Japanese Intrusion into Continental East Asia 1894-1910 as Portrayed in Punch


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
RHS



Table of Contents


First Sino-Japanese War, October 21st 2009
Bibliography 2nd draft , Dec. 8th 2008
Boxer Rebellion , Dec. 8th 2008
Bibliography , Dec. 4th 2008
Working Table of Contents, First Update , Nov. 27th 2008
Working Table of Contents , Nov. 20th 2008
Boxer Rebellion , Nov. 13th 2008



First Sino-Japanese War . . Go to Teacher's Comment

The First Sino-Japanese War

1. Background

1.1. Industrialization of Japan and Imperialist Leaders
            Japan turned to rapid industrialization and westernization after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. An European-style parliament was established, and Genro, or senior imperial advisors constituting seven most elderly and prominent statesmen led the politics. The most prominent of them were Ito Hirobumi and Yamagata Aritomo.
            Ito Hirobumi was an elderly bureaucrat educated in Europe, and took the position of Prime Minister during the Sino-Japanese War. Yamagata Aritomo, who became field marshal and was war minister during the Sino-Japanese War, was heavily influenced by the success of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War. Also educated in Europe, he is considered the father of Japanese militarism in later Pacific War. With Yamagata's instigation and encouragement of ultra-nationalistic secret societies such as the Genyosha, or the Black Ocean Society, Japan pressed for war. There was also strong public feeling in Japan for action in weak Korea. It is not clear if Emperor Meiji himself supported the war.
            While Japan was eager on its preparation for its intrusion into Eastern Asia, China was ruled by Empress Dowager, an ultraconservative who strongly refused progressive reforms and westernization efforts. Under her rule, progressive Chinese struggled to reform themselves, such as the ¡®Self-strengthening Movement¡¯, lasting from 1861 to 1895. However, their efforts proved too futile against Dowager¡¯s conservative will and massive internal insurgency such as Taipeng Rebellion.

Punch Vol.107, cover page

            The cartoon symbolizes the initial expectations of European nations when the war broke out. However, contrary to their anticipation, the war yielded a very different outcome at the end, when China surrendered to Japanese military might.

            The Sino-Japanese War would come to symbolize the degeneration and enfeeblement of the Qing Dynasty and demonstrate how successful modernization had been in Japan since the Meiji Restoration as compared with the Self-Strengthening Movement in China. The principal results were a shift in regional dominance in Asia from China to Japan and a fatal blow to the Qing Dynasty and the Chinese classical tradition. This would result later in the 1911 Revolution

1.2 Rivalry of China and Japan in Korea
            Korean Peninsula became an arena for territorial and resource disputes among China, Japan, and Western colonizing powers. Its land lacked natural resources, however, its labor force and important geological location served as a land of interest to many nations. For China, Korea was its former vassal for more than three centuries, and thus a land hard to give up. Japanese regarded Korean peninsula as a crucial beachhead for its invasion into East Asia. Other western nations also put its interest in Korea, both for its human resource and its geological and strategic importance.
            In 1894, an uprising later named Tonghak, or the learning of the east, movement broke in southern Korea. The uprising was triggered by the semi-religious sect named Tonghak, a religion which appeared to counter Christianity in Korea. Lead by local nobleman named Bong-Jun Jeon, the Tonghak soldiers were insuppressible for Korean military.
            The desperate government asked for foreign help, in which both China and Japan responded. The two armies both landed in Korea, but it was Japanese military which was the first to arrive at southern Korea and suppress the Tonghak army. The Chinese, in response, occupied Seoul and its nearby city, Asan, in order to claim its reward in mobilizing troops in Korea. Japanese military refused to leave, demanding China to withdraw its troops. The two armies remained in Korea until the beginning of the first Sino-Japanese War. The Tonghak movement aggravated the tension between China and Japan.

