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Sino-Korean Relations Portrayed by European Encyclopedias 1771-1930


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Park, Keuk Ryul
Term Paper, AP European History Class, May 2008



Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Portrayal of Sino-Korean Relationship: 1771 - 1876
III. Portrayal of Sino-Korean Relationship: 1877 - 1895
IV. Portrayal of Sino-Korean Relationship: 1896 - 1910
V. Portrayal of Sino-Korean Relationship: 1911 - 1930
VI. Conclusionj
Notes
Bibliography
Appendix: Translation of Non-English Sources



I. Introduction
            Encyclopedic sources are often credited for their neutrality, or objectivity. However, the fact that it is also imperfect humans who write encyclopedic articles unavoidably involves writers' bias within an encyclopedia; in addition, the fact that encyclopedic articles are written by different contributors allows contradictory contents within an encyclopedia. Such problems are maximized when there is a lack of sources for writers, a situation which 19th century Europeans had when writing encyclopedic articles on Sino-Korean relationship.
            Until the Treaty of Gangwha in 1876, Korea maintained isolationist policies and closed its door to the world. Information on Sino-Korean relationship prior to 1876, therefore, was mainly acquired from China, naturally creating Chinese bias in articles. In 1876, however, Korea opened its ports to Japan, and concluded several treaties with western powers since then. Following complex history of Korea in the late 19th and early 20th century brought many changes in Europeans' and their encyclopedias' viewpoints on Sino-Korean relationship.
            Therefore, this paper aims to focuses on the change of European encyclopedias' portrayals on Sino-Korean relationship from the late 18th to early 20th C. The period is divided into four, using three major events on Sino-Korean relationship: Opening of Korea in 1876, Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895, and Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. The analysis is done using British, German, Swedish, and Danish sources. In the third and fourth period, as descriptions of Sino-Korean relationship vary among the nationalities of encyclopedias, comparison of descriptions by nationalities of encyclopedias would also be used. Lastly, for a convenience, a name "Korea" is used to represent all historical Korean entities, and a name "China" is used to represent all historical Chinese entities.

II. Portrayal of Sino-Korean Relationship: 1771 - 1876
            Early European encyclopedias, published before the opening of Korea in 1876, deal with the Sino-Korean relationship in a very limited perspective and small amount, mainly because of the lack of sources. It can be seen that encyclopedic articles on Korea prior to 1876 refer to the similar, and few, sources mainly from China; such insufficiency and possible inaccuracies within references lead to the lack of appropriate and sufficient description of the Sino-Korean relationship
            The first Britannica Encyclopaedia, published in 1771, only has a sentence in an article "Corea." It states that Korea is "an island or peninsula on the north-east coast of China, between 36 and 42 N lat." (1) The article, describing Korea possibly as an island, clearly manifests Europeans' ignorance of Korea when published. Obviously, there is no comment on Sino-Korean relationship in the encyclopedia at all.
            17 years later, in 1788, Oekonomische Encyclopädie publishes the 44th volume, containing an article "Korea" which addresses the Sino-Korean relationship. The article, in its first sentence, provides a Chinese pronunciation of Korea, "Tscha=osien" or "Kaoli" (2), thereby implying the Chinese influence within the country. Chinese influence on Korea is mentioned much more conspicuously in a sentence "Ki-tse gilt für den ersten König von Korea. Es war ein Prinz von chinesischem Geblüte, [...] chmesische Künste und Sitten hier einführte." (3) The sentence not only indicates a Chinese influence on Korea but also includes a Chinese claim on ancient Korean history. Such a claim had been used to justify subordination of Korea under Chinese Empires for centuries. Also, the article includes sentences such as "jetzt steht es unter chinesischer Ober-Herrschaft, hat aber doch seine eigene Könige" or "sie einen Theil ihres Tributes an die chinesischen Kaiser" (4) that directly reveal the status of Korea under Chinese suzerainty.
Such descriptions of Sino-Korean relationship do not alter much in the 19th century. Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon in 1837 includes a sentence "Schutzstaaten Tibet, Butan, Korea und die Lieukien-Inseln gehören" in an article "China" (5), showing its recognition of Korea as a dependent entity of China. Also, Herders Conversations-Lexikon in 1855 acknowledges its lack of information on Korea in "Das Land ist den Europäern fast gänzlich unbekannt" (6); then it adds an information "der an China u. Japan zugleich tributpflichtig ist," (7) implying subordinate status of Korea; however, a sentence "Haupt- und Residenzstadt ist Hanyntsching" (8) uses a Chinese pronunciation to refer to a Korean capital Seoul, and this shows that the encyclopedia exclusively uses Chinese sources and therefore includes pro-Chinese bias. Such a trend does not alter much until the end of the 19th century, and Pierer's Universal-Lexikon in 1860 also adds a similar information "welcher China u. Japan [...] tributbar" (9); Cyclopaedia of India in 1873 adds "[Korea] is tributary to China [...] successor subject to the confirmation of the emperor of China" (10); Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog in 1858-1863 also refers Korea as a "Chinesiske Riges Skytsstater." (11)
European encyclopedias published in 1771-1876 generally contain similar descriptions on Sino-Korean relationship, which depicts Korea as a Chinese patron state without enjoying much independence in succession as well as foreign policies. Such a description is due to the fact that the available sources for encyclopedic articles' contributors were exclusively Chinese as Korea was closed until 1876.

