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The War of Spanish Succession, 1701-1714

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Cho, Namje
Term Paper, AP European History Class, November 2007

Table of Contents

I. Introduction - Succession Wars in the 18th Century
II. European Balance of Power in the 18th Century
II.1 Louis XIV's Influence
II.1.a Absolutism and Standing Armies
II.1.b War of the Grand Alliance, 1688-1697
II.2 Wealth and Economy
II.3 Population
III. War of the Spanish Succession, 1701-1714
III.1 Overview
III.2 Causes of the War
III.2.a Inheritance (First and Second Partition Treaties)
III.2.b Louis XIV's Actions
III.2.c Taking Sides (Struggle for Power)
III.3 Military Conflicts
III.3.a Early Phase, 1701-1703
III.3.b Middle Phase, 1704-1709
III.3.c Late Phase, 1704-1709
III.4 The War in North America
III.4.a Overview
III.4.b Queen Anne's War, 1702-1713
III.4.c The First World War ?
IV. The Aftermath
IV.1 Overview
IV.2 Political and Territorial Change
IV.3 Quadruple Alliance
V. Conclusion
VI. Notes
VII. Bibliography

I. Introduction - Succession Wars in the 18th Century
            The hunger of rulers for supremacy is difficult to be satisfied due to the uncontrollable rise and fall of the power they seek. Such greed for absolute power has blinded them from the truth that what they wish to attain is often followed by a downfall and another nation's dominance. Rarely do nations cooperate together to maintain somewhat of an equilibrium of power amongst many different sides, and as evident in history, people's desires to attain power and inherit the throne has served as a barrier from achieving the balance of power. Such instability of power was evident in modern European history and during the 18th century in Europe, continental competition for the throne led to power struggles.
            The major power struggle in Europe at the time and the competition to gain control over Europe led to concerns about opposing nations rising in power and gaining land. Luckily, the division of power in Europe gradually became more balanced with the emergence of new powers, and the fall of others.
            Most power struggles in the 18th century were chiefly between pretenders (1) fighting over the throne after the death of a monarch. There were many different claimants to the throne and different factions that supported them; foreign alliances were formed through dynastic unions, thus, almost every major power in Europe fought in these wars. Such wars that are provoked by various pretenders' claims on becoming the successor are called wars of succession.
            The Wars of Succession, also known as the Succession Wars, refer to the series of wars of succession fought in Europe during the 18th century. These wars include the War of the Spanish Succession, the War of the Polish Succession, the War of the Austrian Succession, and the War of the Bavarian Succession (2).
            This paper will first discuss how French absolutism and Louis XIV's War of the Grand Alliance set the scene for the Wars of Succession in the 18th Century. Although the original topic consisted of the four wars, this paper will only discuss the first major war, the War of the Spanish Succession. It will describe both military and political aspects of the war and also explain the effect it had on the balance of power in Europe.