2. The war on Korean peninsula

2.1 The Outbreak
            In July 3rd, 1894, Korea technically renounced the suzerainty of China. Otori, the Japanese minister at Seoul, was a coercive force behind Korea¡¯s declaration of independence from China (1). The king and the government not only concurred with the Japanese minister, but also issued edicts calling for a reform which had been asked by Japanese officials in Korea. Suddenly a change came, on the 18th, when the Seoul government declared that the presence of the Japanese troops would hinder the execution of the necessary reform (2). The change in Korea¡¯s position had apparently been caused by the arrival of Li Hun-Chang's telegram that an overwhelmingly large army was coming from China to crush the Japanese forces in Seoul. Otori expressed his surprise at the sudden movement of China and the betrayal of Korea. Through the telegram, Otori urged the Chinese government to answer within three days to the following demand: the evacuation of the Chinese troops from Asan, whose presence had become unnecessary since the Tonghak insurrection died away.
            The old patriot Taiwongun, father of the emperor Kojong, assumed the grand councillorship after his long absence from the position in July 25th. A stern anti-Western and anti-Chinese fighter, he requested Japanese troops to drive away Chinese soldiers from Asan. This last request at once placed the forces of the two empires in open warfare. It was carried out on July 29, but before that, on the 25th, the first act of war took place unexpectedly on sea.

2.2 The battle of Pyung-Do Island
            Chinese forces were the first to mobilize by the time the war had been declared. Anticipating a war with Japan, China sent ten troop transport cruisers from July 21th to 23rd which headed to Korea. Two Chinese warships, one cruiser and one gunboat, met the convoy for the purpose of escorting near Pyung-Do Island, Korea on July 24th. Three Japanese cruisers, which had been patrolling the area, spotted the convoy and engaged the Chinese gunships.
            The engagement between the three Japanese warships and the Chinese convoy was won by the Japanese navy. While the cruiser was able to escape the Japanese fire and retreat, the gunship was destroyed when its gunpowder magazine caught fire and exploded. The entire convoy fleet carrying men and supplies had to disperse and retreat, and Japanese forces won the battle. This naval battle was later named as the battle of Pyung-Do Island.
            Three more Japanese cruisers sailed out originally to assist the other ships in the fight, however were compromised with another Chinese gunboat, Tsao-Kiang. Tsao-Kiang, which tried to move covertly s the Japanese cruisers by flying the British flag with a transport ship, soon exchanged fire with the Japanese cruisers but was captured. The convoy Tsao-Kiang was escorting halted and retreated. (3)
            The naval battle of Pyung-Do Island was small in scale, but proved decisive as the war continued. The only naval supply route Chinese had was effectively blocked by Japanese navy, and soon the Japanese army would converge onto Asan and encircle the entire Chinese force in Korea.
            On August 1st, eight days after the battle of Pyung-Do Island, China and Japan formally declared war.

2.3 The advance of Japan
            On the very same day of the battle of Pyung-Do Island, Major-General Oshima, under the command of field general Yamagata Aritomo, moved his force of 4000 men and 500 marines from Seoul to Asan, where the majority of the Chinese forces were stationed (4). The Chinese force had to be destroyed before they could be reinforced and link up with the Chinese army known to be somewhere near the Yalu.
            Chinese forces stationed in Asan numbered about 3500 men. Though their number was only slightly less than the Japanese, the Chinese were ill-equipped compared to Japanese forces. When the Chinese Army heard the news that their supply fleet in Pyung-Do Island retreated, it marched out of Asan to fight the Japanese force before it could surround Asan and cut off the land supply route.
            The Japanese Army, though hampered by destroyed bridges and flooded canals, managed to approach near the fields of Asan without major casualties and engaged the Chinese army on the 27th of July. Because of superior number and advanced weaponry, the Japanese slowly pushed the Chinese forces from the fields to the fort near the city of Asan.
            The Chinese force eventually abandoned their fort in Asan and retreated north to Seonghwan. However, the Japanese, on the 29th of July, assaulted the Chinese force and successfully driven them even more upward. The remaining Chinese troops marched north in order to meet their reinforcement in Pyongyang.
            On August 1st, China and Japan formally declared war.