III. Portrayal of Sino-Korean Relationship: 1877 - 1895
            On September 20, 1875, a Japanese warship named Unyo reached Ganghwa island, guarded by Korean forts. A short exchange of fires proved Japanese ships' superiority, and Unyo attacked another Korean port and returned back to Japan. Soon, the Japanese government demanded apology from the Korean government, and the issue was concluded at the Treaty of Ganghwa. The treaty opened three Korean ports, Busan, Wonsan, and Incheon; it also, in its first clause, directly mentioned that Korea is an independent state, denying its suzerainty to China. The treaty was soon known to the world, and this change in diplomacy influenced European encyclopedias' way of portraying Sino-Korean relationship.
            Brockhaus' Konversationslexikon in 1894-1896 includes a sentence reflecting the change in diplomatic situation, "Korea, von den Eingeborenen bis ins 14. Jahrh. Korje oder Kokorje, von den Japanern Korai, von den Chinesen im N. Kaoli, jetzt Tschjo-sjen, Tschau- sian." (12) While the encyclopedias, published before 1876, include Chinese or Korean pronunciation of the country, the article now adds Japanese pronunciation, followed by Chinese. Meyers Konversationslexikon in 1885-1892 even adds a detailed explanation on the past Sino-Korean trade in "Vordem unterhielt K. mit China einen Überlandhandel, der jährlich im April, Juni und Oktober auf dem im chinesischen Territorium hierzu besonders angewiesenen Marktplatz an der Grenze, am Kaolimön, dem "koreanischen Thor", etwas östlich von der chinesischen Handelsstadt Fongwhangtschin abgehalten wurde." (13) It is a description on the only officially approved international trade by Korean government until its opening of the ports in 1876; the article indicates that the trade was already terminated when the article was published. As the fact that Korea maintained its only official international trade with China implies Korean economic dependence on China, its termination is a sign that Sino-Korean relationship is not as firm as before at least in economic perspective
            Despite aforementioned changes in portraying Sino-Korean relationship, many articles in this period still mention Chinese influence as an important factor in Korea. The Statesman¡¯s Year Book in 1878 does not allocate a separate article for Korea, but puts it in a subcategory of China. The yearbook in 1889, though puts Korea in an independent article, still acknowledges that "The influence of China is paramount in the kingdom, and no important step in the relations of Corea with other countries is taken without China¡¯s consent" (14); the book also adds that "the dependent relation is plainly recognized and clearly stated in the Chinese-Corean Frontier Trade Regulations." (15) It is important to note that the yearbook does mention about the Treaty of Ganghwa, yet does not recognize its international validity. Rather, the book quotes Chinese-Korean Frontier Trade Regulation and claim that Korea is dependent on China.
            The first article in the Treaty of Ganghwa states that Korea is an independent state. Influenced by this, and following trade treaties between Korea and other powers, many encyclopedic sources published in 1877-1895 do not portray Korea as dependent on China as before. However, though trade treaties, including Treaty of Ganghwa, were conducted without Chinese consent, many Europeans were still hesitant in describing Korea as purely independent state. However, the Japanese victory in the First Sino-Japanese War changes much of Europeans' viewpoints on Sino-Korean relationship.

