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Historical Terminology: Major Eras
The American Civil War from 1861 to 1865


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Jang, Yoojin
Term Paper, History of Historiography Class, June 2009



Table of Contents
I. Reasons for Selection ? Historical Terminology
II. Reasons for Selection ? The American Civil War
III. Important Events Concerning the American Civil War
IV. Examining Contemporary Sources
IV.1 Northern Publications
IV.1.1 The New York Times
IV.1.2 Appleton's Cyclopedia
IV.1.3 Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization
IV.2 Southern Publications
IV.2.1 Richmond Daily Dispatch
IV.2.2 Other Southern Press
IV.2.3 Public Documents
IV.3 International Publication
IV.3.1 Punch and Papers Past
V. What Both Northern and Southern Sources Had in Common
VI. Concluding the War: Naming the American Civil War
VII. Possible Explanation
Bibliography



I. Reasons for Selection ? Historical Terminology
            Among topics listed for the history of historiography session, the transformation of the terminology for a single event had a unique history of its own. Though often ignored or neglected, the history of a specific term itself has significance in studying the position the contemporary participants advocated. Furthermore, each term conveys a certain intended message to the readers. To analyze the reasons behind such naming the topic under historical terminology was chosen. Moreover, the paper will try to analyze the intentions behind assigning certain names to the American Civil War and the significance it holds in studying the history of historiography.

II. Reasons for Selection ? The American Civil War
            Most wars are given respective names that emphasize their distinguishing features. In this aspect, the American Civil War is qualifies under the category of adequately named wars. Interestingly enough, during the American Civil War, both sides of the war participants had different names to refer to the same event. American Civil War, unlike other wars that occurred within the United States history, is by far the only unilateral American war that had diverse names attached. Was this a mere coincidence or a meticulously designed use of propaganda ?
            Each name given to the Civil War clearly reflects the attitude that speaks out for itself. Such diverse names suitably express the hidden intentions behind the names assigned.
            This paper will lay out how naming the war which politically divided but eventually united the nation undergoes changes by examining several contemporary sources: Appleton's Cyclopedia, New York Times, Harper's Weekly, Richmond Daily Dispatch, and several accessible journal entries. For contrasting purposes, the examination of sources will comprise a balance of sources between northern publication and those of southern publication.

III. Important Events Concerning the American Civil War
            The American Civil War was one of the bloodiest and tragic wars that began in 1861 and continued for five years. The bombardment of Fort Sumter in South Carolina in April 12th instigated President Abraham Lincoln to officially declare a state of "insurrection" and call out for 75,000 Union volunteers three days after the assault. The struggle between the Confederate states and the Union continued and antagonistic feelings toward each parties soared as the war raged on. Though there were some decisive turning points such as the Battle of Antietam and the Battle of Gettysburg, none of these events were more compelling in changing the attitude toward the war than the issuing of the Declaration of Independence in January 1st, 1863. Starting from the Battle of Antietam, the war gradually began to turn against the Confederates' advantage. This subtle yet imminent disadvantage foreshadowed the Confederates eventual surrender in April 1865. It will be necessary to keep some of these important dates in mind to look for a specific change in the term used to refer to the American Civil War.