2.4 The battle of Pyongyang and Yalu River
            China originally planned to sent her force in two routes. One was transporting troops over the sea onto Asan, and then marching onto the Korean capital, Seoul. The other was to march her troops over the Yalu river and assaulting the Japanese from the north. While the earlier was intended to check the Japanese forces from major moves, the latter was an aggressive tactic designed to drive Japan out of the peninsula. Therefore, the forces which crossed Yalu and stationed in Pyongyang was a much larger force than those in Asan, numbering about 13000 to 15000 (5). Pyongyang was a natural fortress, where a fortress was built on a hill surrounded by water.
            The Japanese forces marched from several directions, surrounding the city. One stream of army marched from Seoul from land, while the other troops were transported via water. When the latter part of the army, numbering about 6000, landed near Pyongyang, it was ambushed by the Chinese artillery and cavalry, and thus severely damaged.
            The rest of the forces, numbering 15000, converged to Pyongyang and assaulted the fortress on 15th September, 1894. Though Japanese sustained about 600 casualties, they succeeded in driving the Chinese further to the north. The Chinese forces lost 6000 men in this siege. (6)
            Two days later, on 17th September, the Chinese forces had been destroyed in Yalu River, a boundary between Korea and China. Through this battle, Japanese navy held firm control of all waters surrounding Korean peninsula, and its naval dominance in the war was therefore assured. The defeat of the Chinese fleet also opened a passageway for the Japanese army to march into Manchuria.

3. Japan¡¯s advance into Manchuria and China.
            By October 6th 1894, the Japanese forces were stationed in Uiju, Korea. Uiju was one of the northernmost regions in Korea, and served as the Japanese base of operations during the war. The Japanese force¡¯s two main objectives were: 1. chase and destroy the fleeing Chinese forces and 2. capture the strategic position of Port Arthur.
            The Chinese first line of defense, the Yalu river, was breached and Japanese started to encroach into Manchuria. Their next line of defences, from An-Tung to Shenyang, easily fell to the Japanese forces as Chinese more focused on preserving the force intact than to stop the Japanese advance. Shenyang, a major Chinese city in southwestern Manchuria and a gateway to mainland China, fell in October. 24th.

4. Aftermath
            The war had a significant effect change in three nations: China, Japan, and Korea.
            The last Chinese pride of a east-Asian power died promptly with its defeat. China was no longer considered a strong nation, and it had lost control of Korea. The war for China revealed the ineffectiveness of its government, its policies, the corruption of the administration system and the decaying state of the ruling Qing dynasty. Anti-foreign sentiment and agitation grew and would later culminate in the form of the Boxer Rebellion five years later. Throughout the 19th century the Qing dynasty was unable to prevent foreign encroachment. This, together with calls for reform and the Boxer Rebellion, contributed to the 1911 revolution and the end of the dynasty in 1912.

Punch Vol.107, August 4th,1894
The Corean Cock-Fight : ¡°Bruin: Ha! Whichever wins, I see my way into dinner!¡±

            This cartoon, drawn three days after the two nations declared war, still vied China as a nation equivalent in strength to Japan. To the western nations, especially Russia symbolized in bear, the two nations of east Asia still were weak. Russia seeks to take Korea, regardless of who wins the war. However, such views are proven wrong later, when Japan defeats Russia in Russo-Japanese war.

            Japan, on the contrary, was viewed entirely differently by the Western nations as a new colonial power. Though it had to give away Port Arthur region to the Chinese due to western pressure, Japan successfully put Korea under its political and military influence. Soon, Korea completely broke its affiliations with China through series of treaties forced by Japan.