IV. Portrayal of Sino-Korean Relationship: 1896 - 1910
            On June 6, 1894, about two thousand Chinese troops were dispatched to Korea to help Korean government in settling Donghak peasants' revolt. Responding to this, Japan dispatched more than four thousand troops to Korea two days after. Soon, the revolt was subdued by both armies, yet they both refused to return to their home country. Instead, Japan and China fought a war over dominance in Korea, which ended up in Japanese victory. The war was concluded by the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which had its first article recognition of full independence and autonomy of Korea by China; it also added that the payment of tributes by Korea should cease for the future. Not only the Japanese victory, but also the Chinese renouncement on its right over Korea surprised the whole world. Since then, European encyclopedias' viewpoints on Sino-Korean relationship altered much to pro-Japanese.
            Meyers Gro©¬es Konversations-Lexikon in 1907 is a notable example with a sentence "Das Festhalten Chinas an seiner Oberhoheit über K. war eine der Veranlassungen zum chinesisch-japanischen Krieg 1894-95 [...] im Frieden von Schimonoseki leistete China endgültig auf diesen Anspruch Verzicht." (16) Its use of the word "Festhalten" implies that the writer of the article views Chinese claim as unjust; also, the use of the word "Frieden" clearly shows the writer¡¯s pro-Japanese attitude. Plus, the article underestimates a Korea-China trade conducted until the late 19th century in "Der dortige Umsatz zwischen K. und China betrug jährlich nur 1/2 Mill. Doll." (17) Especially, the use of word "nur" shows that the encyclopedia does not view Sino-Korean economic relationship as significant. It is an interesting fact to note that the encyclopedia published in 1885-1892 does not include such a fact, but only mentions the presence of the trade. Also, it is important to note that the encyclopedia in 1907 puts Korea and Japan together when drawing a map, while Korea was with China in prior editions. (18)
            Britain did not participate in the triple intervention, in which Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to renounce some of its rights gained at the Treaty of Shimonoseki. This shows that Britain shared many of interests of Japan, and although a formal Anglo-Japanese alliance was first signed in 1902, Britain maintained cordial relationship with Japan even before. This can be seen in a The Statesman¡¯s Year Book in 1898 which states that "[In Korea under Japanese influence] many reforms were introduced, such as the payment of taxes in money instead of the kind." (19) The word "reform" and the phrase "taxes in money instead of the kind" imply that Japanese influence, substituting that of Chinese, had a beneficial impact in Korea.
            On the other hand, however, Encyclopaedia Britannica in 1902 notes that "the [Korean] vocabulary is greatly mingled with Chinese words" (20) and that "the educated classes regularly employ Chinese both in literature and social intercourse" (21), implying untouched Chinese influence in Korean cultures.
            After the Chinese defeat at the war against Japan, European powers began encroaching into Chinese mainland. To justify this, Europeans gave up their former pro-Chinese attitude, but rather chose to take pro-Japanese attitude. This tendency was more intense in Britain, which shared many interests with Japan. Such a change in diplomacy of Europeans was reflected into their viewpoints in encyclopedic articles on Sino-Korean relationship, and many of the articles published in 1896-1910 therefore undervalued Sino-Korean relationship, and focused much more on Japanese-Korean relationship.