IV. Examining Contemporary Sources

IV.1 Northern Sources

IV.1.1 The New York Times


            A New York publication, the New York Times (NYT) is a prominent and serious northern publication to observe the evolution of the American Civil War terminology. The NYT was selected as a source because it provides numerous free articles accessible online.
            Different versions of the names of the American Civil War were found. Among headlines of Civil War articles, "the war" appeared most frequently. The next most common term that was employed was "rebellion." Headlines such as "The Rebellion; What the Abolitionists think of the War" were released and special dispatches from Washington were titled "The Secession Rebellion," "The Southern Rebellion, and even "The Great Rebellion."
            Branding the South's secession as a "rebellion" appeared more during the earlier years of the conflict probably because individual battles, not the separation, became major issues as the war progressed.
            Other forms to term the war included "the American War." While not often used, the phrase "the American War" was visible when the NYT attempted to report the stance the London Times, a foreign press, was taking. Surprisingly, the full phrase "American Civil War" was used the least in titling the war, utilized less than 13 times as headlines during the five years of war.
            Last but not least, there were two intriguingly titled editorials: "The War a War of the People against the Aristocracy" and "The War a War Against General Disorganization." Published in 1862, the first editorial claimed that the war would be able to abolish the "aristocracy" that exists in the South. The editorial criticized that the Southern aristocratic social structure aggravated the condition of the tenant farmers since only a tiny percentage were privileged to enjoy a plantation life. In short, the editorial saw the war as a suitable solution to eradicate the undemocratic aristocracy in the South and acclaimed the prospect of a fair and democratic nation. Like the first editorial, the second editorial applauded the war¡¯s positive expected consequences. Printed in 1864 towards the end of the war, the editorial focused more on how the war will resolve the complete disorder. Though not significant in changing the history of terminology, the two editorials effectively conveyed the negative impression the Union population had of the South during the national conflict.
            For crystal clear reason, the NYT never published articles with a title that hinted anything positive of the Southern states' actions. The founders, Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Joes, set their goal to produce a newspaper filled with impartial reportage. (Faust p.532) Unfortunately for Raymond and Joes, the newspaper only partially fulfilled its initial goal for many journalists preferred civil war names that were pro-Union.

IV.1.2 Appleton¡¯s Cyclopedia
            Volumes that were readily accessible include those printed in 1862, 1863, and 1864. Unfortunately, the Appleton's Cyclopedia did not provide online archives and database, thus, the beginning and the ending years of the wars as unfolded in the Cyclopedia are not covered in this paper. Because articles that are relevant to the American Civil War consist of more than several hundred pages, this paper will cover only the references to the war. In each volume, the Cyclopedia encompasses all areas of the indicated year including, but not limited to, social, civil, economic, military, and political affairs. Appleton's Cyclopedia has comprehensive coverage of articles related to the American Civil War. From the beginning, the Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia establishes a crystal clear difference between the northern and the southern government. It strictly distinguishes matters related to the Confederate States by categorizing them into separate sections. The volumes published between years 1861 and 1865 include articles like Confederate Army, Army of the United States, Army Operations, Confederate States, United States, US Congress, Confederate Congress, Confederate Navy, United States Navy, and Operations of US Navy. Under each section one can easily find letters and historical documents written by generals and soldiers and see the different names people used to call the war.
            Though published in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the US for the Southern District of New York, the Cyclopedia is less biased compared to other contemporary sources and maintains a fairly objective standpoint. Among 3000 pages that had mentions of the civil war, no adjectives indicating aggressive attitude were found. The Cyclopedia found its way to avoid using "civil war" by replacing it into less emotion-laden words. The following is a list of terms that could be observed in the Cyclopedia to indicate the American Civil War: "the war," "the battle," "the results of the previous year," "the conflict," "hostilities," "invasion," "military operation," "general movement," and the "present struggle to maintain a separation from the other States." On top of that, the publishers mildly addressed the list of the Confederate officers as "an official list of general officers in the service [under the Confederate Army]." (The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1864: "Confederate Army") No emotion-rousing words like "enemy" were found.
            However, this objectivity was limited to only to a certain extent. When reading the Civil War materials in the Cyclopedia, implicitly hinted signs that the publishers were siding with the Union were discovered. On a very obvious level, the pages under the Union materials make up a clear majority of each Cyclopedia volumes. The Confederate affairs were at most 20 pages long in each volume. In addition, while the 1862 volume analyzes the weakness of Confederate Army and embraces documents revealing the dire situation of the Confederate troops, there is no mention of such criticisms for the United States standing army.
            It is interesting to note that not a single word was mentioned about the "civil war." In fact, there was not even a separate section for the war itself, only detailed accounts of the war. The closest the Cyclopedia went in calling the war the "civil war" was when the 1864 volume indicated that the nation was involved in an "internal conflict." In other words, during the war, the Cyclopedia deemed that the two belligerents were essentially different entities, thus, reluctant to use "civil."
            The Cyclopedia employed the aforementioned list of commonly spotted terms to refer to the war - perhaps, careful not to start a new debate on the touchy subject of naming the "conflict."

