Olympic Boycotts 1980-1984


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
JYJ



Table of Contents


Chapter F
Appendix 5 : List of Countries Absent in the 1984 Games
Appendix 4 : List of Countries Absent in the 1980 Games corrected version
Appendix 4 : Countries Boycotting 1980 Olympics
Chapter 3.1
Appendix 3 : Los Angeles Olympics - NYT
Working Table of Contents, 3rd Draft
Working Table of Contents, 2nd Draft
Outline
Appendix 2 : Moscow Olympics - NYT
Appendix 1 : Montreal Olympics - NYT
Working Bibliography
Working Table of Contents
Working Bibliography




Chapter F (as of Oct. 13th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment
F.ii. Political Effects of the Boycott on the United States

F.ii.a. International Effects
         Although the US did not succeed in reducing the Moscow Olympics to a mere "athletic event," the boycott was supported by a significant number of countries on every continent. (Gwertzman, NYT, 21 May 1980, A 16l. Secretary of State Muskie, among others, made the claim that the boycott reduced the Moscow Olympics to a mere "athletic event.") These states included ten that had won medals in the 1976 Games. Carter's initiative inflicted a significant, unexpected cost upon the Soviet Union for its invasion. The boycott, for all its shortcomings, may well have "succeeded beyond any previous effort of this kind." (McFadden, NYT, 25 May 1980, A8.) Despite the fact that many nations acted for reasons very different from those of the United States, sixty-two of them did indeed act. (See Appendix 4.) "The boycott" at times achieved a sufficient magnitude to overshadow the Games themselves. While exhibiting an inability in many instances to effectively implement its policy, the United States nonetheless demonstrated a will to lead and persevere that many had though no longer existed.
         Such positive accomplishments accompanied significant costs. Administration officials could rationalize in whatever manner they desired the embarrassing failure of Western Europe to implement US policy, but the reality was that the Common Market nations acted with near unanimity in a manner directly opposed to Washington's wishes. Lloyd Cutler, the US attorney, attempted to foist the blame upon the various national Olympic committee, and thus away from government leaders, when he reasoned, "We [the U.S. government] are disappointed with the European teams who went against their governments, but this shouldn't be portrayed as our allies' [sic] deserting us because we did get support from the governments." (Weisman, NYT, 26 May 1980, A7n.) In fact, the boycott exacerbated strains in the Western alliance system and revealed a degree of disunity. The United States may have succeeded in reasserting a degree of dominance over leadership questions within the Western alliance, but it did so in spite of its fellow members, rather than with their cooperation.

F.ii.b Domestic Effects
         Domestically, the boycott campaign had positive political consequences for the Carter administration. The widespread feeling that had existed among the US public that the Soviets had taken advantage of detente and were exploiting the US became intensified, and focused upon a concrete cause, subsequent to the invasion of Afghanistan. (Hulme p. 46) Punitive measures were embraced with great enthusiasm for they affected only a few hundred athletes. Americans adjusted quickly to the idea that there would be no Olympics for another four years. The lack of television coverage from Moscow reinforced the apathy of the US public to the Games itself. How could the average American be expected to take an interest in an event in which no American were involved, and about which little information was available?
         The receptivity of Americans to Carter's boycott proposal presented the politically vulnerable president. He could "get tough" with the Soviets, and thereby demonstrate both his resolve and his leadership qualities, while in the process demonstrating several political clumsiness. It could not be denied that such a measure was likely to yield political benefits. The public support for the boycott has also relieved Carter of many inhibitions regarding the use of coercive measures against the USOC to which he otherwise would have been subject. The political journalist Derik L. Hulme wrote that ¡°It is difficult not to conclude that the boycott effort was a clear success from a domestic political perspective.¡±



Appendix 5 : List of Countries Absent in the 1984 Games (as of Sept. 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

         More countries and athletes competed at Los Angeles than in any previous Olympics. A total of one hundred forty nations attended the Los Angeles Games with 6,797 athletes competing. However, what the 1984 boycott lacked in numbers relative to the 1980 boycott, it made up for in its impact on the competition. Boxing, weightlifting, wrestling, gymnastics, and, to a certain extent, track and field would have been dominated by the boycotting nations. (Buchanan, Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement, 67) The nations which did not compete were: Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Laos, Mongolia, North Korea, Poland, South Yemen, Vietnam, and the USSR. Romania bravely defied the boycott and competed at the Olympics, receiving an ovation at the opening ceremonies second only to that of the host country. (Ibid.)



Appendix 4 : List of Countries Absent in the 1980 Games (as of Sept. 24th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