II. European Balance of Power in the 18th Century

II.1 Louis XIV's influence

II.1a Absolutism and Standing Armies
            Louis XIV's motto, "L'etat c'est moi (3)," sums up the absolute monarchy that was developed even long before his rule. Key factors that played major roles in the development of French absolutism include the Duke of Sully's policies that improved France's economy while strengthening royal revenue (4), Cardinal Richelieu's significant increase of royal control over the nobility (5), Richelieu's continuation of policies left by Cardinal Mazarin and the latter's success in breaking up the Revolt of the Fronde (6), Bishop Bossuet's philosophy of divine rights (7), and Jean Baptiste Colbert's contribution to the increase of royal revenues through mercantilism (8). Louis XIV also pursued the policy of Gallican liberties which allowed him to assume administrative control over the Roman Catholic Church, thus limiting power of the Pope. All of these factors minimized the power of the nobility which enabled Louis's absolute rule.
            Another major French development that led to her power is the creation of the standing army. A standing army is a permanent army that is ready to fight at all times, contrary to the previous armies that consisted of soldiers hired only when necessary. These standing armies swore loyalty to Louis XIV. The Frenchmen were not only well-trained through their educations at military academies, but also disciplined through the disciplinary sets of rules enforced, which included draconic punishment. Furthermore, France had the largest state revenue in all of Europe; therefore, they were able to afford such a permanent army, and it seemed as if France could force hegemony over the entire continent, destrroying the European balance of power. However, foreign powers eventually formed coalitions against France, who unfortunately fought many costly wars that led to her financial downfall.
            Because Louis XIV was able to rule alone, he served as a role model for others, and the Palace at Versailles symbolized his power. Absolutism existed outside of France and the influence of Louis's Palace at Versailles was evident in powers like Prussia where Frederick the Great built Sanssouci, Catherine the Great built Tsarskoe Selo in Russia, and the Austrian Habsburgs built Schönbrunn (9). Absolutism significantly influenced not only France, but also all of Europe. Absolutism eliminated the power of the church and the nobility, while the standing armies shaped European warfare. Later on, it is evident how beneficial adopting these French policies were; those who didn't implement absolutism like the Holy Roman Empire and Poland-Lithuania disappeared (10).

II.1b The War of the Grand Alliance, 1688-1697
            Louis's hunger for power and glory motivated him to expand French territory which led him to fight many different wars. Before the long War of the Grand Alliance, he fought the War of Devolution (11) and the Franco-Dutch War. The Franco-Dutch War was concluded in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen where Louis gained control of the Franche-Comte and later invaded the Holy Roman Empire, successfully taking Strassburg (1681). After this treaty, France soon emerged as a major threat to control hegemony over Europe and because of this, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and his Protestant German allies formed the League of Augsburg in 1686. Two years later, William III of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland etc., led the Glorious Revolution and became King William III of England, thus creating a personal union by ruling both the United Provinces (Netherlands) and England. The forces led by Emperor Leopold I and King William III formed a coalition called the Grand Alliance, with the goal to drive France back to her lands as designated in the Treaty of Westphalia (12). The Dutch and English were superior to the French on sea; as the battles dragged on, Louis XIV was getting closer to bankruptcy. The war ended with the Treaty of Ryswick, leaving France in a bad state for the upcoming war (13).

II.2 Wealth and Economy
            In the beginning of the 18th century, things looked very different compared to the aftermath of the Wars of Succession. Although economically hurt by the War of Grand Alliance, France was still among the few powers who could afford to fight their own wars (14). The other powers that were also financially stable included England and the United Provinces.
            Despite the end of the Golden Age (15) for the United Provinces in 1672, they were still considerably rich and remained as a noteworthy threat to France when united with England, at least until the end of the War of Spanish Succession. Despite being broke in 1674, England, with a considerably larger population than the United Provinces, was of reasonable wealth with colonial possessions and a successful trade. France declined from its financial state that peaked during the latter part of the 16th century, due to the nobilities¡¯ tendencies of waging wars and forcing the lower middle class and peasants of France to pay off taxes (while the wealthy were too busy partying and evading taxes).

II.3 Population
            In 1700, France had the largest population in Europe with approximately 20 million inhabitants. England came in second with about 13 million, and finally about 2 million people in the Netherlands (16). The huge difference in numbers between France and the rest of Europe further emphasizes that France was the leader of the pack until its gradual decline by the end of the 18th century with the French Revolution

III. The War of the Spanish Succession, 1701-1714

III.1 Overview
            The War of the Spanish Succession involved the French Bourbons and the Austrian Habsburgs, who both competed for the Spanish Empire. Spanish Habsburg King Charles II's will, which left the throne to a Bourbon, triggered a continental reaction that can be characterized by fear for the union of France and Spain. In attempt to prevent France from securing hegemony over the continent by taking Spanish territories which included the Low Countries, parts of Italy, and overseas colonies in the Americas, Caribbean, and Philippines, alliances were formed against her and war eventually broke out.

