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World History at

Term Paper Topics 12th Waves 2009 May
(Due Date June before final terms)

         World and European History

Essay Topics . Steps . Historic Encyclopedias . Translated Encyclopedia Entries . Corresponding WHKMLA Index Pages

In the age of the Internet and Wikipedia, students use encyclopedic sources with a regularity and intensity, often relying on such sources exclusively. Encyclopedias are designed as the first line of references, as he beginning of more thorough research. As our society becomes increasingly dependent on such sources, it may be a good exercise to examine the objectivity and reliability of encyclopedic sources. We will use 19th century encyclopedias (many of them are online) as sources.

Essay Topics

(1)      Caterpillar      Frontiers in Europe : Russian Empire
(2)      Batwoman      Frontiers in Europe : Greater Balkans
(3)      Erm      Environmental Awareness ? The Development of Forestry
(4)      Hagar's Daughter      Environmental Awareness ? Wolves and Bears in 19th Century Europe
(5)      Shadow      Multinational Entities in the Age of Nationalism : Dalmatia and the Austrian Littoral
(6)      Table Tennis      Multinational Entities in the Age of Nationalism : Posen and Galicia
(7)           Multinational Entities in the Age of Nationalism : Transylvania and the Bukovina
(8)      Magyar      The History of Crimea and Circassia as Portrayed in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(9)           Old Power Structures Undermined : the Swedes in Finland, the Germans in the Baltics, the Italians in Dalmatia
(10)      Venus de Milo      A Comparison of Russian Rule in Poland and British Rule in Ireland
(11)      Yaledozer      Contemporary Views of the Women's Rights Movement
(13)           Contemporary Views of 19th Century Anarchism
(14)           Contemporary Views of 19th Century Emigration
(15)      Snoopy      Historic Encyclopedias on Major Disasters
(16)      Page      Historic Encyclopedias on Darwinism
(17)      Spinster      Historic Encyclopedias on Pacifism
(18)           19th Century Encyclopedias on Socialism and Communism
(19)           19th Century Encyclopedias on the Conflict between the State and the Catholic Church
(20)      Jinhyuck      Backward Countries ? Spain, Russia, the Ottoman Empire
(21)           Progressive Countries ? Belgium, Italy, Germany
(22)      Ferrari      Multicultural Metropoleis : Vienna and Istanbul
(23)           National Capitals : Paris, London, Berlin, Rome
(24)           Cities Contested by Nationalities : Brussels, Prague, Bratislava
(25)      Geronimo      Nations unhappy with foreign monarchs : Norway under Sweden and Finland under Russia
(26)      Mouse      Nations unhappy with foreign monarchs : Poland under Russia, Prussia/Germany and Austria, in Historic Encyclopedias
(27)      Cameriere      Italy on the Road to Unification as Depicted in Historic Encyclopedias
(28)      Hong Kong      A Backward Country ? The Papal State in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(29)      KGB      Improvement of European Jews' Status as Described in 19th Century German Encyclopedias
(30)      Valhalla      People without a Home ? Europe's Gypsies as Described in 19th Century Encyclopedias

(31)      Go, Lewis, Go      Physical Features, National Characteristics, Customs, National Dress - Constant Factors ?
(32)      Legionary      New Technologies as Described by 19th Century Encyclopedias - Photography
(33)      Bicycle Girl      New Technologies as Described by 19th Century Encyclopedias - Transportation
(34)           Antiquity and Modernity : Encyclopedia Coverage of Areas of the former Eastern Roman Empire
(35)      Fidel      The Coverage of Pollution in Historic Encyclopedias