         The 1980 Moscow Games were marred by the US-led boycott which involved more than sixty countries. The Official website of the Olympic Movement reported that the number of participating nations reduced to 80, the lowest number since 1956. At the Opening Ceremony, however, Liberia was present but it withdrew after the Opening march.
         Approximately 63 countries and regions boycotted the 1980 Games. Several countries who did not boycott protested at the Olympic ceremonies. Ten countries elected not to march at the opening ceremonies, while six other nations marched behind flags of their national Olympic committees, or the Olympic flag, rather than their national flags. Several countries chose not to have their national anthems played at victory ceremonies, substituting instead the Olympic hymn. Finally, at the closing ceremony President Carter refused to allow the American flag to e raised as the host country of the next Olympics. The flag of Los Angeles was raised instead. (Buchanan, Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement, 64)
         It is almost impossible to be certain how many nations boycotted or hose to attend the 1980 Olympic Games in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The US dogmatically states that 65 nations joined the US-led boycott but that number is almost certainly wrong and too high. Because of political repercussions, many nations simply stated that they could not attend because of financial or other reasons, when in likelihood they were joining the boycott. On the other hand, among the non-participating nations, it is likely that a few were not boycotting, but did not compete for other reasons. No definitive further conclusions can be drawn concerning the number of boycotting nations. (Ibid.)
         For the record, the following 63 nations did not compete in Moscow but were IOC members, and had the eligibility to compete in the Olympics : Albania, Antigua, Argentina, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Ivory Coast (C?te d'Ivoire), Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), Ghana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritania, Mauritius, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua-New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname (Netherlands Guiana), Swaziland, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United States, Upper Volta, Uruguay, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Zaire.
         As stated, the deadline for responding to the Moscow invitation to compete at the Olympic Games was 27 May 1980. The above nations can be separated into three categories based on this 1) declined the invitation, 2) did not respond to the invitation, and 3) accepted the invitation but eventually did not compete.
         Twenty-eight nations declined the invitation to compete, as follows: Albania, Argentina, Bahrain, Bermuda, Canada, Cayman Islands, China, Federal Republic of Germany, Gambia, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, Kenya, Liechtenstein, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritania, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, United States, and Uruguay.
         Twenty-nine nations did not respond to the invitation to compete by 27 May 1980, as follows: Antigua, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Central Africa, Chad, Chile, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Ghana, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea, Liberia, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Norway, Papua-New Guinea, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, US Virgin Islands, and Zaire.
         Six nations accepted the invitation to compete, but eventually hose not to, as follows: Gabon, Mauritius, Niger, Panama, Suriname, and Upper Volta. The reasons for these nations¡¯ eventually choosing not to participate are not clear.
         There were two further categories of IOC ? ¡°member¡± nations in 1980. Both Chinese Taipei and Iran had member nations of the IOC but at the time of the Moscow invitation they were in suspension and were not eligible to compete at the 1980 Olympic Games.
         Finally, three nations were accepted into IOC membership at the IOC Executive Boarding Meeting in Lausanne on 9~10 June 1980, after the due date for acceptances to the Moscow invitation. These were Mozambique, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. These nations were not technically eligible to compete at Moscow. However, Mozambique did compete, although Qatar and the United Arab Emirates did not. It is likely that, because of the boycott, late invitations were extended to these three nations to fill out the list of competing nations in Moscow.



Appendix 4 : List of Countries Absent in the 1980 Boycott (as of Sept. 21st 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

         The 1980 Moscow Games were marred by the US-led boycott which involved more than sixty countries. The Official website of the Olympic Movement reported that the number of participating nations reduced to 80, the lowest number since 1956. At the Opening Ceremony, however, Liberia was present but it withdrew after the Opening march.
         62 countries and regions did not participated in the 1980 Games: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, C?te d'Ivoire, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, West Germany, Ghana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritania, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua, New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Zaire.
         There were some nations that refused to be present in Moscow for other reasons.
         Albania, Argentina, and China did not attend the Games, but not because of the boycott.
         Chinese Taipei also boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics, but not as a part of the United States-led boycott. They were boycotting because of the 1979 Nagoya Resolution, in which the People's Republic of China agreed to participate in the IOC if the Republic of China, or Taiwan, were referred to as "Chinese Taipei." (Article: 1980 Summer Olympics from Wikipedia) Iran, Mozambique, and Qatar boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics, but not as a part of the US-led boycott but because they were simply not invited by the International Olympics Committee.



Chapter 3.1 (as of Sept. 16th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

The Moscow Olympics

The U.S. Decision to Boycott


         First, the Soviet Union was to be punished for its actions in Afghanistan. The White House sought to increase the political costs to be assumed by Moscow, and saw that as Olympic host the Kremlin¡¯s investment in prestige, propaganda, and other resources was of such magnitude as to make a boycott especially effective. (Hulme p. 17)

         Second, Carter desired to show the rest of the world that the United States still had the will to resist Soviet aggression. In the post-Vietnam era, American determination to act forcefully to protect and promote its international interest had become increasingly suspected both at home and abroad. The failed attempts of the Iranian hostage crisis only reinforced the helpless position in which the US found itself. It was in an effort to counter this negative perception of US foreign policy that persuaded Carter to support the idea of an Olympic boycott. A US-led disruption of the Moscow Olympics would not only punish the Soviet Union but also help restore respect for US leadership.

         Among the options the White House had at its disposal to punish Moscow, it was determined that a boycott of the Olympics would have the most far-reaching consequences. Lloyd Cutler, counsel to the president, stated the administration¡¯s belief that the Moscow Games "may be the most important single event in the Soviet Union since World War II." It was thus logical, he continued, that to disrupt the Games would "deny them what was going to be an enormous propaganda victory." (Fimrite, SI, 4 Feb. 1980, 18-22.) It was this belief that Moscow was going to achieve a propaganda coup of global proportions that would confer legitimacy not only upon the regime and its political system but also upon its actions in Afghanistan that made the boycott idea so alluring. Carter could thus declare, "We have no desire to use the Olympics to punish, except the Soviets attach a major degree of importance to the holding of the Olympics in the Soviet Union." (NYT, 14 Feb. 1980, A16.) The Olympics was not to be used to "punish," unless Moscow was to be the target.