III.2 Causes of the War

III.2.a Inheritance (First and Second Partition Treaties)
            Because King Charles II was heirless, the two royal families that were closest related to him, the Bourbons and Habsburgs, made claims for the Spanish throne. Louis, the Dauphin of France (17), was Louis XIV's only legitimate son and his mother, Maria Theresa, was Charles II's elder half-sister. Thus, he seemed to be the most legitimate successor; however, this succession posed problems as he was the successor to the French throne as well and he would have clearly destroyed the European balance of power with such an enormous empire. Another pretender was Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I from the Austrian Habsburg dynasty. He was Charles II's first cousin and Charles II's father, Philip IV, foresaw an Austrian succession in his will. This only strengthened Leopold's campaign for inheritance, yet his rule was similarly dangerous to the balance of power in that he would have given rebirth to the Spanish Austrian Habsburg Empire. Then, a Bavarian candidate entered the struggle when he was born in 1692; Electoral Prince Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria was Leopold's grandson (female line), yet was part of the Wittelsbach dynasty, not the Habsburg dynasty. Since he was neither a French Bourbon nor an Austrian Habsburg, England and the United Provinces supported him as he was less threatening. Because these two powers would not accept the dynastic union of either a Bourbon or Habsburg with the Spanish empire, both Louis and Leopold deferred their claims to younger members of the family to satisfy them. Louis supported his grandson, the Duke of Anjou, while Leopold supported his son, Archduke Charles.

Figure 3.2 Family tree that portrays the relationships between those who fought over succession (18)

            After the War of the Grand Alliance, both England and France were both harmed from fighting; William III and Louis XIV agreed without consulting the Spanish on naming Joseph Ferdinand the successor while Spanish territory would be divided amongst France and Austria. This agreement was called the First Partition Treaty. Spain, who did not like the breaking up of their empire, agreed to have Joseph Ferdinand the heir yet gave him all of the Spanish lands and leaving the others' pockets empty.
            Unfortunately, young Joseph died of smallpox in 1699, and England and France again agreed on a treaty. The Second Partition Treaty had Archduke Charles become the heir to the throne and receive all of the Spanish Netherlands, while the Italian lands go to France. Still, the Austrians were displeased; Leopold I wanted his son to get all of the Spanish lands, especially Italy because it was richer and easier to govern (19). However, as there were more Spanish statesmen who supported France (20), Charles II bequeathed the entire empire to the Duke of Anjou, Louis XIV's grandson. In order to prevent a union, if the Duke of Anjou inherits the French throne, his younger brother Charles, Duke of Berri, would take Spain and next in line was Archduke Charles.
            In my opinion, the First and Second Partition Treaties signify an effort put forth by Austria, England, and France to maintain the balance of power by not allowing one side gain too much. For example, the First Partition Treaty offered Joseph Ferdinand, who can be viewed as a neutral candidate because he is neither a Bourbon nor a Habsburg, the throne while both sides received their shares of the Spanish territories. The Second Partition Treaty offered the French the Italian territories while the Habsburgs would have Archduke Charles become king and get the rest of the empire. Unfortunately, as mentioned before, leaders can be blinded by their greed and hunger for power, thus any chance for an initial peace or splitting up of land without bloodshed was eliminated. This is evident when Leopold declined the treaty because he wanted the entire Spanish empire, or when Louis tried to aggressively secure hegemony through cutting off the English and the Dutch from trade with the Spanish empire.