IV.1.3 Harper's Weekly : A Journal of Civilization
            Harper¡¯s Weekly capitalized on the popularity of illustrated newspapers. (Faust p.243) The newspaper was distributed each Saturday and had a national circulation, though it was published in New York.
            Before the war broke out, Harper¡¯s Weekly was very careful not to upset its wide Southern readership. Therefore prior to the American Civil War, the political magazine issued moderate editorial on slavery. However, at Fletcher Harper's direction, the newspaper kept an unflagging pro-Union, pro-war policy throughout the Civil War. (Faust p.243) Harper's Weekly frequently depicted federal servicemen as heroes and patriots, and most Confederates as villains and traitors. And this was clearly demonstrated in all scanned copies of the Harper's Weekly. In essence, the journal served as propaganda for the Union in enforcing the idea that the Confederate states were wrong in seceding.
            The weekly magazine was accessed via an online archive to find subtle differences in terminology. This paper sought to concentrate on when the nuances for certain terms changed. Fortunately, all issues published during the war were accessible
            Among the cotemporary northern press, the Harper's Weekly was one of the few to directly call the war the "civil war." The term first appeared in the 225th issue of Harper's Weekly. On the same issue, the article read "the battle had been carried on solely by the batteries of the revolutionists." ("Beginning of the War," 1861)
            Starting from this point and on, Harper's Weekly began to clearly demonstrate its contempt for the "rebellious Southern States." In the following week, the Weekly released President Lincoln's proclamation and called it the "absolute proclamation of war against the Gulf States." Following such articles were headlines reading "The Lounger: The Talk of Right of Revolution," "The War, "The Flag a Symbol," and "War !" These writings all condemned the "rebel force" and some even went to argue that the "Southern have rebelled and dragged our flag in the dirt" and "[the South] seek to smother us in our own blood ....They are traitors." ("The War," 1861) Emotion-laden words were conspicuous in Harper's Weekly's publications.
            Throughout all Harper's Weekly articles, the magazine interchangeably used "the civil war" and "rebellion." But as the war went on, Harper's Weekly assigned specific war names instead of mentioning the war in general term. Articles published during 1862 and 1863 were usually a combination of "battle" or "attack" and a region's name: "The Battle of Fredericksburg," and "Unsuccessful Attack on Sumter."
            The attitude Harper's Weekly posed to the Confederate States continued and somewhat offensive headlines read "Coaxing Rebels," published in September 26, 1863. Harper's Weekly concluded the final Civil War issue with yet another insulting article "What Next ?" which blamed the South for causing the chaos; "It was cowardice, calling itself conservatism, that led us into the war." ("What Next ? 1865) Clearly, Harper's Weekly showed disapproval and reflected its belief by branding the war as a rash "rebellion." Among the three Northern contemporary sources used in this paper, Harper's Weekly was by far the most prejudiced.

IV.2 Southern Publication

IV.2.1 Richmond Daily Dispatch
            The hardest part in researching the terminology of American Civil War was attaining the text of newspapers published by the Confederate states. The comparatively accessible Southern press was the Richmond Daily Dispatch, now known as the Richmond Time-Dispatch. This primary daily newspaper in Richmond provided different names for the Civil War and thereby rationalized the Confederates' cause.
            This particular Southern press justified the Secession as an act of seeking independence even before and during the war. The earliest emergence of this idea was expressed in the coverage in April 27, 1861. Part of the passage read that "Maryland had shed her blood freely in the war of Independence." Another issue titled the "Missouri to Virginia" claimed that the South was "to dignify the history of a second war of independence." ("Missouri to Virginia" 1861) Likewise, the Richmond Daily Dispatch persisted on its stand point that the Confederate states were merely perpetuating the American Revolution and fighting for freedom. References to "the second great war of independence" were made quite often
            An intriguing difference between the Richmond Daily Dispatch and the New York Times was that the former was more defensive while the latter was aggressive in word usage. The South only asked to be let alone. After all, the Confederate States were not the one declare war, it was the President of the United States. The Confederates merely responded to the assaults and simply provided reasons why secession was inevitable. Their action, according to them, was a step toward the new birth of freedom. On the other hand, as mentioned before, the Northern publishers charged and blamed the Southern States for beginning the "rebellion." Perhaps the Northern states were too forceful and stubborn to compromise on the slavery issue. After all, the leader of the United States frequently employed phrases like "suppressing the rebellion," evincing his contempt for the Southern states and showing signs of antagonism. (In his address to both house of Congress, Lincoln frequently reminds the people that the United States is dealing with "a rebellion.") The leader¡¯s conspicuously offensive language may possibly have persuaded the citizens of the Union believe that the war was justifiable.