         Carter reiterated his desire to punish the Soviets via boycott in a letter of January 20, 1980, to Robert Kane, president of the US Olympic Committee. In the letter, made public at the time, Carter stressed, "We must make clear to the Soviet Union that it cannot trample upon an independent nation and at the same time do business as usual with the rest of the world. We must make clear that it will pay a heavy economic and political cost for such aggressions." (U.S. Department of State, Bulletin, vol. 80, Mar. 1980, 50.) In the context of such sentiment, it becomes apparent that the White House never sought to use the threat of a boycott as a means of forcing the actual withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. That the US¡¯s desire was to punish, rather than to coerce, was revealed by the timing and the nature of Carter¡¯s boycott deadline.

         Secretary of State Vance, with the full support of Carter, set a mid-February deadline for the full withdrawal of the estimated 85 to 100 thousand Soviet ground troops in Afghanistan. This deadline was publicly announced January 15, although not formally conveyed to Moscow. (Gwertzman, NYT, 16 Jan. 1980, A1.) It appeared that Carter, as well as Vance and other administrative officials, had few illusions regarding either the ability or the will of the Soviet leaders to produce a complete and total withdrawal in such a short time. Carter realized that even if the Soviets were inclined to retreat from Afghanistan, it was virtually impossible that they would be able to do so within the space of four weeks. Also, the decision to declare what amounted to a public ultimatum severely circumscribed the possible Soviet courses of action. With the US position so well publicized, Moscow could change its policy only at an extreme political cost. The Soviet Union would be internationally humiliated through the exercise of US pressure. No Soviet leader could ever accept such a scenario.

         Warren Christopher, deputy secretary of state, argued that "This [threat of a boycott] is the strongest single step we could take to persuade them to withdraw their troops from Afghanistan," (Jane Gross, NYT, 26 Jan. 1980, A4.) but, in fact, such a threat, especially made within the context of a US ultimatum, insured Soviet intransigence. Carter betrayed his own awareness of the effect of the February 20 deadline when he told Gene Edwards, a member of the USOC Board, "I don¡¯t want to mislead you about our chances for competing in the Olympics this year." (Amdur, NYT, 27 Jan. 1980, A1.) Clearly, Carter intended from the outset to wield the boycott in a punitive fashion. Any talk regarding a "deadline" was, if anything, a rhetorical ploy to attempt to create the impression that the United States was willing to give the Soviets a chance to mend their ways before proceeding in a decisive fashion. However, as we have seen, any public ultimatum could never produce such results, and indeed was never so intended.

         In addition to its punitive aspect, the boycott was meant to be a demonstrable show of US will to the rest of the world. The US would make a moral stand, suffer the associated costs, and thereby exhibit both its moral integrity and its capacity to endure sacrifice for a just cause. No longer would the United States be liable to accusations of being unwilling to should its burden in the fight against Soviet transgressions of international civility. The Kremlin would be shown that America could no longer be discounted as a ¡°paper tiger¡±; it was a force with which to be reckoned. (NYT, 8 Jan. 1980, 18) While, in fact, a boycott would cost the US very little, and affect only a few hundred athletes and an insignificant number of businesses, it would create the perception that the US was willing to sacrifice for its principles.

         Carter felt that only through a firm and unyielding stance could US world leadership be bolstered. Warren Christopher accordingly proclaimed the US position in none-too-subtle terms:

         "We must convince the Soviets that we are willing and able to respond to their aggression, whether in Afghanistan or elsewhere. If we permit sports to go forward as usual, after we have said there will be no business as usual, we will be sending out a contradictory signal, and one which could call into question the firmness of our resolve." (U.S. Department of State, Bulletin, vol. 80, Mar. 1980, 52.)

         Vice President Mondale endorsed a boycott as a means of establishing US credibility when he declared such a step to be "an ambiguous statement of our national resolve." (U.S. Department of State, Bulletin, vol. 80, May 1980, 14.)

         One of the major obstacles that confronted the president in his effort to convince both US citizen and foreign nations of the sincerity and depth of the US commitment to a boycott was that the recent record of the government in general, and of the Carter administration in particular, was not one to inspire confidence in American willingness to fight for a policy to its bitter end. There was an attempt to overcome this credibility problem through pronouncements that stressed that the US was prepared, if necessary, to "go it alone" in its boycott effort. Carter attempted to lend the weight of his office and personal integrity y declaring forthrightly his intentions to act unilaterally, if required, to counter Soviet behavior: "We make our position very clear, and it¡¯s predicated not on what other nations might do but on our own decision., If all of the nations go to the Moscow Olympics, we will still not go." (U.S. Department of State, Bulletin, vol. 80, June 1980, 16.) Such steadfast resolve may not, however, have existed except for public displays and speeches. Carter¡¯s statement of his willingness to act regardless of "what other nations might do" was made January 20. Yet, on January 2, Carter entered in his diary, "Only if many nations act in concert would I consider it [a boycott] to be a good idea." (Carter, Memoirs, 474.) Either Carter developed a much firmer opinion regarding the position the United States should, and could, assume during those three weeks, or else he was attempting to lure other nations toward the US position by posturing an extreme stance that would not have been adhered to had significant support not emerged. Regardless of whether or not a "fall-back" position existed, Carter was determined to adopt publicly an intransigent position, and Lloyd Cutler transmitted to the media the unwavering nature of Carter¡¯s commitment. (Frank J. Prial, NYT, 18 Mar. 1980, A3.)