Punch Vol.107, September 29th,1894
Jap the Giant-Killer

Punch Vol.107, October 20th,1894, page 182
Little Ah Sid and the Butterfly-Bee

            The following two cartoons summarize the European surprise of the defeat of China. One shows little character dressed in Samurai armor called Jap defeating a giant, dressed in Chinese armor. The other cartoon shows a Chinese boy getting stung by a bee, apparently Japan. The term used to describe the bee, the butterfly bee, shows how China and Europe viewed Japan before and after the war.

Punch Vol.107, November 17th,1894
A Touching Appeal : Johnny Chinaman: ¡°Boo-Hoo! He hurtee me welly much! No peacey man come stoppy him!¡±

            The cartoon again shows Chinese humiliation in its defeat against the Japanese. Moreover, it shows the western response towards the two nations. The western nations realized Japan as one of the strong imperialist power, and therefore did not interfere much in its activity. On the contrary, Chinese position in international society had been severely damaged.

Punch Vol.107, December 22nd,1894, page 290
An Infant phenomenon : Little Jap lecturing on the Art of War to the European representatives.

            In this cartoon, small figure which evidently symbolizes Japan lectures on the art of war to European nations. Major nations such as England, German Empire, and France is seen amongst the crowd. The cartoon summarizes the European surprise at Japanese military strength and its use of tactics in Sino-Japanese War.

            Japan was reluctant to give away strategic Port Arthur and Liaodong peninsula, but was frustrated when it heard that Russia made a 25-year lease deal with Chinese government and built a fort in Port Arthur (7). Japanese hatred for Russia grew as it considered Russia as the final obstacle in invading China. The tension between Japan and Russia would eventually explode in later years as Russo-Japanese War.
            Korea was nominally liberated from Chinese influence, but it faced Japanese influence. Anti-Japanese sentiment grew and many locals rose up as nationalist insurgents. Meanwhile, pro-Japanese Taiwongun, father of the Emperor Kojong, lost his power to the Empress Min. Min tried to counter Japanese influence in Korea by building positive relationship with Russia. However, Japanese minister Miura Koro¡¯s assassins succeeded in killing the Empress on October 8th, 1895, just half a year after the Sino-Japanese war came to an end.

Notes

(1)      F.M. Anderson, A.S. Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914, p240
(2)      http://www.russojapanesewar.com/chino-war.html
(3)      Rozman, Gilbert, The Modernization of China, p241
(4)      http://www.russojapanesewar.com/chino-war.html
(5)      http://sinojapanesewar.com/pyongyang.htm
(6)      http://sinojapanesewar.com/pyongyang.htm
(7)      F.M. Anderson, A.S. Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914, pp242-243



Bibliography . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.107 August 4 1894, September 29 1894, October 20 1894, November 17 1894, December 22 1894
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.117 August 16 1899
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.119 July 4 1900, July 18 1900
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol 126 February 3 1904, March 16 1904, June 15 1904
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol 127 August 10 1904, September 14 1904, October 19 1904, November 16 1904,

F.M. Anderson, A.S. Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914 (1918).
ch.83: Chino-Japanese rivalry in Korea, 1876-1894, pp.240-241,
ch.84: The Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895 pp.241-242,
ch.85: The retrocession of the Liao-tung Peninsula by Japan, November 8, 1895, pp.242-243,
ch.91: The Boxer Uprising : negotiations and settlements, pp. 254,
ch.92: The Anglo-Japanese alliance of 1902 pp.262-265,
ch.93: Russo-Japanese Rivalry in Korea 1895-1904 pp.265-268,
ch.96: Negotiations preceding the Russo-Japanese War, 1903-1904 pp.272-275,
ch.110: Japan's Relations with Korea 1904-1910 pp.317-319

Rozman, Gilbert, The Modernization of China, New York, The Free Press, 1981.
ch.8 The International Context: China after the boxers pp.225-230,
ch.8 The International Context: The War with Japan pp.239-241

A.S. Krausse, The story of the Chinese crisis, London, Cassel & Company Ltd. 1900. Ch.5 The Brewing of Trouble pp.142-170