(36)      Cellmate      Balanced Coverage ? 19th Century Encyclopedias on Jerusalem
(37)           Armenia and Armenians in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(38)      Joohyung      Progress outside of Europe : Egypt and Persia
(39)      Black Hole      Progress outside of Europe : China and Japan
(40)      Nigerian      New Urban Centers : Shanghai and Tianjin
(41)      Romulus      New Urban Centers : Calcutta, Bombay and Madras
(42)      HSY      New Urban Centers : Yokohama and Osaka
(43)      Florida      Old Urban Centers : Delhi and Lahore
(44)      Fire Ant      Old Urban Centers : Beijing and Nanjing. Descriptions in Historic Encyclopedias
(45)      Flagellant      The Coverage of Sepoy Rebellion and Boxer Rebellion
(46)      Royal Park      Sino-Korean Relations as Portrayed in European Encyclopedias 1771-1930
(47)      Escaped Convict      Labour Unions as represented in Historic Encyclopedias
(48)      DVD      Labor Conflicts as represented in Historic Encyclopedias
(49)           The Military Aspect of Transportation Technology
(50)      G1      The White Man's Burden ? 19th Century Encyclopedias on Colonialism - West Africa
(51)      Pasta Girl      The White Man's Burden ? 19th Century Encyclopedias on Resistance to Colonization
(52)      Pope      19th Century Encyclopedias on Political Entities in Precolonial Africa
(53)      Cleopatra      Rebellions in 19th Century China according to 19th Century Encyclopedias
(54)      Sphinx      The Image of Napoleon Bonaparte in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(55)      Man in Black      The Holy Alliance in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(56)      Leni      The French Revolution as Portrayed in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(57)      Dwarf      Persia in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(58)      BHW      Siam in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(59)           Mongolia in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(60)      Aschenputtel      Turkestan in Historic Encyclopedias
(61)      G2      Morocco as Portrayed in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(62)      Pink Panther      The Justification of Colonization according to 19th Century Encyclopedias
(63)      Nerd      The Coverage of Wars in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(64)      Yena      Bacteriology in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(65)      Smurf      The Freemasons in 19th Century Encyclopedias
(66)           The Trans-Saharan Caravan Trade according to 19th Century Encyclopedias

All topic, no matter if European or non-European history, intended for seniors. First claim, by email or verbal, gets the topic; every topic only once.


In order to be able to support you in your efforts, I suggest we operate in several steps :
Step I : You make a list of questions you try answer in regard to your topic
Step II : You list the encyclopedia articles you want to use
Step III : You isolate the sections within the encyclopedia articles you thnk you need to use
Step IV : You try translate (usage of translation engines permitted; double-checking / skepsis recommended)
Step V : We talk about reading and translation problems in class.
The purpose of this exercise is that you (A) learn to overcome the fear of using information provided in other European languages, (B) the fear of reading fonts other than Antiqua, (C) with significant deficiencies in many languages learn to find the piece of information you need, (D) with the tools available to you (search engines, translation engines, dictionaries etc.) that you try translate, (E) that you are aware of problems such as primary garbling by scanning programs converting image scans into texts, and secondary garbling by translation programs, (F) that you learn to at least partially fix such garbled sections, and that you are able to take a decision if you can make use of this information or not.
In your paper I want you to add your article segment translations as an appendix, and to include a chapter in which you comment on the selecion of articles and how reliable you feel your translations are.
In this entire exercise, the process is as important as the result.

Historical Encyclopedias

Encyclopedias, Actual and Historical Issues :
IN ENGLISH : Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1st edition 1768-1771 (Reprint 1968) [G]; Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1902 edition (10th edition), posted by; under construction; Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 edition, posted as Classic Encyclopedia; 1911 edition (11th edition), posted by Online Encyclopedia; Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition (KMLA Library); Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914 edition; Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906 edition; Funk & Wagnalls, New Standard Encyclopedia, 25 volumes + index, NY & London 1931-1936 [G]
IN GERMAN : Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892 edition; 1902-1909 edition, in German; use search option "Nur in Meyers-1905"
Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811; use search option "Nur in Brockhaus-1809"; Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841; use search option "Nur in Brockhaus-1837"; Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 edition; Herders Conversations-Lexikon 1854-1857; use search option "Nur in Herder-1854"; Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 4th ed. 1857-1865; use search option "Nur in Pierer-1857"; J.G. Krünitz' Oekonomische Encyclopädie 1773-1858 posted by Univ. Trier, 242 vols.
IN SWEDISH : Nordisk Familje-Bok 1st ed. 1876-1899, 2nd ed. 1904-1926, posted by Project Runeberg
IN DANISH : Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog ed. by Stefan Anskjaer, 2 viols. 1858-1865, posted by Project Runeberg; Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon 1915-1930, posted by Project Runeberg,
Check also Internet Archive for historic encyclopedias; publication dates prior to 1920 (in any language)

The usage as primary source of any encyclopedia published prior to 1920 is permitted; if you find such encyclopedias online or in a library, go ahead and use it.