III.2.b Louis XIV's Actions
            After Charles II left his will, Louis XIV was hesitant on whether accepting the will and risk war by claiming the entire Spanish Empire or just accepting the terms of the Second Partition Treaty. However, he was advised that France would end up having to fight Austria anyway and that the English and the Dutch would not support France if they were to impose the Second Partition Treaty. Thus, the Duke of Anjou was proclaimed King Philip V of Spain.
            After Philip took the throne, Louis XIV took an aggressive route to secure hegemony by cutting off the Maritime Powers (21) from Spanish trade. William III was angered by this and negotiated the Treaty of Den Haag which recognized Philip V as the Spanish King, yet it gave Austria the Italian territories and the Spanish Netherlands while the Maritime Powers kept their trade with Spain. After the signing of the treaty, former English King James II died in France and Louis had proclaimed that his son, James Stuart, was the rightful heir to the English throne. This proved as the final straw for William III and armed conflicts began to occur.

III.2.c Taking Sides (Struggle for Power)
            After Prince Eugene of Savoy, military commander of the Austrian forces, provoked French military involvement by invading the Duchy of Milan, alliances were being formed and sides were being taken. William III's forces, England and the United Provinces, followed by German states like Prussia and Hannover, formed a coalition with Austria while France, Bavaria, Portugal, and Savoy formed another.

III.3 Military Conflicts

III.3.a Early Phase, 1701-1703
            In the early fighting of the War of the Spanish Succession, Prince Eugene distinguished himself as an excellent military commander by beating both Duc de Villeroi and Duc de Vendome and establishing power over Italy.
            Meanwhile, the great English General John Churchill, also known as the Duke of Marlborough, was winning the Low Countries. He captured significant forts like Liege and English Admiral George Rook won the naval Battle of Vigo Bay where the Spanish fleet was destroyed and lots of silver were brought in (22).
            A year later in 1703, things seemed brighter for the French as they were successful in Germany. Bavarian Max Emanuel and French Duc de Villars defeated opposing armies and the French forces under Camille de Tallard were victorious in southern Germany.
            As the early phase came to a close, the French and Bavarian army planned to invade the Austrian capital; unfortunately, their ambitions were slowed down as both Portugal and Savoy betrayed them and joined the Austrians. After observing the rule under Philip, the English decided that their trading rights with the Spanish empire were safer if Archduke Charles took the throne.

III.3.b Middle Phase, 1704-1709
            During the first year of the middle phase, the French planned to stall Marlborough in the Netherlands while Tallard and the Bavarians would march on to Vienna, the Austrian capital. This plan failed and both Marlborough's and Eugene's forces met and faced Tallard's forces at the Battle of Blenheim. The allies (Austrian, English, and their allies) had a great success as they caused Bavaria to leave the war. Meanwhile, England, with the help of Dutch forces, captured and occupied Gibraltar in Spain, thereby attaining a Mediterranean naval base (23).
            In 1705, little progress was made by both sides and this stalemate was broken the next year in 1706, where Marlborough won the Spanish Netherlands defeating Villeroi and Eugene accompanied by the Duke of Savoy successfully drove the French out of Italy.
            Because the French forces were driven out of everywhere but Spain, it was the main theatre of the war for a few years. Although Eugene made an attempt at taking southern France, he was stopped by the French, yet disputes between French leaders plagued them for the upcoming battles. Philip V's older brother, the Duke of Burgundy frequently argued with the Duc de Vendome and this distraction proved to be all it takes for Eugene and Marlborough to reunite and crush the French army again at the Battle of Oudenaarde and then capture Lille.
            As France was on the brink of ruin, Louis XIV offered to surrender all of the Spanish territories except Naples, and dethrone Philip V. The Habsburgs, however, wanted him to use his own French army to defeat his own grandson. Louis could not accept these conditions, and with the support of the French people, continued the war and won thousands of new army recruits (25).
            Marlborough and Eugene united again to attempt an invasion of France when they fought the duc de Villars at the Battle of Malplaquet. Although they won the bloodiest battle of the entire war, they lost twenty thousand men, which were double the casualties of the French (26). Due to such a tremendous loss of men, they could not proceed with their invasion of France.
            The Battle of Malplaquet was probably the turning point of the entire war. Because the Austrian alliance suffered such heavy casualties, it not only ceased their invasion of France but also boosted the morale of the French as Villars saved France and the allies began to weaken.