Appendix : Los Angeles Olympics 1984 - New York Times (as of Sept. 15th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

Search key word: Los Angeles Olympic Boycott

Threats of Boycott

AMERICANS FACE A DIFFICULT ROAD TO 1984 OLYMPICS January 11, 1981
Mailbox; For Amateurs, Political Decisions Are Also a Factor. January 18, 1981
Indoor Track Aided. February 12, 1981
Sports-Apartheid Moves Build. April 26, 1981
South African Rugby Club Is Granted Visas by U.S.; South African Rugby Club Is Granted Visas by U.S. July 14, 1981
SPORTS WORLD SPECIALS; Nowhere to Turn. August 3, 1981
Mayor Koch's Rugby Game. August 14, 1981
MAILBOX; MAKING STRIDES THROUGH RUGBY. August 23, 1981
Upstate Rugby Is Canceled. September 5, 1981
AUCKLANDERS PROTEST SOUTH AFRICA VISIT September 13, 1981
South Africa's Rugby Players In Honolulu on Way to Coast September 14, 1981
CAREY BACKS CANCELING DISPUTED RUGBY MATCH September 16, 981
SCUFFLES INTERRUPT GAME OF RUGBY IN WISCONSIN September 20, 1981
OLYMPIC ISSUES TOBE WEIGHED September 21, 1981
Olympic Leaders Report Gains to Avert Boycott September 22, 1981
U.S. OLYMPIC HEAD ACTIVE DESPITE SNUB September 27, 1981
SPORTS WORLD SPECIALS; Out at Home? November 2, 1981
A SOLVENT OLYMPICS PLANNED February 6, 1982
INFLUENCE OF UNITED STATES ON OLYMPICS IS SLIPPING February 7, 1982
SPORTS OF THE TIMES July 18, 1982
SOVIET DENOUNCES REAGAN'S DECISION January 31, 1984
SPORTS OF THE TIMES; HAZARDS OF THE INDOOR TRACK SCENE February 26, 1984
OLYMPIC ORGANIZERS GEAR UP FOR A FRENETIC STRETCH DRIVE April 1, 1984
NO NICE WORDS IN MOSCOW April 3, 1984
MOSCOW CHARGES ANTI-SOVIET BIAS AT OLYMPIC GAMES April 10, 1984
Boycott By Soviet Appears Unlikely. April 11, 1984
Olympic Noises and Hurdles April 11, 1984
Talks Set April 24 On Soviet Charges April 14, 1984
Soviet Will Decide On Games in May April 17, 1984
SOVIET PARTICIPATION IS STILL UNCERTAIN April 25, 1984

After Boycott Decision; the Turmoil Surrounding the Boycott

MOSCOW WILL KEEP ITS TEAM FROM LOS ANGELES OLYMPICS; TASS CITES PERIL, U.S. DENIES IT; PROTESTS ARE ISSUE May 9, 1984
AFTER A MONTH OF HINTS, PARTICIPATION BECOMES 'IMPOSSIBLE' May 9, 1984
Moscow's Statement Shuns Term 'Boycott' May 9, 1984
WEDNESDAY, MAY 9, 1984 International May 9, 1984
SPORTS OF THE TIMES; THE OLYMPICS AREN'T WORTH IT May 9, 1984
FOREIGN OLYMPIC OFFICIALS WONDER IF EASTERN BLOC WILL FOLLOW SOVIET LEAD May 9, 1984
Moscow Settles a Score May 9, 1984
U.S. OLYMPIC AIDES EXPECT SOVIET TO STICK TO DECISION May 9, 1984
U.S. CALLS SOVIET PULLOUT 'BLATANT POLITICAL ACTION' May 9, 1984
BEHIND THE DECISION May 9, 1984
THURSDAY, MAY 10, 1984 International (Bulgaria joins the boycott movement) May 10, 1984
OLYMPICS DECISION HITS ABC May 10, 1984
U.S. SAYS IT WILL NOT SEEK A REVERSAL BY MOSCOW May 10, 1984
SPORTS OF THE TIMES; A TIME TO DRAW BACK May 10, 1984
SOVIET PRESS PLAYS DOWN OLYMPICS DECISION May 10, 1984
PLAYERS; SHOT-PUTTERS AND BEAR HUG May 10, 1984
JACKSON MEETS WITH SOVIET ENVOY ON PULLOUT May 11, 1984
UEBERROTH SAYS HE WAS AWARE OF SNAGS May 11, 1984
THE BIG-POWER CHILL May 11, 1984
IN MOSCOW, ATHLETES FOLLOW KREMLIN May 11, 1984
SHULTZ SAYS SOVIET OLYMPIC DECISION IS PART OF PLAN TO 'FREEZE' TIES May 12, 1984
MOSCOW AND FRIENDS WILL SIT THIS ONE OUT May 13, 1984
OLYMPICS DECISION FINAL, SOVIET SAYS May 15, 1984
OLYMPICS OFFICIAL PRESSES FOR TALKS May 15, 1984
DEMOCRATIC CONTENDERS ASSESS OLYMPIC ISSUE May 17, 1984
POLES RELUCTANTLY JOIN OLYMPIC BOYCOTT May 18, 1984
OLYMPIC GROUP FAILS TO SWAY SOVIET May 19, 1984
TV NOTES; ABC ITSELF TO PRODUCE 'WINDS OF WAR' SEQUEL May 19, 1984
THE FLAME FROM GREECE THAT REFRESHES May 20, 1984
U.S., SOVIET AGREE ON EXCHANGE PLAN May 21, 1984
OLYMPIC BOYCOTT RAISES DOUBT IN SEOUL ON '88 May 22, 1984
RUMANIA DECIDES TO TAKE PART IN GAMES May 25, 1984
SOUTHERN YEMEN JOINS THE OLYMPIC BOYCOTT ADEN, Southern Yemen, May 26 (Reuters) - Southern Yemen said today that it was joining the Soviet Union and other nations in withdrawing from the Olympic Games in Los Angeles. It was the first Arab nation to join the Soviet-initiated move. May 26, 1984
AROUND THE WORLD; Soviet Agrees to a Visit By Olympic Delegation May 28, 1984
FINAL PLEA BY OLYMPICS PRESIDENT TURNED DOWN IN MOSCOW MEETING June 1, 1984
SCOUTING; Nixon's Views June 5, 1984
CASTRO TO GET OLYMPICS PLEA June 8, 1984
A NO. 1 IN BOXING SEEKS RECOGNITION June 13, 1984
ARMS TALK SHIFT? June 15, 1984
ABC SEEKS REBATE ON OLYMPIC FEES June 21, 1984
SPORTS OF THE TIMES; THEY'LL MISS THE RUSSIANS June 22, 1984
Jackson Trying FIRENDLIER PERSUASION June 24, 1984
U.S. in Weaker Bracket June 20, 1984
THE STRATEGIES OF THE AT-HOME VIEWER July 22, 1984