The Boxer Rising: the history of the Boxer Trouble in China, 2nd ed, Shanghai, Shanghai Mercury, 1901. Ch.17 The Situation in Szechuan, pp.71-72, ch.23 Shansi Missionaries, pp87-88. Ch.28 The taking and occupation of Peking, pp.113-115

H.C. Thomson, China and the powers; a narrative of the outbreak of 1900, New York, Longman's, Green's and Company, 1902 Ch.3 Capture of the Taku Forts Siege of Tientsin Gallant pp.31-43

¡°The Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905 - September 5, 1905.¡±, The Russo-Japanese War Research Society, http://russojapanesewar.com/top.html



Boxer Rebellion 1899-1901 . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Boxer Rebellion

1. Background

1.1 Anti-foreign ideas and activities in Chinese society
            After the fall of Mongolian Yuan dynasty, the Chinese shut its doors from any foreign interactions. The foreigners were considered Barbarians, and a small of trade between its neighboring countries were mostly one-sided. A tradition which could not easily be uprooted by foreign influence could develop in China for centuries. The unwanted presence of foreigners in the late Qing dynasty aroused Chinese to anger.
            Missionary activities especially concerned many Chinese conservatives in this period. Since aftermath of the second opium war of 1860, Chinese government was forced to open free missionary activities throughout its lands. Western missionaries were given the right to preach Christianity throughout China and to rent or buy land for the construction of churches. The scholar-gentry especially hated Western missionaries. In their perspective, the missionaries challenged the scholar-gentry's social leadership and destroyed confucianist Chinese traditions of worshipping their ancestors. The scholar-gentry often secretly and indirectly supported anti-foreign activities in society. They distributed books with anti-Christian ideas and created an anti-foreign atmosphere. (1)
            Not only the upper class gentries, but also ordinary people hated missionaries. As the missionaries sometimes used money to attract converts, poor and often uneducated Chinese who were considered as low-class people joined the church in a massive scale. These Chinese Christians bullied the local people and committed crimes. In the eyes of local Chinese people, the Western church protected these crimes. Moreover, superstitions arose among the people. Such beliefs includes missionaries raping Chinese women or missionaries disturbing local feng-shui(harmony of nature), causing natural disasters

1.2 Anti-foreign sentiments in the government
            Among the centers of anti-foreign hate of Chinese government was Empress Dowager. After the Anglo-French force invasion of Peking during the second Opium War, Empress Dowager resented foreign influence in the government. (2) Moreover, after 1895, a scramble for concession by foreign nations which threatened to partition China increased the government's hate. After ¡®Hundred Day Reform' of 1898, K'ang Yu-wei and Liang Ch'i-ch'ao were helped to escape by the British and the Japanese respectively. And when the Empress tried to choose a new emperor to replace Kuang-hsu, foreign ministers in Peking forbid her to do so. (3)
            Apart from Empress Dowager herself, ignorant Manchu conservatives like Kang-i and Prince Tuan had reestablished their influence at the Qing court after the failure of the Hundred Day Reform. They feared that Western reform would weaken their power and destroy Chinese culture. Moreover, Chinese officials seldom cooperated with foreigners and often deliberately prevented Western missionaries from fully enjoying treaty rights in China. These Chinese officials needed the support of the scholar-gentry to run local administration in society. They therefore dared not anger their fellow Chinese scholars

1.3 Growing aggressive attitude toward China. among the Western powers (4)
            From 1870 to 1894, Western Powers increasingly used their force in acquiring their needs in China. As a result, foreign imperialism in China grew quickly. In 1897, the Germans occupied Kiaochow in Shantung, which aroused great fear among the local Shantung people. Such cases showed aggressive Western policies towards China and growing anti-Western sentiment as a result.