III.3.c Late Phase, 1710-1714
            Although the allies launched a final campaign to invade Spain, they did not make any progress. This signified how much they weakened since the brilliance showed by Eugene and Marlborough at Blenheim and Oudenaarde. Marlborough lost political influence in England as Queen Anne, the successor after William III's death in 1702, banished his wife from the court. Furthermore, the Whigs who supported the war fell and the new Tories wanted to end the war and sought peace.
            Meanwhile in Austria, Archduke Charles became Emperor Charles VI after his brother died (1711) and at the time, an Austrian victory would corrupt the balance of power as much as a French one.
            Out on the battlefield, Marlborough defeated Villars and captured Bouchain yet was replaced by the Duke of Ormonde after he was called back to England. Under Ormonde in 1712, Villars recovered much a lot of ground that they lost Barcelona surrendered to the Bourbon army in Spain. Finally, there were no allies left in Spain and the Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated which ended fighting in France.

III.4 The War in North America

III.4.a Overview
            The French and Indian Wars are the military conflicts that accompanied the wars that were being fought in Europe at the time during the 18th century. The major participants were the British and the French with Native American allies. The war that was fought as a counterpart of the War of the Spanish Succession, the second of the four French and Indian Wars, was called Queen Anne's War.

III.4.b Queen Anne's War, 1702-1713
            Similar to the struggle for predominance in Europe leaving many sides hungry for power, Queen Anne's War was a struggle for power in North America between France and England. The battles were mostly raids and captures, mainly to win territories and establish borders.
            It was the English colonists who drew first blood when they captured and burned St. Augustine in Florida (then owned by the Spanish) in 1702. They also attacked French settlements in Acadia (also known as Nova Scotia) in 1704. In response, the French, teamed up with Native American forces, razed the town of Deerfield and massacred the colonists, including women and children. This was one of the bloodiest events of the entire war, and is known as the Deerfield Massacre. The British then attempted assaults on Port Royal, capital of Acadia, in 1704 and 1707, yet failed in both attacks. Finally, in 1710, the New England colonists supported by the British navy captured Acadia. The next year, the British led a failed attempt at capturing Quebec, the capital of New France and the war was eventually ended with the Treaty of Utrecht.

III.4.c The First World War ?
            With the European conflict on one hand, and the North American colonial conflict on another, the War of Spanish Succession can be perceived as the first world war. In Europe, the war involved practically every major power; while in North America, the colonial battles involved the British, French, English colonists, and several Native American tribes. Because of the capture of many villages and Port Royal, and the attempt at invading New France's capital Quebec, Queen Anne's War can be viewed as a significant element of the entire war; thus, with the continental warfare that occurred, the War of the Spanish Succession is clearly larger simply a European conflict and can be seen as a worldwide war.

IV Aftermath

IV.1 Overview
            The War of Spanish Succession finally concluded with the Treaty of Utrecht (March/April 1713). Although the conflict still lingered between both France and Austria, the Treaty of Rastatt (March 7 1714) and the Treaty of Baden (Sept. 9 1714) were ratified and officially ended the hostilities between these powers.

IV.2 Political and Territorial Change
            The Treaty of Utrecht recognized Philip V as King of Spain yet had him give up the French throne which ruled out the union of French and Spanish kingdoms. Although he kept the Spanish overseas empire, he gave up the Spanish Netherlands (the lands that Louis XIV wanted most), Naples, Milan, and Sardinia to Austria. Sicily and parts of Milan went to Savoy while England kept Gibraltar and Menorca. The British received the asiento, which gave them the right to slave trade with the Spanish Empire (28). Philip V also issued the Nueva Planta decrees, which ended the right for the kingdom of Crown of Aragon (Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia) to self-government. However, those who supported the French during the war like the Kingdom of Navarre and the Basque Provinces did not lose their autonomy.
            Although Austria received a lot of valuable land, Britain is probably the biggest winner from this peace treaty. With the Asiento, they attained the exclusive right to slave trading for the next thirty years. The French also agreed to cease supporting the Stuarts for the British throne and recognized Queen Anne as the rightful successor. Additionally, England received overseas territories in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Hudson Bay area (29) after winning a lot of land in Queen Anne's War. The rise and fall of powers is also evident as England rose higher with a major trading economy and world-leading naval power as the Dutch declined with the fall of their navy, which adds on to end of the Golden Age many years before.

