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Society for Creative Anachronism (S.C.A.)


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Term Paper, History of Historiography Class, Spring 2009



Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Popular Approach towards History
II.1 Wargaming
II.2 Historical Fiction
II.3 Creative Anachronism
III. Society for Creative Anachronism
III.1 History
III.2 Network
III.2.1 Kingdom
III.2.2 Branch Groups
III.2.3 Guild and Household
III.3 Class Structure
III.3.1 Board of Directors
III.3.2 Officers
III.3.3 Honorable Title
III.3.4 Peerage
III.4 Activities
III.4.1 Major Events
III.4.2 Combat
III.4.3 Arts and Sciences
III.5 Membership
IV. Criticisms
IV.1 Documented Damage
IV.2 Influence
V. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction
            There are many different ways of approaching history. Professional historians generally base their judgments upon facts and documents from the past. Amateur historians are not much different from the professional historians, with the modern standard of distinction being the acquisition of graduate degree in history (1). There are people, however, that approach history in a manner different from that of the historians. This paper focuses on one specific example of such activities - the Society for Creative Anachronism.

II. Popular Approach towards History
            In The Presence of the Past: Popular Uses of History in American Life, Roy Rosenwieg and David Thelen explore the diverse methods with which lay persons approach history. The following are three of the major categories of popular approach towards history (2).

II.1 Wargaming
            A wargame is a simulation of battles that took place in the past. Because they are based on actual historical events, they attempt to represent factors related to military operations as experienced by the actual participants - actual forces, terrain, supply, weaponry, and so forth. Different types include miniature wargaming, board wargaming, card wargaming, and computer wargaming (3). Out of the four different types, computer wargaming is the most prevalent method of wargaming in the modern society. It includes not only the wargames played through computers but also those played on other digital devices such as Xbox and Playstation.
            One example of such computer games is "History Channel: Civil War A Nation Divided," a first-person shooter game based on the American Civil War (4). In this game, the player can participate in the war as either a Confederate or Union soldier to experience the war from a first person perspective. Another popular example is the Total War series. The "Empire: Total War," for instance, is a game from the Total War series that is based on the American Revolution and simulates real naval battles as they would have taken place in the past (5).
            What differentiates a wargame from the actual battles is that in a wargame, the wargamer often has the option to fight from either of the sides involved in the battle - making it possible to run the battle towards a completely different outcome.

II.2 Historical Fiction
            Historical fiction - in short, Hi-Fi - is a sub-genre of fiction that presents a dramatic account of significant figures, events, and eras in history. It can be found in books, art, television, movies, and other various forms of the media. Generally, historical fiction attempts to introduce new perspectives to a specific historical event or character, usually by providing the story from the point of view of the people living during that time. However, there are also variations within this sub-genre. In some historical fictions, the historical event may only serve as the background of a story in which the characters go through events that have little to do with the historical event (6).
            One example would be Il nome della rosa, also known as The Name of the Rose, by Umberto Eco. The novel, though set in a monastery in fourteenth century Italy, is mainly a mystery novel that deals with a murder case within that monastery (7). It attempts to portray the monastery and the setting as it would really have been in the Middle Ages, but the plot itself is not necessarily based on an actual event in history.

II.3 Creative Anachronism
            Creative anachronism is an aesthetic fascination with the past. The subject of the fascination can be anything, as long as it is something from the past. However, it usually is a topic that does not necessarily interest the professional historians (8).
            Steampunk is a form of creative anachronism. Put simply, it is a fascination in the Victorian era England where steam power was widely used (9). Steampunk novel, for instance, combines Victorian era surroundings with a highly developed technology, offering a view of what may have happened if the Victorian era style continued until today. Another version of steampunk style has to do with modern electronics, with various mechanical devices modded into pseudo-Victorian style (10). Devices are made with brass and copper instead of titanium and plastic; clockworks and steam are used instead of silicon logic (11). The Telectroscope by Paul St George, one of the representative steampunk art pieces in the public arena, can be found at London City Hall, England (12).
            The Society for Creative Anachronism, the main topic for this paper is also a popular form of creative anachronism.

III. Society for Creative Anachronism
            The Society for Creative Anachronism - SCA in short - is a non-profit, educational organization for the research and reenactment of the pre-seventeenth century European medieval society
(13).