Translated Historic Encyclopedia Entries on 19th Century

Açores (Azores), Adal (Djibouti/Somaliland), Ajan (Somalia), Albania, Banat, Barka (Cyrenaica), Bulgaria, Carniola, Cheremisses (people living on the Middle Volga), Circassia, Congress Poland, Cossacks, Crete, Crimea, Cyprus, Cyrenaica, Dalmatia, East Prussia (Prussian province), European Turkey, Eyalets / Vilayets in European Turkey, Fiume, 1834-1902 (Rijeka), France : History 1789-1815, French Wars 1789-1815, History 1815-1914, Galicia, Gorizia and Gradisca, Istria, Italy History 1850-1914, the Jews, Kherson Gubernia, Kiev Gubernia, Lapps 1809-1905 (Sami), Little Russians (Ukrainians), Lucca, Macedonia, Madeira, Modena, Mordvinians (Mordovians), Naples see Two Sicilies 1815-1860, Norway, Papal State, Paraguay, Parma 1815-1860, Perm Gubernia, Piemont see Sardinia, Piombino, Podolia Gubernia, the Pomaks (Muslim Bulgarians), Pomerania (Prussian province), Posen (Prussian province), Rumelia (Ottoman region), Sami 1809-1905 (Lapps), Sankt Petersburg Gubernia, Saratov Gubernia, Sardinia, Savoy see Sardinia, Sicily, see also Two Sicilies 1815-1860, Somalis, Spain, Syria (Ottoman region), Tanger, Tripolitania (Tripolis), Tunisia, Tuscany 1815-1860, Two Sicilies 1815-1860, Ukraine, Ukrainians : see under Little Russians, Vitebsk Gubernia, Volhynia Gubernia
Translated Excerpts of Historic Encyclopedia Entries on the Economy of Bessarabia, Bukovina, Moldavia, Silesia (Prussian province), Wallachia
Translated Excerpts of Historic Encyclopedia Entries on the Demography of Bessarabia
translation of further articles, by geographic area, in progress

Corresponding WHKMLA Index Pages

States existing in 19th century Europe : fully independent for the period 1815-1914 : United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, Russian Empire, the Netherlands, France, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Austria (Austria-Hungary), the Ottoman Empire. Gained full independence before 1914 : Belgium 1830, Serbia 1830, Greece 1830, Italy (unified 1861), Germany (unified 1871), Montenegro 1878, Romania 1878, Norway 1905, Bulgaria 1908, Albania 1913. Lost their independence before 1914 : Piemont (Sardinia), Modena, Parma, Tuscany, Two Sicilies 1861, Circassia 1864, Prussia, Saxony, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Anhalt, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, Sachsen-Meiningen, Sachsen-Altenburg, Reuss Elder Line, Reuss Younger Line, Hamburg, Bremen, Lübeck, Oldenburg, Braunschweig, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe, Waldeck, Hessen-Darmstadt, Baden, Württemberg, Bavaria 1871, Hannover, Hessen-Kassel, Hessen-Homburg, Nassau, Frankfurt 1866. Papal State 1870. Areas not listed above which enjoyed a degree of autonomy in 1815-1914 or in at least part of that period : Finland, Congress Poland, Estonia, Livonia, Kingdom of Hungary, Galicia, Dalmatia, Crete, Samos, Ionian Islands.
For a number of topics, it may be more suitable, instead of looking at articles covering vast Empires such as the Russian, Ottoman or Austrian, to look at administrative units within those : Russian gubernias : Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Bessarabia, Chernigov, Courland, Don, Ekaterinoslav, Estonia, Grodno, Kaluga, Kazan, Kharkov, Kherson, Kiev, Kostroma, Kovno, Kursk, Livland, Minsk, Mogilev, Moscow, Nizhni-Novgorod, Novgorod, Olonets, Oryol, Orenburg, Penza, Perm, Podolia, Poltava, Pskov, Ryazan, Samara, Sankt Petersburg, Saratov, Simbirsk, Smolensk, Taganrog, Tambov, Taurida, Tula, Tver, Ufa, Vilna, Vitebsk, Vladimir, Volhynia, Vologda, Voronezh, Vyatka, Yaroslavl. Ottoman Elayets/Vilayets in Europe : (Ottoman Europe or Rumelia), Silistria, Bulgaria, Rumelia (Rumili), Janina, Scutari, Monastir, Salonica, Uskub, Kosovo; Austro-Hungarian lands : Banat, Slavonia, Croatia, Moravia, Bohemia, Austrian Silesia, Illyria, Carniola, Austrian Littoral, Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, Salzburg, Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Vorarlberg.

Image File Gothic Font, Sample File Gothic Text (English)

For Historic Maps see : History Atlas of Europe in 1800, 1900 from
Series of Maps on the History of Europe, 1789-2008, Selected Regions in Europe 1789-2003, from IEG Maps; Digital Atlas on the History of Europe since 1500, from IEG Maps; Prussia Administrative 1818-1938, from IEG Maps
M. Witkam's Page of Scanned Photographs of Historical Atlasses
Maps from WHKMLA : European Russia, Gubernias in 1840, 1916, Congress Poland, Rumelia
Plus many historical atlasses in print in Mr. Ganse's office

         March 22nd 2009, last revised May 12th 2009          Alexander Ganse

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