmed environment: forest was destroyed, farming land became barren and excretions of livestock used as fertilizer polluted farming lands. These environmental disruption gradually decreased productivity of agriculture. Also, booming commerce greatly depended on influx of silver from Europe, so if the amount of silver in Chinese domestic market would decrease, Chinese commerce would stagnate.
            Until the beginning of the 19th century, Chinese economy remained in favorable conditions, but it became worse in the mid 19th. First, ruined farmland and crowded border regions could not afford population increases anymore. Actually, rate of increase in population dropped from about 0.7% to 0.3% during the mid 19th century, proving that production could no longer support population increase. Second, in the 1820s, China started to import opium against its own will, and lost great amount of silver. About from a quarter to a half of silver flown in from 1700 to 1820 flew out from China because of opium trade. Moreover, Chinese people started to store silver coins instead of using them in market. These changes caused 40 percent of deflation from 1820 to 1850, increasing in the value of silver coin. Farmers had to pay tax by silver, so they had to sell more products. Government could not reduce tax or finance public works to reinvigorate economy because it had to fight back rebellions throughout china. Also, in the 19th century, prevalent corruption natural calamities harassed Chinese people, and government could not deal with them appropriately. As a result, Qing dynasty lost credibility among common people.

Notes

      Richardson, Philip, (page)



International Relations (as of February 25th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

II. China before 1861

II.2 International Relations
            Chinese believed that they are the center of the world and decided the diplomatic policy of the Chinese empire based on this belief. Because China was able to sustain its economy independently with vast amount of agricultural production, it regarded foreign trade unnecessary. Traditionally, Chinese empires involved in trade with their subjugated countries because they regarded it as a responsibility as the world¡¯s greatest power to uncivilized people.
            Qing dynasty was not an exception. Until the 18th century, it was the greatest country on earth regarding its huge territory, large population, and flourishing economy. Its hegemony was evident in East, Central and South East Asia. Korea, Kingdom of Ryukyu and Vietnam were independent, but they identified themselves as servant of Qing dynasty and rendered tribute. Moreover, rulers in those countries called themselves ¡°king¡± (in Korean ¡°Wang¡±), which is lower than ¡°emperor¡± (in Korean ¡°Hwang Je¡±) in Asian culture. In return, it legitimated its subjugated kings and allowed merchants of those countries to trade with it. Burma, Nepal and Thailand were also militarily defeated and became tributary states of it; Khanates in central Asia also paid tributes. However, Qing Dynasty did not exploit subjugated countries. Proud as a dominant country, it helped them by giving tributary states valuable items like teas, silvers, and silks and supporting them militarily in wars. This shows that the national pride rather than economic profit was a main motivation and goal of diplomacy policy of Qing dynasty.
            Europeans and Chinese first came into contact when the Portuguese merchant ship reached Canton (Guangzhou) in 1517. Portuguese seized and fortified Macau in 1557, and Dutch East India Company established their foothold in Taiwan in 1624. Although European merchants asked trade to Ming dynasty many times, it officially opened only one port, Canton, to western merchants.
            The relationship between Qing dynasty and European countries was imbalanced because Europeans wanted Chinese products more than Chinese wanted European products. Chinese people regarded European countries as its tributary states like its neighborhood and belittled European cultures as "barbaric". They thought Europeans vitally needed products such as tea and sea oak for survival. This unequal relationship was apparent in Chinese early laws on European trade. European merchants were unable to trade directly trade with Chinese people and had to sign contracts with Chinese agents. Also, they could not visit all districts of the city freely and hire Chinese people personally. Despite these regulations, Europeans still tried to make up to Chinese officers, and competed with each other to gain more advantages.
            Conflict between Great Britain and Qing dynasty began in 1793 when Britain sent a large diplomatic mission of 600 people to establish equal diplomatic relationship with China. When McCartney, the British representative, met Qianlong Emperor, he rejected to kowtow and surprised mandarins who regarded this courtesy natural. As the Emperor permitted McCartney to bow in British style, this incident was concluded, but this was the first official cultural conflict that a European did not submit to Chinese. During the negotiation, McCartney tried to establish equal diplomatic relationship with China. However, Chinese emperor still regarded Britain inferior and rejected British offer. Instead he ordered his servants to show British mission every part of China to boast its military and vast territory. However, McCartney observed outdated Chinese industry and corrupted local administration, and concluded that Qing Empire is no longer the greatest power on earth.
            Great Britain imported great amount of silk and tea from China, and paid great amount of silver in return. To compensate trade deficit, Britain started to sell opium, cultivated in India, indirectly to China and caused serious problems in China such as outflow of silver and drug addiction. Lin Zexu, the governed of Canton, banned opium trade and confiscated all opium from British merchants to solve the problems. This caused minor conflict between Britain and Qing dynasty. This conflict was intensified when Britain took a marine who killed a Chinese without the agreement of Qing dynasty. Qing dynasty asked Britain to take him back, but British governor openly said he would not accept British people executed by Chinese government. Daoguang Emperor became furious and ordered to expatriate all British and to ban all kinds of trade with Britain. This order severely damaged Great Britain because its economy heavily depended on trade, so British parliament finally declared war against China (First Opium War, 1839). Many people thought Britain would fight desperately, but British warships easily defeated Chinese Junks and attacked Nanjing, an important city for the control of Great Canal. Consequently, China had to sign Treat of Nanjing (1842) with Britain. This treaty forced China to establish official and equal diplomatic relationship with Great Britain, open 5 ports, lease Hong Kong to Great Britain, and admit British's extraterritoriality.
            After the first opium war and treaty of Nanjing, Western powers started to belittle China and tried to find any excuse for invasion. In 1856, Qing officials arrested the crews of Arrow, suspected of piracy and smuggling. British officials in Guangdong asked to return the ship and release crews because it was registered in Hong Kong. Moreover, they argued that Chinese soldiers mocked the British ensign. Finally, the war between Qing dynasty and Great Britain its allies, Russia, United States and the Second French Empire broke out (Second Opium War). Qing dynasty had to deal with Taiping rebellion, so it could not resist western army. Finally, Qing dynasty and Western allies signed series of unequal treaties: Treaty of Tianjin (1858), Treaty in Aigun (1858), Treaty of Beijing (1860). In consequence, Qing dynasty lost left bank of Amur River to Russia, established diplomatic relationship with France, United States and Russia, opened ten more ports, allowed foreign vessels to navigate freely on Yangtze River, and paid great amount of indemnity.