V. Portrayal of Sino-Korean Relationship: 1911 - 1930
            On August 29, 1910, representatives of Korean and Japanese governments officially announced the Japan-Korea annexation treaty. Since then, an official Japanese rule over Korea began, and this marked a great change in Europeans' view of Sino-Korean relationship. In fact, an analysis of encyclopedias published in this period reveals that many of them simply neglect the relationship or portray it in Japanese perspective.
            The Statesman¡¯s Year Book in 1918 eliminated a separate article for Korea; rather, the book put it as a subcategory under an article for Japan. In the subcategory, there is no mention of Sino-Korean relationship at all. Considering that its earlier editions cover the relationship in a lengthy paragraph, it can be seen that this is an intentional omission by a writer or publisher. In contrast, the book covers Japanese-Korean relationship with many details such as "By a treaty concluded between Japan and Korea on August 22, 1910, the Korean territory was formally annexed to the Empire of Japan." (22) Nordisk Familje-Bok in 1911 also refers Korea as a "japansk besittning: (23) and covers much on Japanese-Korean relationship, but neglects Sino-Korean relationship; like Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon in 1907, it also puts Korea and Japan in one map but puts China in a separate map.(24) Similarly, Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon in 1915-1930, in its long article of Korea, omits information on Sino-Korean relationship, but adds even minor details of Japanese-Korean relationship such as an interview of Count Ito. (25)
            Britain renewed its Anglo-Japanese alliance in both 1905 and 1911, and maintained pro-Japanese attitude until its termination on August 17, 1923. This affected British encyclopedias to have much more pro-Japanese bias in analyzing Sino-Korean relationship; in fact, Encyclopaedia Britannica in 1911 includes a criticism on Chinese influence on Korea and reduction of Korean dependency on China. The article states that "[royal examinations in Chinese literature] being abolished, the desire for a purely Chinese education diminished" (26), implying diminution of Chinese cultural influence. It also states that "during the negotiations [of trade treaties], although under Chinese suzerainty, she was treated with as an independent state" (27), implying Chinese suzerainty over Korea as unjust. Going further, the encyclopedia even advocates Japanese control over Korea. Phrases such as "Japan in 1904 guaranteeing the welfare and dignity of the imperial house," "Japan made three sensible proposals for Korean reform," and "[since Japanese annexation] Everything promised well" imply that the article has a strong pro-Japanese bias (28). In listing Japanese reforms in Korea, the article uses adjectives with positive denotations or connotations such as "equable" "relaxed" "enfranchised", also indicating pro-Japanese bias in the article (29).

VI. Conclusion
            In a period of 1771-1930, European encyclopedias' portrayals of Sino-Korean relationship gradually altered from a Chinese perspective to a Japanese perspective. As most of information on Korea came from China until 1876, Chinese perspective was dominant in Europeans' analysis of Sino-Korean relationship. However, the Japanese opening of Korean ports in 1876 and following Japanese success in Korean peninsula allowed Japanese perspective on Sino-Korean relationship to gradually domineer in Europe. In addition, Anglo-Japanese alliance in the early 19th century allowed even stronger pro-Japanese bias in British sources. Such an analysis reveals that encyclopedias, contrary to popular belief, does not contain absolute truth, but can be biased.


Notes
           
(1)      Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1771
(2)      Oekonomische Encyclopaedie, 1788. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.i.1
(3)      Ibid. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.i.2
(4)      Ibid. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.i.3 and 1.i.4
(5)      Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon, 1837. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.ii.1
(6)      Herders Conversations-Lexikon, 1855. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.iii.1
(7)      Ibid. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.iii.1
(8)      Ibid. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.iii.2
(9)      Pierer's Universal-Lexikon, 1860. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.iv.2
(10)      Cyclopaedia of India,1873.
(11)      Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog, 1858-1863. For a translation, refer to Appendix 3.i.1
(12)      Brockhaus' Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.vi.1
(13)      Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.v.2
(14)      The Statesman¡¯s Year Book, 1878.
(15)      Ibid.
(16)      Korea Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon, 1907. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.vii.3
(17)      Ibid. For a translation, refer to Appendix 1.vii.3
(18)      Japan Meyers Gro©¬es Konversations-Lexikon, 1907.
(19)      The Statesman¡¯s Year Book, 1898.
(20)      Encyclop©¡dia Britannica, 1902
(21)      Ibid.
(22)      The Statesman¡¯s Year Book, 1918.
(23)      Nordisk Familje-Bok, 1911. For a translation, refer to Appendix 2.i.1
(24)      Nordisk Familje-Bok, 1910.
(25)      Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon, 1915-1930. For a translation & interview, refer to Appendix 3. ii.2
(26)      Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911
(27)      Ibid.
(28)      Ibid.
(29)      Ibid.


Bibliography Note : websites quoted below were visited in June 2009.

Primary Sources : (A) Printed Sources
1.      Article : Corea, in : Balfour, Edward. Cyclopaedia of India, 2nd edition, vol. 1: 1873 pp.349-350
2.      Article : Corea, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1st edition, vol. 2: 1771, p.279
3.      China, in : The Statesman's Year Book, 15th edition: 1878, pp.661-669
4.      Corea, in : The Statesman's Year Book, 26th edition: 1889, pp.820-823
5.      Korea, in : The Statesman's Year Book, 35th edition: 1898, pp.732-735
6.      Korea, in : The Statesman's Year Book, 42th edition: 1905, pp.892-898
7.      Korea, in : The Statesman's Year Book, 47th edition: 1910, pp.994-998
8.      Japan, in : The Statesman's Year Book, 55th edition: 1918, pp.1056-1059