IV.2.2 Other Southern Press
            Complete versions of other Confederate newspapers were difficult to achieve. Only bits and pieces of Southern articles were obtainable. Yet quite a few shared the fundamental belief that the South was fighting for its "independence."
            The Richmond Enquirer argued that the war was necessary to "constitute a prominent chapter in the future history of Southern independence." ("Confederate States of America" 1865) The attitude of celebrating the secession movement and the fight for "independence" was also found in Richmond Whig, Richmond Examiner, Charleston Mercury, and Richmond Sentinel. The Richmond Sentinel's "Our Richmond Correspondence" printed in July 4 alluded to the Declaration of Independence and concluded with an analogy that compared the Confederate States with the 13 colonies fighting against "evil." ("Our Richmond Correspondence" 1863)

IV.2.3 Public Documents
            There were times when Southerners used the word "rebellion" and "revolution," but they were utilized in a positive context. When used, "rebellion" and "revolution" indicated that the Confederate was engaged in a continuation of the War of Revolution that rejected the British parliamentary.
            When the Confederate States of America was officially declared its establishment in 1862, Thomas S. Bocock of Virginia was nominated the Speaker of the House. On taking the chair, Mr. Bocock addressed to the Confederate House that "[to] secure the independence, maintain the honor, and advance the welfare of this entire Confederacy ... we inaugurate a Government, we conduct a revolution." Throughout the speech, he almost sounded glad and proud of the South¡¯s honorable principle. (The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1862: "Confederate Congress")
            Another man belonging to the Confederate State openly supported the South¡¯s cause. Jefferson Davis, the president of the newly born nation, commented that the innocent South was being victimized but he still supported the fight for independence. In the message to the Senate and House of Representatives of the Confederate States of America in 1862, Davis said that "the unjust war commenced against [the Confederacy]" and he added that it was the duty of the new government to fight "against all the hostile influences combined against [the Confederacy]" to win "independence through revolution ... valor and fortitude of [the Confederate] people." (The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1862: "Confederate Congress")
            Last but not least, a public organization founded by Confederate Major General Dabney H. Maury also used "rebellion" to describe the Civil War. The ambitious program collected, classified, and preserved all manuscript and printed material concerning the wartime South. The public organization ambitiously began its work on War of the Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies and Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion from the war. (Faust p.705) Again, the title was intentionally used to hint a positive connotation.
            Of course, not all Southerners believed that they were engaged in a war for freedom. An enormously successful soldier in the Mexican War, General Robert E. Lee was a leading candidate to take command of the Union Army. Before engaging in the war, Lee hesitated for his allegiance was deeply divided between his devotion to his state and to his country. His uncertainty was clearly depicted in his letter to his sister, Anne Marshall, in April 20, 1861. In addition, guessing from the phrase "the whole South is in a state of revolution," General Lee disapproved the South at the time. (Bruun p.349)

IV.3 International Publication
            Deeming the exclusion of international sources as unsuitable to complete the history of terminology, this paper also sought to include contemporary international sources.

IV.3.1 Punch and Papers Past
            The ¡°Punch¡± magazine was first printed in 1841 to satirize significant political, social, economical events. This witty magazine was accessible online. Though each year had cartoons and articles related to international issues, the American Civil War was rarely mentioned. Judging from the absence of the large converge of the event itself, the English government was probably not interested in American affairs as much. After all, the United Kingdom had other crucial domestic matters at hand. Fearing to disturb the chaotic nation any more, the magazine might have thought unnecessary to further divide the already separated public and the government.
            Other foreign nations simply seemed to not care. An online newspaper archive, Papers Past, did not deal the American Civil War seriously in any of its issues. Though Papers Past, the New Zealand website, contained a collection of over 50 newspapers, none showed intense interest in North America¡¯s war affairs. Thus, international publications could not have a meaningful impact in shaping the name of the Civil War due to apathy.