III.1 History
            The history of SCA officially begins with the First Tournament in 1966. In 1965, a year before the tournament, David Thewlis and Ken de Maiffe were studying medieval history, especially focusing on the chivalry and the combat methods such as the sword and shield fighting. This eventually evolved into actual practice of medieval combat with wooden swords and shields in the backyard of Diana Paxson, a medieval history major at University of California at Berkeley.
            Upon observing the combat practice, Paxson recalled the "Last Tournament" that took place in 1839 in Scotland - a dramatized reenactment of the Middle Ages that rose as a response from the Earl of Eglanton to the Industrial Revolution
(14). The event inspired Paxson to hold a graduation party resembling the "Last Tournament," and thus, the date was set to May 1, 1966. Invitations for the tournament were sent out to summon "all knights to defend in single combat the title of 'fairest' for their ladies". (15)



            On the first of May, the participants of the First Tournament showed up in Paxson's yard wearing costumes, fencing masks, and motorcycle helmets. They fought with each other with swords made out of plywood, padded maces, crossbows, longbows, and all sorts of different weapons. The winner, Richard of Mont Royal, was given the right to crown his lady, Marynel of Darkhaven, the Queen of the day - becoming the first Queen of the West Kingdom. The event ended with a march up Telegraph Avenue and a protest against the twentieth century (17). At this time, no one expected this event to continue on for decades. Even the organization name - Society for Creative Anachronism - was a spur-of-the-moment invention by a science fiction author, Marion Zimmer Bradley, in order to rent a public park for the second tournament (18).
            However, the tournament not only continued but actually expanded. In 1968, Marion Zimmer Bradley moved to Staten Island, New York, and wishing to continue on with the fun, began a new chapter for the organization in June, 1968, by founding the Kingdom of the East, the second kingdom (20). In October 1968, the SCA was registered as a not for profit organization in California, and in September, 1969, the third kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, was founded (21). Ever since, the organization grew consistently, and as up to 2009, the SCA has now become an international organization with over 30,000 paid members and over 60,000 actual participants (23).

III.2 Network

III.2.1 Network
            A kingdom is an "area ruled by a King and Queen"
(24). The "Knowne World" of the SCA is currently composed of nineteen kingdoms, which as a whole cover the United States, Canada, East Asia, Europe, Middle East, South Africa, Australia, and parts of Antarctica. Most of the kingdoms are, however, found on the American continent (25). The following are the names of the kingdoms in alphabetical order: AEthelmearc, Ansteorra, An Tir, Artemisia, Atenveldt, Atlantia, Caid, Calontir, Drachenwald, Ealdormere, East, Gleann Abhann, Lochac, Meridies, Middle, Northshield, Outlands, Trimaris, and West (27).

III.2.2 Branch Groups
            Kingdoms are divided into different local groups known as principalities. A principality is an "area within a kingdom ruled by Prince and Princess"
(28). For instance, the West Kingdom is divided into four principalities: Principality of Cynagua, Principality of the Mists, Principality of Oertha, and The Marches (29).
            As the SCA is a large organization covering a great territory, the principalities are again divided into smaller local branch groups for more efficient operations. Such local groups are called baronies, shires, strongholds, and so forth. The Marches of the West Kingdom, for instance, is divided into the following local groups: the Palatine Barony of Allyshia, the Shire of Wuduholt be Secg, the Barony of Tarnmist, the Canton of Borderwinds, the College of Saint Brendan, the Palatine Barony the Far West, the Canton of Battle Rock, the Stonghold of Eternal Winds, the Fortaleza de Islas de las Velas Latinas, the Stonghold Vale de Draco, and the Stronghold of Warrior's Gate (30).

III.2.3 Guild and Household
            If kingdoms and their branch groups are registered as parts of the official SCA network, guilds and households are their more unofficial counterparts.
            Guilds are groups of people who have similar interests in history. The members work together and study a specific aspect of the Middle Ages such as chivalry or brewing. Guilds may be chartered both on the kingdom level and the local level. Any member of the SCA who has interest in the area can join the guilds; however, the guild master has the power to decide upon the requirements for advancement to different levels of membership within the guild, meaning that the standards may be different for every guild
(31).
            Households are more of social nature. They are groups of people who have gathered up to enjoy the SCA events together. The size of a household may vary from a small family to a large group with members from different kingdoms. Membership requirements are decided upon by the household leader, who has the sole power to decide who should be invited to join. Entering a household also requires a certain level of loyalty towards the group, so the applicants are expected to know about the obligations each household bestows upon its members (32).