2. The course and events of Boxer Rebellion

2.1 Spread of Boxer movement and its official encouragement
            The Boxers, or the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, was first created in Shandon China. It was a secret society originally created to practice martial arts and unarmed combat, mainly the Chinese Wushu. The Boxers believed that through diet control, prayers, and trainings of martial arts, they could perform extraordinary skills such as flight and energy waves. However, as anti-foreign sentiments increased, this organization developed into an anti-foreign organization which committed itself to terrorisms towards foreigners.
            The Chinese governments and officials supported the movement as a mean to thrust Western influence from the Qing Empire. From 1895 to 1898, Shantung was under the rule of Governor Li Ping-heng. He secretly encouraged the Boxers to attack Christian missionaries. In 1899, Yu-hsien, the new Szechuan governor, gave active support to the Boxer Movement. During this time, local Qing gentries were ordered to ignore the complaints of westerners, especially the missionaries. The Boxers, with the support of the imperial government, gradually stood for the side of the government. The Boxer slogan was changed into "uphold the Qing and exterminate the foreigners" (5). The Boxer army's name was changed into i-ho t'uan (righteous and harmonious militia).
            The Qing court increasingly came to adopt a pro-Boxer attitude. Reactionaries like Prince Tuan and Kang-i recommended to the Empress Dowager that the Boxers be used against foreigners. Regular government troops were taught boxing. Silver money was given to the Boxers. In May 1900, the Empress Dowager invited Boxer soldiers to Peking, the Qing capital, to demonstrate their martial arts skills. Convinced of the Boxers' strength and usefulness, she ordered half of the regular government troops to join them. Even Manchu nobles were told to practice boxing.
            Boxer disturbances spread further as anti-foreign sentiments and Chinese confidence increased. Chinese Christians were killed. Railway and telegraph lines were destroyed. Foreigners were often brutally lynched or murdered. Many observant but cowardly gentries knew that continued Boxer disorder would lead to a national disaster. However, they feared to oppose to Empress Dowager, who trusted conservative gentries. In 1900, Prince Tuan tried to persuade the imperial court for a war policy toward all foreigners. He claimed that the western powers demanded Kuang-hsu be restored as an Emperor. Kuang-hsu had been imprisoned by her after 1898. His restoration meant the downfall of Dowager. The purpose was served: the imperial court, formally declared war on the foreign powers. A Boxer army, combined with the Chinese Imperial army, surrounded Peking on 20th June 1900.
            Whereas the Boxer Movement was both anti-dynastic and anti-foreign before 1899, the Qing court neutralized its anti-dynastic nature by supporting it, making it exclusively anti-foreign thereafter. In the beginning, the Boxers blamed both the foreigners and the imperial dynasty. From 1899 on, however, the Qing court tried to whitewash its share of blame by siding with the Boxers. Therefore, Qing court was responsible for changing the development of the Boxer Movement (from being both anti-dynastic and anti-foreign to being exclusively anti-foreign), and for spreading Boxer disturbances across the empire, leading to the war with foreigners. The Boxer Movement began as resistance to the dynasty but ended in support of it, as Peking first tolerated and then authorized the actions of the Boxers.

2.2 The Allied Expedition
            In order to evacuate and rescue the non-Chinese in Peking, the foreign powers established a coalition force. It seemed that China would soon be divided among the foreign powers in Peking. However, China stood undivided. The largest reason contributes to the suspicions between Western Powers. Britain and Japan, for example, were distrustful of Russia, who had made use of the opportunity to seize China's Manchuria and was prepared to turn the region into a Russian protectorate. Moreover, The most powerful provincial military officials such as Yuan Shikai, Li Hong-chang and Chang Chih-tung remained neutral and did not join the war against the West. (6) Through deliberate delay, they collectively disobeyed the Qing court's orders to fight against the foreigners. They explained to the foreign powers that the Boxer Rebellion was beyond the Empress Dowager's control, and that the outbreak of anti-foreign killings was against her will. An informal agreement was reached with the foreign powers, by which these provincial officials would protect foreign lives and properties in South and Southeast China, while the foreign powers would refrain from sending troops to these regions.