V. What Both Northern and Southern Sources Had in Common
            This paper sought to find a significant change in the term when the Emancipation of Proclamation was issued. Ever since the public document freed the slaves in rebellious areas, welcomed freedmen into military service, and laid the groundwork for the Thirteenth Amendment of 1865, the Union had a more moral cause to fight the war. In other words, the document shifted the attitude toward the war from attempting to preserve the Union to courageously fighting to protect free the slaves. Noticing this change in attitude, it was expected that the Civil War sources will contain documents shifting their use of terms starting from January 1, 1863 when the slaves in "rebellious states" were officially granted freedom. However, no change in terminology was found. The Northern press continued to criticize the war as a "rebellion" and the Southern press adamantly proposed its original excuse, fighting for freedom and independence.

VI. Concluding the War: Naming the American Civil War
            Names reflect the historical, political, and cultural sensitivities of different parties and areas. Aware of the profound impact of naming, both presses of the North and the South made efforts to instill a certain impression of the war to their readers. Since most citizens relied on newspapers as their primary source of information, the presses were fairly successful in conveying the image of the enemies.
            The people and the press had room to create their own names for the Civil War because when Congress declared war they had not adopted an official name for the war. Political partisanship, encouragement for support of the war, and the absence of official name of the war all contributed to how the growing numbers of professional journalists named the pressing political and military events during those crucial years to their advantage.
            In the end, the nation¡¯s first greatest calamity received a proper title, the American Civil War. While few mentions of "civil war" were made in Northern and Southern press, the term was not capitalized. Towards the end of the war, Lincoln¡¯s second inaugural address made in 1865 termed the "impending civil war." (Bruun p.376) Lincoln remained intent on finishing the war and forging a new nation bound in peace. Since he had the task of bringing the nation together, Lincoln became more moderate with his use of term and started to lay the groundwork for the hard work of reconciliation.

VII. Possible Explanation
            So far this paper examined that the ¡°Civil War¡± did not appear during the critical years of the war. The first appearance of the term was in the New York Times "Effects of the Civil War in America," published in August 29, 1865 after the war. A possible explanation for the emergence of the term "Civil War" - after the war - could be that the name had a neutral connotation. When the war came to an end, the New York Times now had a new mission to build a sense of unity and togetherness among its readers. For this reason, the article mainly dealt with the aftermath of the war and the implied on the importance of cooperating to ameliorate the atrocities.
            When the war was over, there was a need to decide on a formal name ? for historical documenting purposes. The names commonly utilized in the Union press and the Confederate press could not be used because they were offensive to either one of the war participants. Thus, the Civil War was the proper term that described the war and, at the same time, a comparatively neutral term. Compared to the "Great Rebellion" or the "fight for independence," the "Civil War" not only adequately reflects the war but also avoids using adjectives that are controversial or offensive to a certain party. Furthermore, if the Union, the victors, adapted a name that degraded the South, then it would have been even more difficult for the Northern states to lead the Reconstruction and politically unite the nation.