IV.3 The Quadruple Alliance
            After the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, the four great powers of Europe formed an alliance. France, England, and the Netherlands (United Provinces) first joined the Triple Alliance. Afterwards, the Spanish, displeased by the alliance, invaded Austrian ruled Sardinia (1717). This prompted Emperor Charles VI to join the Triple Alliance, thus forming the Quadruple Alliance in 1718. The Quadruple Alliance then fought Spain for two years and defeated them in 1720. The War of the Quadruple Alliance was concluded with a treaty that had the Duke of Savoy and Austria exchange Sicily for Sardinia.
            This Quadruple Alliance remained intact until 1733 when the War of the Polish Succession occurred. Until that time, however, this alliance was formed to help preserve the peace and balance of power of the time where no one seemed too threatening as France once had under Louis XIV's rule.

V. Conclusion
            With the Treaty of Utrecht, the balance of power was finally established as France's shot at securing hegemony was prevented with the reduction of their power. Spain, with its Italian territories and Low Countries taken, declined and eventually became a second-rate nation. The United Provinces declined too, and the fall of these previously major powers and the rise of nations like Austria and England had triggered the equilibrium of power in Europe. Although a balance of power can not be maintained for a long time due to the endless rise and fall of powers, the allies in the War of Spanish Succession achieved an important feat in bringing stability to Europe for the time being.

VI. Notes

(1)      A pretender is one who claims the throne, whether occupied or not. The expression originated from the French word "pretendre" which means to profess or claim.
(2)      Article Succession Wars, from Wikipedia
(3)      "L'etat c'est moi," if translated in English, means "I am the state." French King Louis XIV, also known as the Sun King, said this to signify his complete power and absolute monarchy. As the Sun King, his "rays" spread, serving as a role model throughout Europe
(4)      Viault 1990 p. 108 The Duke of Sully served as the finance minister for King Henry IV, who became king right after the end of the Wars of Religion. The Duke of Sully promoted accounting practices to improve financial efficiency and also started sending royal officials to provinces, thus decreasing nobles' influence and power in local government.
(5)      Ibid pp. 109-110 Cardinal Richelieu was the chief minister for Louis XIV's father, Louis XIII. Richelieu continued Sully's system of reducing power of the nobility by increasing royal power in local affairs and created the position of intendant. Because of Huguenot revolts against him, Richelieu also undermined the Edict of Nantes, which resulted in the decrease of Huguenot political power.
(6)      Ibid pp. 110-112 Cardinal Mazarin was the one who took over after Richelieu's death in 1642, and ruled with the regent Anne of Austria, Louis XIV's mother. Starting in 1648, a rebellion that took place with the nobility and the Parlement against the monarchy. This movement was successfully ended five years later, and this proved the strength of monarchy and successes of Mazarin
(7)      Ibid p. 113 Bishop Bossuet had his treatise, Politics Drawn From Holy Scripture, published in 1670 which stated the philosophy of the king ruling through his divine right, which basically says how the King's right to rule is God's will.
(8)      Ibid pp. 113-114 Jean Baptiste Colbert was a mercantilist who brought financial success to France. Colbert promoted production of goods in France to maximize exports and limiting imports, improved industries and formed monopolies to increase revenue, immobilize any nobility influence in trade, and had the government more involved in the economy. It was his influence that enabled Louis XIV to live such an extravagant life in Versailles and France to have the largest state revenue in all of Europe.
(9)      Ganse 2007 p.91
(10)      Ibid. p.91
(11)      The War of Devolution was a military conflict between France and the Triple Alliance, a coalition consisting of the United Provinces, England, and Sweden. The French originally took the Franche-Comte, however, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) gave these lands back to Spain along with the Spanish Netherlands while France ended up getting some land in Flanders
(12)      Article War of Grand Alliance, from Wikipedia The Treaty of Westphalia was the peace that ended the Thirty Years' War and assigned territorial boundaries. France, at the time of the War of the Grand Alliance, had expanded more than this treaty designated and the Grand Alliance wanted the French to go back to these boundaries.
(13)      Eggenberger 1985 pp.174-175
(15)      Article Dutch Golden Age, from Wikipedia The Golden Age refers to the period that roughly covers the entire 17th century where the Dutch Republic (United Provinces) was the leader in trade, science, and art. They were one of the wealthiest powers in the world due to the successes of the V.O.C. (Dutch East India Company) and overall domination of overseas trade. Such wealth helped patron the arts and sciences thus allowing those areas to flourish.
(16)      Balance of Power, from The Spanish Succession
(17)      Dauphin was the name given the king's eldest son as the apparent heir to the throne.
(18)      Article War of the Grand Alliance, from Wikipedia
(19)      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from Wikipedia
(20)      Contrarily, it is also said that Louis XIV bribed these statesmen to get his grandson on the throne.
(21)      The Maritime Powers, or the sea powers, was the term used to describe the England and the United Provinces, a personal union created by William III. However, it would be a mistake to consider these powers as a unified state because William did not rule as an absolute monarch.
(22)      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from Wikipedia
(23)      Ibid.
(24)      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from
(25)      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from Wikipedia
(26)      Ibid.
(28)      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from Wikipedia
(29)      Viault 1990 p. 117