Punch Vol.117 p.71 Aug. 16 1899

            Russian Bear (jealously). "Look here, I say! If there's any hugging to be done, I'll do it.

            This punch cartoon depicts The Western view of China and the competition between the western power in China. Depicted not as a soldier but a lady, China is no longer a recognized world power, especially after the defeat of the Opium wars and Sino-Japanese War.
            In this cartoon, the Japanese and Russian bear competes to win the 'love' of the lady China. After the victory of the Sino-Japanese War, Japanese extended its influence to Manchuria, originally a region where Russia played a prominent influence. This is considered to be the second step (the first step being the victory of Sino-Japanese war and its control over the Korean Peninsula) in its encroachment in Eastern Asia.

Punch Vol.119 p.11 July 4 1900

            Japan (addressing the Powers). "Delighted to join you, gentlemen; but permit me to remark that if some of you hadn't interfered when I had him down, It would have saved all this trouble!"


            This cartoon is another case of foreign powers checking on each other. After Japanese won the Sino-Japanese War, the world powers carefully put pressure on Japan's excessive influence on China and Korea. This gave a room for China to spare, and as mentioned in the cartoon, a room for another major challenge against the foreign powers.
            The most prominent of them is the Triple Intervention. (May 23rd, 1895) Russia, Germany, and France joined diplomatic forces to put pressure on Japan's aggressive diplomacy. Therefore, Japan's effort on gaining land on Manchuria including Liao-Tung Peninsula and Port Arthur was frustrated, and Port Arthur was taken by Russia.

            The allied forces included eight nations: The Great Britain, the United States, French 3rd Republic, Austria-Hungary, German Empire, Japan, Italy, and Russia. The force led several expeditions, each time mounting more and more soldiers. Originally, the British, under the leadership of Commander Edward Seymour, made up the largest part of the alliance. Later on, however, Japanese occupied the largest part of the allied forces and played a prominent role in quelling the rebellion.
            On 10th June, right after the declaration of warfare from the imperial court, the eight-nation alliance forces numbering 2000 were dispatched. However, in 18th June, they were engaged in heavy combat near Pei-Ho River (7). They were in a deadlock with the Qing and Boxer forces, with low supplies, ammunitions, and medical supplies. On June 25th, a reinforcement of 1800 troops, mainly British and Russian, rescued the nearly overrun allied forces. (8)

            After Tianjin, 120km north of Peking, was occupied by the eight-nation alliance's navy, more troops could be deployed to the field. More than 54000 men were dispatched towards Beijing. Japanese forces, numbering 20000, played a vital role in the army. In Yangcun, 30km outside Tianjin, the allied force met 10000 Boxers and imperial Chinese force. The battle was won and the major Chinese assault force was broken. The Siege in Peking was finally broken in 14th August 1900. Until then, foreign forces in Peking, numbering only 435, were able to hold out with their superior weaponry and discipline. (9)

Punch Vol.119 p.47 July 18 1900

            To Pekin (Beijing)!!!

            This cartoon shows the Japanese's changed role in Eastern Asia. Japan played a prominent role in Boxer Rebellion, with largest soldiers among the eight-nation alliance forces. Through the Boxer Rebellion, Japan further exerted its military influence over China and Manchuria.
            The campaigns Japan participated in Boxer Rebellion played a great help in Japanese soldiers' experience. Their experience was later a valuable resource in fighting the Russo-Japanese War several years later.

Knowing that armed resistance to the foreign powers was useless, the Empress Dowager called Li Hung-chang to Peking in an attempt to reach a settlement with the foreigners. After much negotiation, peace was finally established. A protocol was signed in September 1901.