Working Table of Contents (as of February 25th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I.) Introduction
II.) China before 1861
II.1) Domestic Politics
II.1.1) Rebellions in 19th century Qing dynasty
II.1.2) Reforms
II.2) International Relations
II.3) Economy
II.4) Public Finances
III.) Foreign loan from 1861 to 1893 (before 1st Sino-Japanese war)
III.1) Introduction
III.2) Rebellions in late 19th century
III.3) Railroad Construction
III.4) Yellow River Flood
III.5) Zongli Yamen
IV.) Foreign loan from 1904 to 1911 (after 1st Sino-Japanese war)
IV.1) Introduction
IV.2) Sino-Japanese war
IV.3) Hundred day's reform
IV.4) Boxer's rebellion
IV.5) Railroad construction
IV.6) Chinese revolution
V.) Chinese Maritime Customs Service
VI.) Motivation for foreign countries to give loan to china
VI.1) Financial gain: Diversification
VI.2) Diplomacy
VI.2.1) Great Britain
VI.2.2) Russia
VI.2.3) Japan
VI.2.4) France
VI.2.5) Germany
VII.) Influence of Foreign loan to China
VII.1) Diplomacy
VII.2) Government deficit
VII.3) Industry and Infrastructure
VII.3.1) War industry
VII.3.2) Rail road
VII.3.3) Others
VII.4) Weakened Financial Market
VIII.) Conclusion
IX.) Timeline
Bibliography



Chaoter II (as of December 19th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