VII. Bibliography

Note : Websites listed below were visited in October and early November 2007.
1.      Viault, Birdsall, Modern European History, New York et al. : Mc-Graw Hill, 1990
2.      Ganse, Alexander, KMLA Handbook Modern European History, Sosa-ri : KMLA, 5th Edition 2007
3.      Fichtner, Paula, Historical Dictionary of Austria, London et al. : Scarecrow, 1999
4.      Eggenberger, David, An Encyclopedia of Battles, New York : Dover, (1967) 1985
5.      Macaulay, Thomas, The History of England, London et al. : Penguin Classics, 1968
6.      Robert Bideleux et al., A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, New York : Routledge, 1998
7.      Sugar, Peter et al., A History of Hungary, Bloomington et al. : Indiana UP, 1990.
8.      Kann, Robert, A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918, Los Angeles et al. : University of California Press, 1974
9.      War in 18th Century Europe, from Macrohistory, posted by Frank Smitha,, last revised 27 October 2007
10.      The Spanish Succession, no author,, last revised 7 October 2007
11.      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from Infoplease,
12.      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from Wikipedia,, last revised 31 October 2007
13.      Article War of the Grand Alliance, from Wikipedia,, last revised 27 October 2007
14.      Article Louis XIV, from Wikipedia,, last revised 31 October 2007
15.      Article Dutch Golden Age, from Wikipedia,, last revised 28 October 2007
16.      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from Encarta MSN,
17.      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from World History at KMLA, posted by Alexander Ganse,, last revised 18 February 2006
18.      Article War of the Quadruple Alliance, from World History at KMLA, posted by Alexander Ganse,, last revised 14 June 2003
19.      The Eighteenth Century, from Western Civilization II, posted by Harold Damerow,, last revised 29 April 2003
20.      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from Military History Encyclopedia on the Web, posted by John Rickard,, last revised 27 December 2000
21.      Article War of the Spanish Succession, from,, no revision date
22.      Queen Anne's War 1702-1713, from,, no revision date
23.      Queen Anne's War, from The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut,, no revision date
24.      Queen Anne's War, from Wikipedia,'s_War

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