During the Olympics. After July 28

THE OLYMPICS BALANCE SHEET July 28, 1984
OLYMPICS FOR THE OLYMPIANS July 29, 1984
REAGAN DELIVERS A PEP TALK July 29, 1984
ABC SEEKING FEE CUT July 31, 1984
5 MORE GOLDS CONTINUE AMERICAN DOMINANCE August 1, 1984
OLYMPIC PROFILE; A WORKING PRINCE FOLLOWS THE HORSES August 5, 1984
Topics ; Good and Bad Sports ; Discounted Gold August 5, 1984
SPONSORING OF GAMES APPEARS TO BE SUCCESSFUL August 6, 1984
SMITH SAYS SOVIET FORGED THREATS August 7, 1984
SOVIET CONTINUES ITS DERISION August 8, 1984
Olympic Sabotage August 9, 1984

Evaluation of the Boycott: After the Closing Ceremony in August 12

SUCESS OF GAMES IN LOS ANGELES LIKELY TO CHANGE FUTURE OLYMPICS August 10, 1984
REAGAN: A THANK YOU AND A HUG August 14, 1984
DOWNING OF JET A YEAR AGO SAID TO LEAD TO U.S. GAINS August 31, 1984
SPORTS OF THE TIMES; NEW OLYMPIC SANCTIONS December 5, 1984
FINAL EVENT: OLYMPIC READING June 5, 1985
The Consequences

ABC PROFIT JUMPS 46.9%, BUOYED BY THE OLYMPICS October 19, 1984
U.S. OLYMPIC GROUPS DIFFER ON SURPLUS February 11, 1985
SILENT APPLAUSE FOR ATHLETES July 12, 1985
U.S. AND SOVIET SIGN OLYMPIC PACT September 16, 1985

Olympic Reform

A Big Vote for Olympia. May 16, 1984
How to Rescue the Olympics. May 29, 1984
AN ILL-REASONED CALL TO TAKE THE 1988 OLYMPICS FROM SEOUL. June 18, 1984
AN ILL-CHOSEN GREEK SITE FOR THE OLYMPICS August 10, 1984
SPORTS PEOPLE; TV-Olympics Squabble November 1, 1984
Olympics Will Bar Officials in Boycotts December 3, 1984




Working Table of Contents, 2nd draft (as of August 31st 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

A. Foreword
B. Sports and Politics
i) Nature of Sport as an International Political Tool
ii) Conclusion
C. 1980 Moscow Olympics
i) The US's Decision to Boycott
ii) The US Public Opinion
iii) The Campaign to Boycott as portrayed in NYT
D. 1984 Los Angeles Olympics
i) The Soviet Union's Decision to Boycott
ii) The US Public Opinion
iii) The Campaign to Boycott as portrayed in NYT
E. Obstacles to the Boycott Pointed Out in the NYT
i) Constraints Imposed by the Structure of the International Political System
ii) Political Differences of Countries Targeted For Boycott
iii) Nature of the International Sports Establishment
iv) Timing of Events *
v) Past US Failures to Boycott * (more concerned with 1980)
vi) History of US Aggressive Actions * (more concerned with 1980)
vii) Sanctifying Attitude toward the Games
viii) Conclusion
F. Consequences of the 1980 Boycott as portrayed in NYT
i) Political Effects of the Boycott on the Soviet Union
a. International Effects
b. Domestic Effects
ii) Political Effects of the Boycott on the United States
a. International Effects
b. Domestic Effects
iii) Economic Effects of the Boycott on the Soviet Union
iv) Economic Effects of the Boycott on the United States
v) Effects on 1980 Games as Sports Competitions
vi) Effect on Olympic Movement
vii) The Stolen Dreams
viii) Conclusion
G. Consequences of the 1984 as portrayed in NYT
***************STILL SEARCHING
H. Evaluation of the NYT's bias
i) possible explanation
I. Los Angeles and Beyond
a. Olympic Reform
J. Appendix
K. Notes
L. Bibliography