II. China before 1861
            Chinese empires believed that they are the center of the world, and this belief decided the traditional diplomacy policy of China. Because Chinese economy was able to sustain itself with its vast amount of agricultural production, Chinese empires regarded trade unnecessary. They permitted trades to their subjugated countries and regarded these trades as a responsibility as the world¡¯s greatest power to uncivilized people.
            Qing dynasty was not an exception. Until the 18th century, Qing dynasty was the greatest country on earth regarding its huge territory, vast population, and flourishing economy. Qing dynasty¡¯s great power was evident in East, Central and South East Asia. Korea, Kingdom of Ryukyu and Vietnam were independent, but they identified themselves as servant of Qing dynasty rendered tribute to Qing dynasty. Also, kings in those countries called themselves "king", which is lower than "emperor" in Asia. In return, Qing dynasty allowed them to trade with it, and legitimated kings in those countries. If the king in those countries wad not legitimized by Qing dynasty, they were illegitimate in theory. Burma, Nepal and Thailand were also defeated by Qing dynasty and became its tributary states. Khanates in central Asia also paid tributes to Qing. However, this vertical relationship did not mean exploit. Qing dynasty felt a great proud as a leading country of the world, and granted teas, silvers, and silks to its tributary countries. Moreover, when they are endangered, Qing dynasty helped them militarily. This shows that the major motivation for Qing diplomacy was not economic gain; it was to enhance pride.
            Europeans and Chinese first came into contact when the Portuguese merchant ship reached Canton (Guangzhou) in 1517. In 1557, Portuguese seized and fortified Macau, and in 1624, Dutch East India Company established their foothold in Taiwan. Yet, from the Ming dynasty, only one port, Canton, was officially opened to western merchants. The relationship between Qing dynasty and European countries was also imbalanced because Qing regarded all European countries as its tributary states like its neighborhood and belittled European cultures as "barbaric". Chinese people thought products such as tea and sea oak from China were vital for Europeans for survival. European merchants must hire Chinese agents, and were unable to trade directly trade with Chinese people. However, they still tried to make up to Chinese officers, and competed with each other to gain more advantages. For example, in 1637, the representative of English merchants kowtowed to the Qing emperor.
            Conflict between Great Britain and Qing dynasty began in 1793. Britain sent a diplomatic mission of 600 people led by McCartney mainly to establish equal diplomatic relationship. However, when meet Qianlong Empire, McCartney rejected to kowtow and this surprised mandarins because they regard this courtesy as fair. Finally, Qing dynasty rejected British offer and showed many parts of Chinese empire to show off its vast territory. Emperor rejected to Yet, McCartney found out that Chinese science and technology was legged behind and Qing dynasty was full of corruption.
            Finally, in 1838, First opium war occurred. To compensate trade deficit, Great Britain indirectly sold opium to China and this caused the huge social problem in China. Qing emperor name Lin Zexu as a governed of Canton, and Lin Zexu banned all opium trade and confiscate all opium from British merchants. Also, Qing tried to arrest a British marine who killed a China but Britain just took him without Chinese agreement. This enraged Qing dynasty and it ordered to expatriate all British and banned all kinds of trade with Britain. In that period, Great Britain economy was very dependent on trade, and British government finally decided to fight with China. Many people thought this will be a hard war, but British navy easily defeated Chinese navy with Junk and attacked Nanjing, an important city to control Great Canal. This forced China to sign Treat of Nanjing with Britain. In this treaty China had to establish official diplomatic relationship with China, open 5 ports, give Hong Kong to Great Britain, and admitted British extraterritoriality.
            After the first opium war and treaty of Nanjing, Western powers started to regard China powerless, and tried to find any excuse for the invasion. In 1856, Arrow Incident occurred. Qing officials arrested the crews of a ship, Arrow, which was suspected of piracy and smuggling. British officials in Guangdong asked to return that ship because it was registered in Hong Kong, and argued that Chinese soldiers mocked the British ensign. This finally caused the war between Qing dynasty and Great Britain its ally, Russia and Second French Empire. Qing dynasty was dealing with Taiping rebellion in that period, so they had not enough power to resist western army. Finally, they signed series of unequal treaties : Treaty of Tianjin, Treaty in Aigun, Treaty of Beijing. In consequence, Chinese lost left bank of Amur River and was pushed back the border to Argun River. Moreover, Qing dynasty now had to establish diplomatic relationship with France, United States and Russia, open ten more ports, allowed foreign vessels to navigate freely on Yangtze River, and pay great amount of indemnity.



Working Table of Contents (as of November 27th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I.) Introduction
II.) China before 1861
II.1) Domestic Politics
II.1.1) Rebellions in 19th century Qing dynasty
II.2) Diplomacy
II.3) Industry and Demography
II.4) Finance
III.) Foreign loan from 1861 to 1893 (before 1st Sino-Japanese war)
III.1) Introduction
III.2) Rebellions in late 19th century
III.3) Zongli Yamen
III.4) Yellow River Flood
IV.) Foreign loan from 1904 to 1911 (after 1st Sino-Japanese war)
IV.1) Introduction
IV.2) Sino-Japanese war
IV.3) Hundred day's reform
IV.4) Boxer's rebellion
IV.5) Railroad construction
IV.6) Chinese revolution
V.) Chinese Maritime Customs Service
VI.) Motivation for foreign countries to give loan to china
VI.1) Financial gain: Diversification
VI.2) Diplomacy
VI.2.1) Great Britain
VI.2.2) Russia
VI.2.3) Japan
VI.2.4) France
VI.2.5) Germany
VII.) Influence of Foreign loan to China
VII.1) Diplomacy
VII.2) Government deficit
VII.3) Industry and Infrastructure
VII.3.1) War industry
VII.3.2) Rail road
VII.3.3) Others
VII.4) Weakened Financial Market
VIII.) Conclusion
IX.) Timeline
Bibliography




Bibliography (as of November 6th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Bibliographic Sources
1.      Richardson, Philip; "Economic Changes in China c.1800-1950", United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1999
2.      Cheong, Sung-hwa; Ganse, Alexander; Bibliography of Western language publications on Korea 1588 ? 1590, Seoul: Myoungji ? LG Korean Studies Library, 2008