Primary Sources : (B) Online Sources
9.      Article : Korea, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, 10th edition: 1902, posted by 1902 Encyclopedia, < http://www.1902encyclopedia.com/K/KOR/korea.html>
10.      Article : Korea, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition: 1911, posted by.Online Encyclopedia
11.      Article : Korea, from Krünitz, Oekonomische Encyclopädie, vol. 44: 1788, posted by Krünitz Online, in German,
12.      Article : China, from Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon, vol. 1: 1837, posted by Zeno, in German,
13.      Article : Korea, from Herders Conversations-Lexikon, vol. 3: 1855, posted by Zeno, in German,
14.      Article : Korea, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon, vol. 9: 1860, posted by Zeno, in German; search for "Korea", click option: search only in Pierer-1857,
15.      Article : Korea, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892 edition. posted by Retrobibliothek, in German,
16.      Article : Korea, from Brockhaus' Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 edition, posted by Retrobibliothek, in German
17.      Article : Japan, from Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon, vol. 10: 1907, posted by Zeno, in German, < http://www.zeno.org/Meyers-1905/B/Japan>
18.      Article : Korea, from : Meyers Gro©¬es Konversations-Lexikon, vol. 11: 1907, posted by Zeno, in German,
19.      Article : Japan och Korea, from Nordisk Familje-Bok, 2nd edition: 1910, posted by Project Runeberg, in Swedish,
20.      Article : Korea, from Nordisk Familje-Bok, 2nd edition: 1911, posted by Project Runeberg, in Swedish,
21.      Article : Korea, from Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog, 1858-1863 edition, by Stefan Anskjaer, posted by Project Runeberg, in Danish, 22.      Article : Korea, from Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon, 1915-1930 edition., posted by Project Runeberg, in Danish,


Appendix: Translation of Non-English Sources

Note: Some of the translated sources are not used in the paper.

1. German Sources

            i) Korea, Oekonomische Encyclopädie, 1788

            (1) Korea, Corea, [...] zwischen China und Japan, wird von den Einwohnern selbst Tio-zen-koak, und von den Chinesern Tscha=osien oder Kaoli genannt. [...]
            Korea, Corea, [...] located between China and Japan, is called by the inhabitants Tio-zen-koak, and Chinese call it Tscha-osien or Kaoli.

            (2) Ki-tse gilt f?r den ersten König von Korea. Es war ein Prinz von chinesischem Geblüte, [...] chmesische Künste und Sitten hier einführte
            Ki-tse is regarded as the first king of Korea. He was a prince of Chinese descent [...] He introduced Chinese arts and customs here.

            (3) jetzt steht es unter chinesischer Ober=Herrschaft, hat aber doch seine eigene Könige.
            Now, it is under Chinese suzerainty. However, it has its own kings.

            (4) sie einen Theil ihres Tributes an die chinesischen Kaiser
            They (ginseng) are a part of their tributes to the Chinese emperor

ii) China, Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon, 1837

            (1) Schutzstaaten Tibet, Butan, Korea und die Lieukien-Inseln gehören.
            [Chinese] Protection states include Tibet, Bhutan, Korea and the Ryukyu-Island.

iii) Korea, Herders Conversations-Lexikon, 1855

            (1) Das Land ist den Europäern fast gänzlich unbekannt; die Einwohner, auf 8 Mill. geschätzt, bestehen aus einem Gemisch von Mandschu und Chinesen und werden von einem Könige unumschränkt regiert, der an China u. Japan zugleich tributpflichtig ist.
            The country is almost entirely unknown to the Europeans; inhabitants, estimated at 8 million, consist of a mixture of Chinese and Manchu, and are ruled by absolutely reigning kings, who pay tribute to China and Japan.

            (2) Haupt- und Residenzstadt ist Hanyntsching
            Capital and residence city is Hanyntsching.

iv) Korea, Pierer's Universal-Lexikon, 1860

            (1) Korea, (bei den Chinesen Tscho-Siang, bei den Japanesen Tsio-Sen, ein Königreich)
            Korea, in Chinese Tscho-Siang, in Japanese Tsio-Sen, a Kingdom

            (2) Das Königreich steht unter einem erblichen Könige, welcher China u. Japan (dem letzteren mit der südwestlichen Provinz Tschusin) tributbar,
            The Kingdom is under a hereditary king, who pays a tribute to China and Japan (the latter to the southwestern province Tschusin).

v) Korea, Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892 edition.