Working Table of Contents, 2nd draft (as of August 31st 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

A. Foreword

B. Sports and Politics
i) Historical Uses of Sport (I don't think this part will be absolutely necessary)
ii) Nature of Sport as an International Political Tool
iii) Conclusion

C. 1980 Moscow Olympics
i) The Decision to Boycott
ii) The Domestic Push for the Boycott
a. Influences upon the USOC
1. Direct Government Pressure
2. Moral Responsibility
3. Alternate Games
4. Other Incentives
5. Threats Faced
6. Summary
b. Public Opinion
c. Legislation
d. Conclusion
iii) The International Push for the Boycott
a. Means Utilized
1. Government Pressure on the IOC
2. State-to-State Contracts
3. Private Persons
4. Support for Alternate Games
b. Boycott on area-by-area basis
- Western Europe
- UK
- West Germany
- France
- Other States
- Summary
- Canada
- Asia
- Japan
- China
- Other States
- Summary
- Africa
- Kenya
- Nigeria
- Other States
- Summary
- Latin America
- Other Areas
- Australia
- Puerto Rico
c. Conclusion

D. Obstacles to the Boycott
i) Constraints Imposed by the Structure of the International Political System
ii) Political Differences of Countries Targeted For Boycott
iii) Nature of the International Sports Establishment
iv) Timing of Events
v) Past US Failures to Boycott
vi) History of US Aggressive Actions
vii) Sanctifying Attitude toward the Games
viii) Conclusion

E. Consequences of the Boycott
i) Political Effects of the Boycott on the Soviet Union
a. International Effects
b. Domestic Effects
ii) Political Effects of the Boycott on the United States
a. International Effects
b. Domestic Effects
iii) Economic Effects of the Boycott on the Soviet Union
iv) Economic Effects of the Boycott on the United States
v) Effects on 1980 Games as Sports Competitions
vi) Effect on Olympic Movement
vii) The Stolen Dreams
viii) Conclusion

F. What US Had Done Wrong
i) Lack of Understanding of the International Sports Structure
ii) Diplomatic Mistakes
iii) Premature and Inflexible Boycott Deadline (later to be specified)

G. Evaluation of the Use of the Boycott
i) In the End: the Nations that Boycotted
ii) Nature of International Sport
iii) Symbolic Importance of Olympics
iv) Political Difficulties and Risks of Organizing a Boycott
v) Conclusion

H. Los Angeles and Beyond
a. Olympic Reform



Outline (as of Dec. 21st 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

How Far Have I Come ? (December 11th, 2008)
            Now I am down with the Table of Contents, which I believe I will stick to (unless I find new information). I may change the specific names of the chapter under each Olympics after reading and learning more about the three Olympics: 1976 Montreal, 1980 Moscow, 1984 Soviet Union.
            I believe I have a decent amount of compiled information on each Olympics; both paper books and electronic sources. So far I am capable of accessing eleven books but I only possess three of the books. For the other eight books I plan to either copy some pages after the finals or start to intensively go through them after the winter vacation. (Mr. Ganse, I recall that you prefer to have your books in your classroom.) Before starting my research project, I suppose that I should have a thorough understanding of each Olympics so that I will be able to understand what I will I am writing. Over the vacation, I will make sure that I read accessible information in the official Olympics website.
            With regards to the articles, I am still formulating a less ¡°perfunctory¡± list of New York Archives. I still haven¡¯t looked up in the London Times yet. I realize that comparing articles from two different nations may be a good idea but I fear that this attempt may be challenging.



Appendix : Moscow Olympics 1980 - New York Times (as of Dec. 13th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