II. Primary Sources
3.      Fredrik Martin; "The Statesman's year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the civilised world for the year 1878"; London: Macmillan and CO.; 1878
4.      J.C Scott Keltie; "The Statesman's year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the civilised world" for the years 1889, 1895, 1901, 1902, 1904, 1905, 1907, 1910 London: Macmillan

III. Secondary Sources
5.      Richardson, Philip; "Economic Changes in China c.1800-1950", United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1999
6.      Goetzmann, William. N and Ukhov Andrey, "China and the World Financial Markets 1870-1930: Modern Lessons from Historical Globalization", Wharton Financial Institutions Center, July 20, 2001
7.      Session 152: Foreign Influences and State Power in Qing Dynasty, Richard S. Horowitz http://www.aasianst.org/absts/1997abst/china/c152.htm
8.      Timeline of Chinese history from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_chinese_history
9      Timeline: Qing Dynasty 1860-1874, WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/china/tlchn18601894.html
10.      Timeline: Qing Dynasty 1894-1911, WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/china/tlchn18941911.html
11.      History of Yellow River from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_river#History_of_the_changing_Yellow_river
12.      River flood in 1887 from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1887_the_river_flooded
13.      Chinese Maritime Customs Service from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Maritime_Customs_Service
14.      The Chinese Maritime Customs Service: Forgotten History from Radio86 : All about China http://www.radio86.co.uk/explore-learn/china-facts/history/5036/the-chinese-maritime-customs-service-forgotten-history

IV. Sources which may be relevant, but which will not be used
15.      Naughton, Barry; The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth; MIT Press
16.      Pomeranz, Kenneth; The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy: Princeton University Press, 2001
17.      Edelstein, Michael, 1982, Overseas Investment in the Age of High Imperialism, Methuen and Co. New York
18.      Feis, Herber, 1930, Europe, The World¡¯s Banker: 1870-1914, Yale Press, New Haven
19.      Huenemann, Ralph William, 1984, The Dragon and the Iron Horse: the Economics of Railroads in China 1867-1937, The Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, Cambridge.
20.      Stanley, John C., 1970, Late Ch¡¯ing Finance: Hu Kuang-Yung as an Innovator, East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, Cambridge.
21.      Edward, E.W; British Diplomacy and Finance in China 1895-1914: Oxford University Press
22.      Bland J.O.P; Li Hung-Chang (Masters of the Nineteenth Century)
23.      Foster, John W; Memoirs of the Viceroy Li Hung Chang;



Timeline (as of September 25th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment





Bibliography (as of September 24th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

1.      Richardson, Philip; "Economic Changes in China c.1800-1950", United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1999
2.      Goetzmann, William. N and Ukhov Andrey, "China and the World Financial Markets 1870-1930: Modern Lessons from Historical Globalization", Wharton Financial Institutions Center, July 20, 2001
3.      Fredrik Martin; "The Statesman's year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the civilised world for the year 1878"; London: Macmillan and CO.; 1878
4.      J.C Scott Keltie; "The Statesman's year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the civilised world for the year 1889"; London: Macmillan and CO.; 1889
5.      J.C Scott Keltie; "The Statesman's year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for the year 1895"; London: Macmillan and CO.; 1895
6.      J.C Scott Keltie; "The Statesman's year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for the year 1901"; London: Macmillan and CO.; 1901
7.      J.C Scott Keltie; "The Statesman's year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for the year 1902"; London: Macmillan and CO.; 1902
8.      J.C Scott Keltie; "The Statesman's year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for the year 1904"; London: The Macmillan Company; 1904
9.      J.C Scott Keltie; "The Statesman's year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for the year 1905"; London: The Macmillan Company; 1905
10.      J.C Scott Keltie; "The Statesman"s year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for the year 1907"; London: The Macmillan Company; 1907
11.      J.C Scott Keltie; "The Statesman's year book: Statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for the year 1910"; London: The Macmillan Company; 1910
12.      Session 152: Foreign Influences and State Power in Qing Dynasty, Richard S. Horowitz http://www.aasianst.org/absts/1997abst/china/c152.htm
13.      Timeline of Chinese history from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_chinese_history
14.      Timeline: Qing Dynasty 1860-1874, WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/china/tlchn18601894.html
15.      Timeline: Qing Dynasty 1894-1911, WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/china/tlchn18941911.html
16.      History of Yellow River from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_river#History_of_the_changing_Yellow_river
17.      River flood in 1887 from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1887_the_river_flooded
18.      Chinese Maritime Customs Service from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Maritime_Customs_Service
19.      The Chinese Maritime Customs Service: Forgotten History from Radio86 : All about China http://www.radio86.co.uk/explore-learn/china-facts/history/5036/the-chinese-maritime-customs-service-forgotten-history