            (1) Die Thronbesteigung eines neuen Königs ist der Sanktion Chinas unterworfen.
            The ascent to the throne of a new king is subject to Chinese sanction.

            (2) Vordem unterhielt K. mit China einen Überlandhandel, der jährlich im April, Juni und Oktober auf dem im chinesischen Territorium hierzu besonders angewiesenen Marktplatz an der Grenze, am Kaolimön, dem "koreanischen Thor", etwas östlich von der chinesischen Handelsstadt Fongwhangtschin abgehalten wurde.
            In the past Korea maintained an overland trade with China, which was conducted annually in April, June, and October at a specifically chosen market place on Chinese territory, at Kaolimön, the "Korean Gate," a bit east at the Chinese trading city Fongwhangtschin.

vi) Korea, Brockhaus' Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 edition.

            (1) Korea, von den Eingeborenen bis ins 14. Jahrh. Korje oder Kokorje, von den Japanern Korai, von den Chinesen im N. Kaoli, jetzt Tschjo-sjen, Tschau- sian
            Korea was called, by the natives until the 14th Century?Korj or Kokorje, by the Japanese Korai, from?the Chinese in N. Kaoli now Tschjo-sjen, Ciao-sian

vii) Korea, Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon, 1907

            (1) Bei den höhern Klassen findet sich noch das alte Buchchinesisch im Gebrauch.
            In the higher classes, the ancient Chinese book-language is used.

            (2) Der dortige Umsatz zwischen K. und China betrug jährlich nur 1/2 Mill. Doll.
            The annual local sales between Korea and China only amounted to a 1/2 million dollars

            (3) K. erkannte fr?her die Suzeränität Chinas an und sandte jährlich viermal Geschenke, bestehend in Leinwand, Seide, Baumwolle, Fellen, Schwertern etc., dorthin; ausserdem war die Thronbesteigung eines neuen Herrschers in K. von der Verleihung der Würde durch den chinesischen Kaiser abhängig. Japan leugnete die Berechtigung dieses Zustandes und erkannte den König 27. Febr. 1876 als unabhängig an; diesem Beispiel folgten die Vereinigten Staaten und die europäischen Grossmächte gelegentlich des Abschlusses der resp. Handelsverträge. Das Festhalten Chinas an seiner Oberhoheit über K. war eine der Veranlassungen zum chinesisch-japanischen Krieg 1894?95 (s. China, S. 53 u. 54); im Frieden von Schimonoseki leistete China endgültig auf diesen Anspruch Verzicht.
            In earlier times Koirea recognized Chinese suzerainty and sent gifts four times a year, consisting of linen, silk, cotton, fur, swords, etc. If there also was an accession to the throne in Korea, the dignity was awarded by the Chinese Emperor. Japan rejected the legitimacy of this condition and saw the Korean king as independent of China at the 27th Feb. 1876. This example was followed by the United States and major European powers on the oiccasion of the completion of trade agreements. Chinese adherence to Chinese sovereignty over Korea was one of the reasons for the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95 (see China, p. 53 and 54); in the peace of Shimonoseki China gave up the claim.

2. Swedish Sources

i) Korea, Nordisk Familje-Bok, 1911

            (1) Korea, förr kejsardöme, sedan 1910 japansk besittning i östra Asien (se kartan till art. Japan)
            Korea, before an empire, since 1910 has been a Japanese possession in East Asia (see the map of Japan)

3. Danish Sources

i) Korea, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog, 1858-1863 edition

            (1) Korea, en Halvø i det østlige Asien mellem det Gule og det Japanske Hav, danner en af det Chinesiske Riges Skyts-stater
           . Korea, a peninsula in East Asia between?the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan,?forms one of the Chinese protected states.

ii) Korea, Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon, 1915-1930 edition.

            (1) Ved Fredsslutningen 1905 maatte Rusland indrømme, at K. hørte under Japans "Interessesfære", og dette er siden blevet godkendt ogsaa af de andre Stormagter.
            By 1905 peace, Russia admitted Korea to be under Japanese "sphere of influence", and this has since been approved by the other superpowers



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