III.3 Class Structure
            The class structure in the SCA is not as rigid as it was in medieval Europe. However, the SCA does have a unique hierarchy.

III.3.1 Board of Directors
            The SCA Board of Directors are the practical kings and queens of the Knowne World. The authorized number of directors is from five to seven, unless the number is changed by an amendment to the organization By-Laws. The directors have the power and authority to exercise all corporate powers and to manage all activities and affairs of the SCA. They are the ones in charge of the day-to-day operations of the SCA.
            Each director serves three-and-a-half year terms, and they are elected primarily by the SCA participants. The candidates that have been elected by the SCA participants are then placed for two years on a list from which the Board selects only a few by a unanimous vote within the Board
(33). The only requirements to the candidacy is to be at least 21 years of age and to represent diversity of skills and experience (35).
            The Board holds meetings four times a year, and the location for the meeting changes every year with a rotation from kingdom to kingdom in order to allow for Directors living in each area to have convenient access to at least some of the meetings (36).

III.3.2 Officers
            If the Board is responsible for the management of the society as a whole, the officers are responsible for managing smaller groups within the SCA. The officers that are in charge of individual kingdoms are known as the Great Officers.
            The Seneschal is the chief administrative officer who has the responsibility to promote smooth operation within the kingdom. The Seneschal also takes care of issues regarding relationships with outside agencies such as the local government. One major role of the Seneschal is to review all proposals for changes in the kingdom law. He or she, after the review has been finished, determines the appropriateness of the change and advises the King accordingly. Laws are only subject to enactment after the Seneschal signs the change, and after a new law has been established, the Seneschal must inform the local officers in the kingdom of such changes.
            The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the officer responsible for everything related to finance. He or she supervises the finances and maintains the financial records of the kingdom. The officer is also responsible for gathering these reports and sending them to the Society Chancellor of the Exchequer, a Board member.
            The Principal Herald is the head of the kingdom¡¯s College of Heralds. He or she is responsible for the supervision of court and field heraldry for the kingdom's events and the College of Arms activities. The duties of this officer include processing of submissions for names and armors.
            The next two officers - the Earl Marshal and the Minister of Arts and Sciences - are more directly related to the activities that SCA holds. The Earl Marshal is responsible for about everything that has to do with combat and martial arts activities. The officer oversees all such activities including wars and tournaments. The primary responsibility is to promote safety and authenticity, and the Earl Marshal is required to work with other officers related to this area to achieve such goals. The Minister of Arts and Sciences is the officer responsible for overseeing the practice of medieval culture and the study of technologies, skills, and art forms related to the area.
            The Chronicler is responsible for all publishing activities within the kingdom. The Chronicler is usually the editor of the kingdom newsletter, but can also simply supervise the newsletter and let another member be the editor. The Chronicler is responsible for reporting to the Society Chancellor of the Exchequer about kingdom newsletter incomes and expenditures.
            The Chirurgeon is the head of voluntary first aid groups at SCA events. Though not many people get injured from the SCA events, the Chirurgeon is there to inform participants of the health and safety concerns and aids tournament participants so that they will not be seriously wounded
(37).
            Local officers that administer smaller branches within kingdoms also follow a similar structure of division of roles.