3 The Japanese role in the Boxer Rebellion
            yet to be written

Notes

(1)      A.S. Krausse, The story of the Chinese crisis pp.147-148
(2)      The Boxer Rising: the history of the Boxer Trouble in China, p.72
(3)      F.M. Anderson, A.S. Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914 p.254
(4)      A.S. Krausse, The story of the Chinese crisis p.148
(5)      The Boxer Rising: the history of the Boxer Trouble in China, p.71
(6)      The Boxer Rising: the history of the Boxer Trouble in China p.114
(7)      H.C. Thomson, China and the powers; a narrative of the outbreak of 1900, p.36
(8)      H.C. Thomson, China and the powers; a narrative of the outbreak of 1900, pp.36-39
(9)      The Boxer Rising: the history of the Boxer Trouble in China, p.115




Bibliography . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.107 August 4 1894, September 29 1894, October 20 1894, November 17 1894, December 22 1894
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.117 August 16 1899
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.119 July 4 1900, July 18 1900
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol 126 February 3 1904, March 16 1904, June 15 1904
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol 127 August 10 1904, September 14 1904, October 19 1904, November 16 1904,

F.M. Anderson, A.S. Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914 (1918).
ch.83: Chino-Japanese rivalry in Korea, 1876-1894, pp.240-241,
ch.84: The Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895 pp.241-242,
ch.85: The retrocession of the Liao-tung Peninsula by Japan, November 8, 1895, pp.242-243,
ch.91: The Boxer Uprising : negotiations and settlements, pp. 254,
ch.92: The Anglo-Japanese alliance of 1902 pp.262-265,
ch.93: Russo-Japanese Rivalry in Korea 1895-1904 pp.265-268,
ch.96: Negotiations preceding the Russo-Japanese War, 1903-1904 pp.272-275,
ch.110: Japan's Relations with Korea 1904-1910 pp.317-319

Rozman, Gilbert, The Modernization of China, New York, The Free Press, 1981.
ch.8 The International Context: China after the boxers pp.225-230,
ch.8 The International Context: The War with Japan pp.239-241

¡°The Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905 - September 5, 1905.¡±, The Russo-Japanese War Research Society, http://russojapanesewar.com/top.html



Working Table of Contents . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I.      Introduction
II.      Sino-Japanese War (The First) 1894-1895
III.      Triple Intervention 1895-1898
IV.      Boxer Rebellion 1900
V.      Anglo-Japanese Alliance 1902
VI.      Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
VII.      Annexation treaty with Korea 1910
VIII.      Conclusion




Working Table of Contents . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I.      Introduction
II.      Sino-Japanese War (The First) 1894-1895
III.      Boxer Rebellion 1900
IV.      Anglo-Japanese Alliance 1902
V.      Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
VI.      Annexation treaty with Korea 1910
VII.      Conclusion




Boxer Rebellion 1899-1901 . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Punch Vol.117 p.71 Aug. 16 1899

            Russian Bear (jealously). "Look here, I say! If there's any hugging to be done, I'll do it.
            Related historical dates : 17th April 1895: Japanese victory in Sino-Japanese war, increased Japanese influence in inner Manchuria

Punch Vol.119 p.11 July 4 1900

            Japan (addressing the Powers). "Delighted to join you, gentlemen; but permit me to remark that if some of you hadn't interfered when I had him down, It would have saved all this trouble!"
            Related historical dates : 23th May, 1985: Triple intervention by Britain, France, and Russia after Sino-Japanese War: Japan did not gain Port Arthur
            Related historical dates : 31st May, 1900: Dispatchment of International force of 435 navy troops, including 30 Japnaese ->signifies the official intervention of Japanese forces
            Related historical dates : 17th June 1900: Second International force numbering 54000 dispatched, and Japanese numbered over 20000, the largest of the forces -> Japan openly strives to take a lead in occupying China

Punch Vol.119 p.47 July 18 1900

            To Pekin (Beijing)!!!
            Related historical dates : 17th June 1900: Second International force numbering 54000 dispatched, and Japanese numbered over 20000, the largest of the forces -> Japanese lead in the attack
            Related historical dates : 20th June 1900: Siege in Beijing begins which lasted until 14th August 1900