Anglo-American View of Germany 1890-1914


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
PKR



Table of Contents


July 9th 2009
July 9th 2009
July 9th 2009
December 22nd 2008
December 22nd 2008
November 27th 2008
November 12th 2008
September 23rd 2008
September 22nd 2008
September 22nd 2008
September 22nd 2008
September 3rd 2008



July 9th 2009 ... Go to PKR's Log

(1) Jameson Raid chronologically after the lapse of the Reinsurance Treaty
(2) If Bismarck was a Chancellor then, he would have let British to build a telegraph line without any consideration, for the sake of moderate Anglo-German relationship.
Is that your speculation or someone elses ? How about a "probably" ?
(3) While German Empire was falling apart
Just at that time Germany's industrial production exceeded that of Britain and Germans regarded themselves as the power of the future. The expression greatly exaggerates the situation. In 1898, 1914 could not yet be foreseen.
(4) French Somalialand, French Somaliland



July 9th 2009 ... Go to PKR's Log

(1) Wilhelm I, or Frederick III..
Some English language sources may list them as William and Frederick; but they were Germans so I suggest Wilhelm and Friedrich. In case of the latter, he is counted as Friedrich Wilhelm I., not as Friedrich III.



July 9th 2009 ... Go to PKR's Log

(1) Bismarckian Era
(2) Please sens images as separate files (gif or jpg)



December 22nd 2008 ... Go to PKR's Log

looks good to me.

December 22nd 2008 ... Go to PKR's Log

looks good to me. Keep in mind, the cartoons you find ultimately decide much of the course of your paper.

November 27th 2008
check out this source
F.M. Anderson, A.S. Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914 (1918), posted on Internet Archive, lists all diplomatic crises in the period 1870-1914; Germany involved in many of them



November 12th 2008

Note to our Punch users : check Internet Archive, search text archive for "Punch". http://www.archive.org/index.php
Note : many entries poorly labelled (often index entry does not give volume number, year of publication or both). Has volumes not listed on Online Books Page http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/serial?id=punch, for instance vol.1 of 1841.



September 23rd 2008

Times of London online, all issues since 1785 http://archive.timesonline.co.uk/tol/archive/ annual fee for access L 74,95 - reasonable.
Now you may consider to throw out 'American' and replace NYT by the Times (of London)



September 22nd 2008 ... Go to PKR's Log

I Colonial Expansion - major focus of German foreign policy in those days.
II Drang nach Osten - I doubt that you can find documentation proving your point for this period of time; the term fits for Hitler's policies and was abused by extremely patriotic historians from 1880 to 1945 to explain (distort) the settlement of Germans in lands east of the Elbe and Saale rivers from the 11th to the 14th century.
III Policies that promote interferences with international issues even if they are not necessarily directly related to German interests
This category says more about your perception of the world than about German interests.
In the period you examine, European Powers regarded any crisis, no matter in what remote part of the world, as an opportunity to interfere, perhaps to profit from it, at least to try prevent your perceived opponent profit.
Example : English language historiography regards the two Morocco Crises as indicators that Germany, which under Bismarck controlled European diplomacy, had manoeuvred into an isolated position, and was the 'loser' of the Algeciras Conference. Even some German historians read it that way.
First, Morocco was of interest to German colonial politicians as the acquisition of a port in Morocco would mean that Germany would become less important from using non-German ports to refuel (coal) their naval vessels. German ships en route to their colonies in Africa and beyond hat to use coaling stations controlled by foreign powers in case of war; the colonial Empire Germany had acquired was nice to show off in peacetime, but indefensible in wartime. So it was clearly in German interest to meddle in the Morocco Crises.
France only got most of Morocco in 1912 after they made a deal with Germany ceding large stretches of land in Equatorial Africa, which almost doubled the size of Kamerun. The territory was reannexed by France following WW I.
My suggestion : throw out categories II and III, replace by a new category : Alliances.

One of the next steps should be a Working Bibliography. You should try find accounts on diplomatic history 1890-1914. In regard to the history of Germany's colonies, you may look here
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/westafrica/togo18841918.html
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eastafrica/xgea.html
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/southafrica/germanswa.html
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/centrafrica/cameroon18841918.html
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/pacific/wsamoa18991918.html
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/china/xkiautschou.html
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/pacific/xpng.html
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/pacific/marshallisl18851914.html
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/pacific/xnmi.html
Then as a primary source the German Colonial Atlas and Yearbook (Kolonialatlas), scroll down here http://www.zum.de/psm/imperialismus/primaer.php3 for Atlas German Colonies (translated by yours truly).
You remember the Consul's paper on Samoa / Punch http://www.zum.de/whkmla/sp/0910/yeonhwa/yeonhwa2.html



September 22nd 2008 ... Go to PKR's Log

(1) Ententes, see below.
(2) Dual Alliance 1879-1918, Franco-Russian Alliance 1892-1917, East Asiatic Triple Alliance 1895-1898, Russo-German Alliance part of Dreikaiserbund (Three Emperors' League) 1887-1890, German Naval Expansion 1898-1914, Anglo-Japanese Alliance - lost its purpose for the British in c. 1920, formally terminated in 1941; Ententes : events, not periods
(3) Spanish-American War missing (Germany used opportunity to buy out Spanish claim on Caroline, Mariana Islands); Italo-Ottoman War, 2nd Balkan War missing
(4) World War I 1914-1918.
You limit your research to the years 1890 to 1914. Your timelines can go beyond, for events which only partially fall into your period of examination



September 22nd 2008 ... Go to PKR's Log

(1) Kaiser Sent a Telegram to Kruger of Transvaal (German Interference with the Boer War)
Here you confuse things; as the Boer War did not begin until 1899, it could only be interpreted as Germany interfering in what the British regarded their sphere of interest. If you assume that the British in 1896 had concrete plans to acquire Transvaal by conquest, you would have to support that with evidence.
(2) Entente Cordiale Established (UK? Fr Alliance) , Anglo-Russian Entente (thereby establishing Triple Entente among UK, Rus, Fr)
Entente Cordiale signed. It was a treaty in which Britain and France agreed over spheres of interest in parts of Africa, similar to the Samoa Treaty (only applyng tio a larger territory). Both this and the Entente of 1907 were of this sphere-of-interest-delineating-nature, not alliances.
What both Ententes had in common was - they removed items which potentially could cause a conflict between these powers. The "Entente Powers" had amiable relations, and when World War I broke out, because of a chain of events, found themselves at war with the same enemies. No alliance was signed, but the media in 1914 immediately picked up the term Entente to describe the "Allies" Britain, France and Russia.
(3) Germany declares a war with Russia
Russia had declared general mobilization. Germany, in an ultimatumj, demanded the general mobilization to be rescinded within 12 hours; if not, Germany regarded itself at war with Russia. Russia did not react. The German press of the time interpreted this as a Russian declaration of war. Reformulate



September 3rd 2008

One problem you may face is a large number of sources. Therefore I propose the following :

(1) Using secondary sources, you write a survey history of Germany 1890-1914 which should cover (a) an introduction - Germany under Bismarck, (b) an account of Germany's foreign policy and diplomacy 1890-1914, (c) an account of Germany's domestic policy, (d) an account of Germany's economy in that period.

(2) Primary source research : proceed on a year by year basis. Establish tables listing Punch Cartoons referring to Germany, NYT articles referring to Germany; post them as you compile them.
If you experience that this way produces too many NYT articles to manage; search the NYT for articles to help you understand specific cartoons, or to look for responses to specific events you found while writing the survey mentioned above.

(3) Whenever you find a relevant cartoon, article, book or other source, put it on your Working Reference List.