III.3.3 Honorable Title
            In SCA, nobility is merit-based: meaning that the titles are usually won through demonstration of skill rather than heritage. The King and Queen, for instance, qualify after winning the Crown Tournament. Generally, men win the Crown Tournament and their partners are crowned along with their husbands. However, there have been several exceptional cases where women, by demonstrating their own strength, won the tournament and became Queen. The King and Queen have the power to make and change kingdom laws along with the power to award individuals who have shown exceptional skill or loyalty towards the kingdom
(38). They also receive gifts that are made to the realm (40). The King and Queen are addressed as "Sire," "Your Majesty," and "My Lord King" or "My Lady Queen." (41)
            The Prince and Princess are also winners of special tournaments. However, there are two different kinds of Princes and Princesses. One is the Crown Prince, who is the winner of the Crown Tournament. The Crown Prince and Princess succeed the current King and Queen as the next rulers of the kingdom. The other is the Territorial Prince, who is the winner of a Coronet Tournament. The Territorial Prince and Princess rule over a principality within the kingdom. Both types should be addressed as "Your Royal Highness."
            The Duke and Duchess are those who have served at least two times as King and Queen of the kingdom. They are addressed as "Your Grace." The Count and Countess is one level below the Duke and the Duchess. The Count and Countess are those who have been King and Queen once in the past. They are addressed as "Your Excellency." The Viscount and the Viscountess are those who have been Territorial Royalties at least once, and also need to be addressed as "Your Excellency."
            The last two titles are different from the other titles in that they are not won but awarded. The Baron and Baroness oversee baronies - smaller local groups within principalities - as the representative of the Crown. The Court Baron and Baroness are nominal titles awarded by the Crown. Both groups are again addressed as "Your Excellency." (42)

III.3.4 Peerage
            SCA has a special system known as the "peerage" to encourage active participation among the Society members. The peerage, also known as the Peers of the Realm, consists of "The Chivalrey", "The Laurel", and "The Pelican".
            The Chivalrey consists of two Orders: the Order of Knighthood and the Order of Mastery of Arms. The qualifications for both Orders are the same: grace, courtesy, and skill at arms. The only major difference is the issue of swearing fealty and how each are addressed. The Order of Knighthood consists of members that have sworn fealty to the King. They wear a white belt and chains to symbolize their fealty. If a person by the name of Aaron was to be in this Order, he would be addressed to as "Sir" Aaron. The Order of Mastery of Arms does not swear fealty to the King. They wear white baldrics and are referred to as "Master" and "Mistress".
            The Laurel has to do with arts and sciences and is composed of only one order - the Order of the Laurel. The required qualities for this Order are great skill in the Arts or Sciences, willingness to teach others, and the use of abilities to benefit the kingdom. Members of the Order of the Laurel are also referred to as "Master" and "Mistress".
            The Pelican looks for one quality: many years of service without thought of reward. Thus, the Order of the Pelican cherishes the values of volunteer work and devotion to the kingdoms and the Society. Members of this Order are addressed in the same way as the members of the Order of the Laurel.
            New members of each Order are chosen by the King in consultation with the members of the Order
(43).

III.4 Activities

III.4.1 Major Events
            The largest events in SCA are the interkingdom events in which participants from various kingdoms mingle. The following are the five interkingdom events that take place every year in chronological order: the Estrella War in Atenveldt Kingdom (February), the Gulf Wars in Meridies Kingdom (March), the Lilies War in Calontir Kingdom (June), the Pennsic War in AEthelmearc Kingdom (August), and the Great Western War in Caid Kingdom (October)
(44). Each war takes place in a specific kingdom, but attracts participants from kingdoms different from the host kingdom. For instance, the Pennsic War that takes place in ¨¡thelmearc Kingdom is a major battle between the Middle Kingdom and the East Kingdom. In 2007 alone, over 11,288 people, with the major participants from the Middle and East Kingdom, attended and participated in the Pennsic War (45).