Search key word: Moscow Olympic Boycott

1980 Olympics Face Threat of a Boycott; Soviet Influence. January 19, 1979
Boycott of Olympics Is Averted; Showdown Avoided. January 20, 1979
U.S. Athletes Look to Moscow: Optimism but Apprehension; Optimism. August 13, 1979
Invitation to a South African Team Raises Problems for Mrs. Thatcher; 'An Openly Racist Basis'. September 8, 1979
Idea of Olympic Boycott Broached at NATO Meeting; Carter Envoy Briefs Group Concern Over Need to react. January 2, 1980
Boycott the Moscow Olympics; Sports of The Times We Should Have Known Strength of an Ideal. January 4, 1980
FEW SUPPORT IDEA OF OLYMPIC BOYCOTT; Suggestion Made by West German in NATO Stirs Wide Criticism by High Sports Officials Lord Killanin Is Opposed. January 4, 1980
NBC Olympic Fortunes in Doubt. January 5, 1980
Officials Decry Idea Of Olympic Boycott; Officials Decry Idea Of Olympic Boycott Precedents for Olympic Boycott Implied Message? January 6, 1980
WEST GERMANY BARS AN OLYMPIC BOYCOTT; But Bonn Minister Praises Carter for His Reaction to the Soviet Actions in Afghanistan No Politics in Sports Praises Balanced Response. January 7, 1980
U.S.O.C. Is Uneasy About Carter Warning; Possible Winter Games Clash Ambivalent Attitudes. January 8, 1980
Canada's Leader Proposes Moving Olympics Out of the Soviet Union; Mrs. Carter Prefers Montreal Canada Proposes to Shift Olympics From Soviet Union Moynihan Urges a Boycott January 12, 1980
On an Olympic Boycott. January 12, 1980
NO NEW STEPS BY U.S. ON SOVIET ENVISAGED; But Vance Leaves Open Possibility of an Olympic Games Boycott Vance Says the U.S. Is Planning No Further Actions Against Soviet Envoy's Return Delayed Talks With Pakistani. January 12, 1980
NBC to Follow U.S. Policy on Boycott of Olympics; 'Guided by Government Policy' Loss in Profits and Audience. January 12, 1980
Soviet Charges Carter With Blackmail on Olympics; Imposed Punitive Measures Preparations Under Way Source of Prestige. January 14, 1980
U.S. Olympic Aides Say Transfer Of Games Would Not Be Possible; More Olympic Turmoil One-Fourth Might Withdraw. January 16, 1980
VANCE SETS DEADLINE FOR SOVIET TO AVOID THREAT TO OLYMPICS; AFGHAN PULLOUT IS CONDITION He Backs Boycott Unless Moscow Withdraws by Mid-February -- Refusal Is Expected Withdrawal Not Expected No Encouraging Prospect Vance Sets a Deadline for Moscow To Avoid U.S. Boycott of Olympics Prediction Was Mistaken 'It Invaded That Country' 1936 Olympics Recalled. January 16, 1980
Olympic Aides Resist a Boycott, But Welcome White House Talks; Threat Seen to Movement . January 17, 1980
U.S. Considering Seeking Support For 'Free World' Olympic Games; Carter Said to Share Vance View Clark Opposes Participation. January 17, 1980
'Moscow or Nothing,' Aide Says. January 17, 1980
Mrs. Thatcher Says Britain Favors Switching Olympics; Previous Attempt Failed. January 18, 1980
Muhammad Ali Club Agrees to a Boycott Of Moscow Games; All Cites Unjust Attack Majority of Boxers in Support Athletics Congress to Meet Boycott Set by Ali Club. January 18, 1980
Olympics Aides Consult Vance, Resist a Boycott; Officials to Poll Athletes if U.S. Decides on a Ban No Decision Yet by White House Olympic Aides Shift Views Olympic Aides Meet With Vance; Indicate Doubt on Moscow Boycott. January 19, 1980
Major News; In Summary Russia Condemned But Punishment Remains Uncertain The Olympic Boycott Can Carter, Reagan Keep Their Leads? Hyde Amendment Is Ruled Illegal. Jnaury 20, 1980
VIEWS OF SPORT Athletes Give Some Opinions On Matter of an Olympic Boycott. January 20, 1980
Letters; To Shun or Not to Shun the Moscow Olympics. January 20, 1980
U.S. Athletes Plan to Compete in Soviet This Week; Decision Left to Each Athlete. January 20, 1980
Track Stars Urge Shift of Olympics January 20, 1980
Athletes Differ on Olympic Boycott; Olympic Candidates: Views on a Boycott. March 9, 1980
JAPANESE JOIN U.S. IN OLYMPIC BOYCOTT AS DEADLINE PASSES; CAMPAIGN OUTCOME DISPUTED. May 25, 1980
U.S. to Seek Backing For Olympic Boycott From Athlete Groups; U.S. to Press Athletes' Groups to Boycott Olympics May 26, 1980
Boycott Changes the Nature of Competition at Moscow Games; Effects of Boycott on Olympics Boxing Challenge Envisioned. June 15, 1980
Boycott Impact to Be Felt Today; Was Rumored to Be Dead Olympics Will Feel Boycott Impact Today. July 20, 1980
to be continued




Appendix : Montreal Olympics 1976 - New York Times (as of Dec. 13th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

Search key word: Montreal Olympic Boycott

Olympic Exclude Rhodesia; Rhodesia Barred By Olympic Unit. May 23, 1975
Africa Threat Casts a Cloud on Olympics; Africa Threat Casts a Cloud on Montreal Olympics. May 23, 1976
Taiwan Loses Fight, Likely to Quit Games; Olympics Dispute Lost by Taiwan. July 12, 1976
A Bitter Debate Forecast Over Games Issue; Debate Over I.O.C. Ruling. July 13, 1976
Taiwan, Nigeria Quit Olympics; More Withdrawals Threatened; Taiwan, Nigeria Quit Olympics. July 17, 1976
Athletes of Protesting Nations Disappointed; Boycott Disturbs Athletes. July 18, 1976
22 African Countries Boycott Opening Ceremony of Olympic Games; Three Other Teams Also Missing 22 African Nations Boycott Opening of Olympic Games. July 18, 1976
As in the Past, Politics and Athletics Mingle at Olympics. July 19, 1976
Olympic Games Started; Guyana Joins in Boycott; Boycott Is Joined by Guyana. July 19, 1976
OLYMPIC GAMES LOSE 17 NATIONS; Withdrawal Led by African Countries in Protest Over New Zealand Rugby Team. July 20, 1976
New Rule By I.O.C. Has 'Teeth'. July 20, 1976
Destroying the Olympics. July 20, 1976
Egypt, Morocco Join Olympic Walkout; Egypt and Morocco Pull Out of Olympics. July 21, 1976
Africa Sportsmen Seeking A Compromise on Boycott. July 22, 1976
South Africa Expelled by Track Body; South Africa Is Expelled By Track and Field Body. July 23, 1976
South Africans Hail Start Of New Zealand Matches. July 25, 1976
Montreal Olympics That Opened in Strife Close on Brighter Note; Final Ceremony Both Hopeful and Ironic. August 2, 1976
Montreal Olympics That Opened in Strife Close on Brighter Note; Final Ceremony both Hopeful and Ironic. August 2, 1976
Africans Decide to Widen Boycott to Other Countries. March 1, 1977
Threat of Boycotting U.S. No Bluff, Africans Warn; Africans Warn U. S. of Split. March 8, 1977
Britain Enters Web of Sports Politics; 'Remember Soweto'. June 3, 1977
The Trauma of the African Athlete. August 21, 1977
Some Olympian Feats. December 18, 1977
Canada's Leader Proposes Moving Olympics Out of the Soviet Union; Mrs. Carter Prefers Montreal Canada Proposes to Shift Olympics From Soviet Union Moynihan Urges a Boycott. January 12, 1980