Bibliography

Primary Sources
1.      Article : Army of the United States. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1862. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1863
2.      Article : Army of the United States. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1863. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1864
3.      Article : Army of the United States. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1864. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1865
4.      Article : Army Operations. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1862. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1863
5.      Article : Army Operations. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1863. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1864.
6.      Article : Army Operations. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1864. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1865
7.      Article : Confederate Army. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1862. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1863.
8.      Article : Confederate Army. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1863. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1864
9.      Article : Confederate Army. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1864. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1865
10.      Article : Confederate Congress. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1862. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1863.
11.      Article : Confederate Congress. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1863. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1864
12.      Article : Confederate Congress. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1862. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1863.
13.      Article : Confederate States. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1862. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1863
14.      Article : Confederate States. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1863. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1864.
15.      Article : Confederate States. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1864. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1865
16.      Article : United States Congress. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1863. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1864.
17.      Article : United States Congress. The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1864. New York City: D. Appleton & Company, 1865.
18.      The New York Times 15 June 2009 ..
19.      Article : Effects of the Civil War in America. The New York Times 29 Aug. 1865.
20.      Article : The Southern Rebellion..; Increase of Troops in and About Washington. Three Hundred Thousand Volunteers Offered to the Government. A New Military Department Established in the West. Movements of the Rebels at Harper's Ferry. Western Trade Interfered With. Seizure of Cattle and Horses on a Baltimore Train. Preparations in Western Virginia for Forming a New State. Stoppage of Trade on the Mississippi River. More United states Troops Taken Prisoners in Texas. Special Dispatch from Washington. Dispatch o the Associated Press. The New York Times 11 May 1861: 1.s.
21.      Article : The War a War Against General Disorganization. The New York Times 27 June 1864, Editorial sec.: 4..
22.      Article : The War a War of the People against the Aristocracy. The New York Times 1 May 1862, Editorial sec.: 4.
23.      Article : The Great Rebellion; Highly Important News from Washington. Preparations for Immediate Hostilities. A Balloon Reconnoissance by Gen. McClellan. The National Pickets Advanced a Mile Further. Retirement of the Rebel Pickets. A Formidable Rebel Battery Commanding the Leesburgh Turnpike. An Attempt to Cross the Potomac Repulsed. A Number of Important Arrests at Baltimore. Further Good News from North Carolina. Sympathy of the Emperor of Russia with the Government. Special Dispatch From Washington. The New York Times 9 Sept. 1861: 1..
24.      Phillips, Wendell. The Rebellion.; What the Abolitionists think of the War. The New York Times 28 Apr. 1861: 2..
25.      Son of the South.: The Civil War. Harper's Weekly. .
26.      Harper, Fletcher. Beginning of the War. Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 20 Apr. 1861. Son of the South. NYC. .
27.      Harper, Fletcher. Civil War. Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 27 Apr. 1861. Son of the South. ..
28.      Harper, Fletcher. Coaxing Rebels. Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 26 Sept. 1863. Son of the South. ..
29.      Harper, Fletcher. The Lounger: The Talk of Right of Revolution. Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 4 May. 1861. Son of the South. ..
30.      Harper, Fletcher. The War. Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 4 May. 1861. Son of the South. ..
31.      Harper, Fletcher. The Flag A Symbol. Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 4 May. 1861. Son of the South. ..
32.      Harper, Fletcher. War ! Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 4 May. 1861. Son of the South. ..
33.      Harper, Fletcher. The Battle of Fredericksburg. Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 3 Jan. 1863. Son of the South. ..
34.      Harper, Fletcher. Eve of the Battle Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 3 Jan. 1863. Son of the South. ..
35.      Harper, Fletcher. Unsuccessful Attack on Sumter Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 3 Jan. 1863. Son of the South. ..
36.      Harper, Fletcher. What Next ? Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization 22 April. 1863. Son of the South. ..
37.      Article : Our Richmond Correspondence, Richmond Sentinel 4 July 1863.
38.      Richmond Daily Dispatch Dr. Robert Kenzer. ..
39.      Cowardin & Hammersley. "Patriotic Devotion." Richmond Daily Dispatch 27 Apr. 1861.
40.      Cowardin & Hammersley. "Missouri to Virginia." The Daily Dispatch 10 June 1861.
41.      Article : The Mechanical and Industrial Resources of Richmond. Richmond Enquirer 28 Sept. 1861.
42.      Article : Confederate States of America. Richmond Enquirer 23 Mar. 1865.

Secondary Sources
Note : websites quoted below were visited in June 2009.
43.      Alonzo, Robert, Virginia Historical Society. cn, Southern Historical Society. Papers. cn, and Southern Historical Society. "Southern Historical Society Papers." 15 Sept. 2008. The Internet Archive. 17 June 2009 .
44.      Bruun, Erik, and Jay Crosby. Our Nation's Archive: The History of the United States in Documents. NY: Black Dog and Leventhal, 1999.
45.      Faust, Patricia L. Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War. New York: Perennial, 1991.


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