III.4.2 Combat
            Combat and medieval martial arts are a major area of interest within SCA. There are various forms of fighting that are all subject to the unique rules established by SCA.
            One of the most common forms of combat is the heavy list fighting. Heavy list fighting, also known as rattan stick fighting, is an un-choreographed martial combat that involves swinging rattan weapons at one¡¯s opponent with full force. Participants are free to mold their rattan into any weapon of preference. As rattan is similar to a solid bamboo, the participants are less likely to be injured, but still, for safety, they are required to wear armors. SCA armors are fashioned after examples from specific historical eras, and because there is no regulation concerning the selection of such eras, warriors wearing armors modeled after a Norman cnight, a Saxon thegn, a Norse huscarl, a Byzantine cataphractos, and so forth may all co-exist on the same battlefield.
            Both heavy list fighting and rapier fighting are conducted under a unique SCA system that respects honor and utilizes much imagination. In SCA combats, no third person declares the winner: the person participating in the combat recognizes and accepts the blows that he or she has received, and recognizes the skill of his or her opponent
(46). The system of effective blows is also interesting. An effective blow is a blow delivered with successful technique, proper orientation, and sufficient force. The participants do not make effective blows by striking any body part; there are legal target areas - the torso, the face, the head, the thighs, the hips, the shoulder, and the arms. Blows outside these legal target areas are not considered, but an effective blow to these target areas can disable that particular body part - not in the literal sense, however. After receiving an effective blow, participants pretend as though the body part has been severely injured and does not exist. For instance, if one of the participants received an effective blow on the left arm, he or she has to pretend for the rest of the battle as though he or she has no left arm. Thus, an effective blow to the face and the head are considered fatal, and the wounded is expected to recognize the victory of his or her opponent (47).
            Another form of combat is combat archery. On the battlefield, participants fight not only with short-range weapons; they can dress up in their armors and shoot arrows at their opponents. As this can be a dangerous sport, there are many restrictions made to ensure safety. For one, there are requirements for anti-penetration devices - arrowheads, for instance, must be large and blunt, so that it would not penetrate the opponents' helmets (48). There are also specific restrictions against the use of metal as an ammunition construction material.
            Only those that have been authorized by SCA may participate in any type of combat (50).

III.4.3 Arts and Sciences
            SCA also engages in the study and practice of hundreds of different activities other than martial arts. Just to name a few, there are many crafting activities such as calligraphy, candle making, basketry, bead making, book binding, dyeing, costuming and accessories, stained glass making, rug making, and so forth. There are also performing activities such as bardic recitation, dancing, and drama and comedy. Event participants can also engage in culinary activities such as brewing and cooking
(51).
            As Benika Crous, the former Minister of Arts and Sciences in the Stronghold of Warrior¡¯s Gate in South Korea, stated, "There are two ways to learn stuff in the SCA. Teach yourself or take a class. Everyone in the SCA ends up being a teacher." Some people read books and search the internet to learn about specific skills; others come with skills that had been taught to them from their parents. These skills, regardless of how they were acquired, eventually are passed on to other members of the society who are interested in the area. As SCA is a big society, Crous notes that if a person really wants to learn an art or a science, "There is always someone somewhere who can get you started."

III.5 Membership
            SCA membership is usually not a mandatory requirement for attending events, but becoming a paid member does provide certain benefits. A paid member receives a membership card, which guarantees a speedier check-in at SCA events; SCA publications including their kingdom¡¯s newsletter; discounts on certain events where payment is required; and voting privileges in one¡¯s local group. An SCA member can pay $35 to purchase a full sustaining membership, and the paid member¡¯s family can get their memberships for a discounted price. Less expensive options are also available for those willing to give up some of the privileges given to SCA paid members
(52).

IV. Criticisms
            The Society for Creative Anachronism is a subject of heated debate in various areas. One of the criticisms that are directed at SCA is the use of modern equipments and technology - such as glasses and heating systems that would not have existed in the 17th century - in its activities. Critics also point out that the system of royalty in SCA is not a simulation of the medieval system as the King and Queen are under the direct control of the Board members, who have the power to restrict participation in Crown Tournaments and even the power to impeach the Crown (53).
            The major criticism falls on the issue of authenticity. Unlike other reenactment or living-history groups, SCA does not require its members to abide by a strict standard of authenticity (55). There are, in fact, regulations regarding the official study of the medieval culture. The Approved Rules for the Study and Education of Historical Combat Techniques within the SCA clearly state that non-theatrical historical combat studies "[m]ust be supported by (at a minimum) research and documentation appropriate to the activity in question." (56) However, these guidelines do not apply to the participants of SCA events, and this is where the discrepancy rises. Even SCA members admit through an unofficial motto that they are not recreating "[t]he Middle Ages not as they were, but as they should have been." (57)

V. Conclusion
            The Society for Creative Anachronism has so far been an important means through which laypeople can easily become familiar with history. As SCA itself states on its website, what differentiates SCA from the history textbooks is that it offers an opportunity to experience history by becoming a part of history (58). However, SCA does have its limitations in terms of reenactment in that it has to consider and balance both factors of recreation and re-creation. If SCA were to set higher standards for authenticity, it certainly would have to take a risk with at least a proportion of its members as the higher standard could bar people from participating. This would not be an easy decision for SCA as "active participation" is of great significance for the organization (59). As this is already becoming a heated debate, it is likely that such disputes will only increase with the constant expansion of the organization. When the time finally comes, SCA may have prioritize one factor over another - either placing more emphasis on stricter historical reenactment or on lighthearted and widespread participation.