Bibliography as of November 20th 2008 .. Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Sources accessible and will be used
a.Buchanan, Ian, and Bill Mallon. Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement. Lanhan, MD: Scarecrow P, Inc, 1995.
b. Caraccioli, Jerry, and Tom Caraccioli. Boycott : Stolen Dreams of the 1980 Moscow Olympic Games. New York, NY: New Chapter P, Incorporated, 2008.
c. Kanin, David B. Political History of the Olympic Games. Boulder, Colorado: Westview P, 1981.
d. Hulme, Derick L. The Political Olympics : Moscow, Afghanistan and the 1980 U. S. Boycott. New York, NY: Praeger, 1990.
e. Bradley, Bill. "The Olympics/An Argument for a Permanent Site." The Americana Annual 1981. By Edward Humphrey. 59th ed. Canada: Grolier Incorporated, 1981. 69.
f.Brasher, Chris. "Montreal - Host to the World." 1977 Britannica Book of the Year. By Robert P. Gwinn. Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica , INC, 1977. 670-72.
g. Conrad, Ed. "The Olympics: The Summer Games." The Americana Annual 1977. 55th ed. Canada: Grolier Incorporated, 1977. 452-57.
h.Johnson, William O. "The Olympics/Troubled Games." The Americana Annual 1981. 59th ed. Canada: Grolier Incorporated, 1981. 62-68.
i.Pierson, Don. "The 1984 Summer Olympic Games." Britannica Book of the Year 1985. By Robert P. Gwinn. Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica , INC. 422-24.
j. Gregorio, George D. "The Olympics/The XXII Summer Games." The Americana Annual 1981. 55th ed. Canada: Grolier Incorporated, 1981. 77-81.
k. Litsky, Frank. "Sports: The OIlympic Games." The Americana Annual 1985. 55th ed. Canda: Grolier Incorporated, 1985. 464-69

II. Sources accesbible but will not be used
a. Schaap, Dick. Olympic Games, 1984 : Sarajevo-Los Angeles. 1st ed. New York, NY: Random House, Incorporated, 1989.
b. Brennan, Gale. The XXII Summer Olympic Games, Moscow, 1980. Ideals Pub. Corp, 1979.
c. Hazan, Baruch. Olympic Sports and Propaganda Games : Moscow 1980. New York, NY: Transaction, 1982.
d. Chandler, Otis, and Bill Dwyre. The Los Angeles Times Book of the 1984 Olympic Games. Harry N Abrams, 1984.

III. Articles to be used
still updating ...
so far I am looking up for articles on Montreal Olympics 1976 in the New York Times archives -
and my search key word is "Montreal Olympic Boycott"



Bibliography as of October 2nd 2008 .. Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Reasons for Selection
II. General Impact/Impression of Olympic Boycotts
III. Notable Boycotts
A. 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal
i) nations that boycotted
ii) their reasons for boycott
iii) impact of boycott on the Olympics
a. specific sports
b. opening ceremony
c. media
B. 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow
i) nations that boycotted
ii) their reasons for boycott
iii) impact of boycott on the Olympics
a. specific sports
b. opening ceremony
c. media
C. 1984 Summer Olympics in Soviet Union
i) nations that boycotted
ii) their reasons for boycott
iii) impact of boycott on the Olympics
a. specific sports
b. opening ceremony
c. media
IV. General Attitude Towards Boycotting Nations
V. IOC's Part in the Olympic Boycotts
VI. Accessible Resources & The Bias in Olympic Boycotts
VII. International Relations Depicted through Olympic Boycotts
VIII. Medal Race between US and USSR



Bibliography as of October 2nd 2008 .. Go to Teacher's Comment

(1)      Buchanan, Ian. Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement.
(2)      Caraccioli, Tom, and Jerry Caraccioli. Boycott : Stolen Dreams of the 1980 Moscow Olympic Games.
(3)      Chandler, Otis. The Los Angeles Times Book of the 1984 Olympic Games.
(4)      City of Los Angeles responses to questionnaires from International Olympic Committee and International Sports Federations; Games of the XXIII Olympiad - 1984.
(5)      Gale, Brennan. The XXII Summer Olympic Games, Moscow, 1980.
(6)      Galford, Ellen. The Xxiii Olympiad: Los Angeles 1984 Calgary 1988 (Olympic Century).
(7)      Hulme, Derick L. The Political Olympics: Moscow, Afghanistan, and the 1980 U.S. Boycott.
(8)      Kanin, David B. Political History of the Olympic Games.
(9)      Killanin. The Olympic Games, 1980: Moscow and Lake Placid.
(10)      The 1984 Olympics. Random House.