Notes

(1)      Article: Historian, from Wikipedia
(2)      Rosenzweig and Thelen, 1998.
(3)      Article: Wargaming, from Wikipedia
(4)      Civil War & Military Games, from americancivilwar.com.
(5)      Game Info: Synopsis, from totalwar.com
(6)      Article: Historical fiction, from Wikipedia
(7)      Ferrucci, 1983, review in the New York Times, June 5th 1983
(8)      Rosenzweig and Thelen, 1998.
(9)      Article: Steampunk, from Wikipedia
(10)      Article: Steampunk, from PC Magazine Encyclopedia.
(11)      Branwyn, 2007.
(12)      Article: Steampunk, from Wikipedia
(13)      What is the SCA ?, from SCA
(14)      Mayer, 2008 The First Year
(15)      What is the SCA ?, from SCA
(16)      Mayer, 2008 First Event (image)
(17)      Mayer, 2008, First Tournament
(18)      Croucher, 2008; What is the SCA ?, from SCA
(20)      Article: Society for Creative Anachronism, from Wikipedia
(21)      ibid.; Kingdoms of the SCA, in Order of Founding, from SCA
(23)      What is the SCA ?, from SCA
(24)      Organizational Handbook, 2001..
(25)      What is the SCA ?, from SCA; SCA Geography, from SCA
(27)      ibid.
(28)      Organizational Handbook, 2001.
(29)      West Kingdom Branch Groups, from westkingdom.org
(30)      The Marches, from westkingdom.org
(31)      Forward into the Past. 1989
(32)      ibid.
(33)      The Board of Directors, from SCA
(34)      Organizational Handbook, 2001.
(35)      ibid.
(36)      The Board of Directors, from SCA
(37)      Organizational Handbook, 2001.
(38)      Forward into the Past. 1989; Organizational Handbook, 2001.
(40)      Organizational Handbook, 2001.
(41)      Forward into the Past. 1989
(42)      ibid.
(43)      ibid.
(44)      SCA Events, from SCA
(45)      Pennsic War 36, from pennsicwar.org
(46)      Sebastianus, Combat demo
(47)      Marshal's Handbook. 2008
(48)      Sebastianus, Combat demo; Marshal's Handbook. 2008
(50)      Marshal's Handbook. 2008
(51)      A New Member's Guide to the SCA
(52)      About Membership in the SCA, from SCA
(53)      Article: Society for Creative Anachronism, from Wikipedia; Organizational Handbook, 2001..
(55)      Article: Society for Creative Anachronism, from Wikipedia
(56)      Jennings, 2005 (57)      Article: Society for Creative Anachronism, from Wikipedia
(58)      What is the SCA ?, from SCA
(59)      ibid.


Bibliography

Note : websites quoted below were visited in June 2009.

Primary Sources
1.      A New Member's Guide to the SCA. Milpitas, CA: The Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.
2.      Forward into the Past. 1st ed. Milpitas, CA: The Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc., 1989.
3.      Jennings, Tim.?Approved Rules for the Study and Education of Historical Combat Techniques within the SCA. The Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc., 2005.
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5.      Organizational Handbook. 2001 Edition. Milpitas, CA: The Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc
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28.      Croucher, Martin. "Latter-Day Knights Battle for Imaginary Kingdoms."? Epoch Times?17 Mar 2008 Web. http://en.epochtimes.com/news/8-3-17/67686.html.
29.      Civil War & Military Games.? AmericanCivilWar.com. 2008. http://americancivilwar.com/civil_war_games.html.
30.      Branwyn, Gareth. Steam-Driven Dreams: The Wondrously Whimsical World of Steampunk.? Wired?18 Jun 2007 Web.http://www.wired.com/gadgets/mods/multimedia/2007/06/gallery_steampunk?slide=1&slideView=3.
31.      Article: Steampunk, from PC Magazine Encyclopedia. http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=steampunk&i=60173,00.asp.



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