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Chiang Kai-shek 1945-1949 as Reflected in the New York Times


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Park, Keun Woong
Research Paper, Fall 2010



Table of Contents


I. Introduction
II. Narrative History of Chiang Kai-shek
II.1 General Account of Chiang Kai-shek's Life
II.2 Madame Chiang Kai-shek
III. The Selection of Articles
IV. Content Analysis
IV.1 Chiang Kai-shek as an Able Leader
IV.2 Chiang Kai-shek as an Anti-Communist Figure
IV.3 Chiang Kai-shek as America's Ally
IV.4 Chiang Kai-shek as a Failed Leader
IV.5 Madame Chiang Kai-shek
IV.6 Analytic Articles
IV.7 Overall Analysis
V. Sources
VI. Conclusion
Notes
Bbliography
Appendix : List of Relevant New York Times Articles on Chiang Kai-shek, 1945-1949


I. Introduction
            Throughout history, the United States has supported different nations and individuals. Present day examples would include countries such as Israel and leaders like Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan. During the Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and the Communists, the man the United States supported was Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of the Nationalist party Kuomintang. Even after he retreated to present day Taiwan, the United States would continue to acknowledge Chiang's administration as the official government of China as a means to fight against communism.
            This paper aims to examine whether such support influenced the coverage of Chiang Kai-shek by the American press. For a small fee, the New York Times allows readers to access articles from the past. By making use of this opportunity, I collected and analyzed articles from the New York Times dealing with Chiang Kai-shek. In developing its contents, this paper will look for several factors such as sources of articles and different images of Chiang Kai-shek shown in the articles.
            Being an internationally renowned figure, there were numerous articles related to Chiang Kai-shek. Hence, the paper will simply focus on the period from August 15th, 1945 to December 11th, 1949, from the end of World War II to Chiang's retreat to present day Taiwan.

II. Narrative History of Chiang Kai-shek

II.1 General Account of Chiang Kai-shek's life
            Chiang Kai-shek was born on October 31st, 1887 in the town of Xikou. In a time of peril for China, Chiang decided to pursue a career in the military. He began his military education at the Baoding Military Academy in 1906. He would later go to Japan to continue his education at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1907. Chiang returned to China in 1911, and after the Xinhai Revolution which overthrew the Qing dynasty, became a founding member of the Kuomintang.
            Chiang was close to Sun Yat-sen, China's revolutionary and political leader. Under Sun, Chiang was appointed as the Commander of Whampoa Military Academy. There, Chiang would cultivate young military officers who would later prove loyal to him and the Kuomintang. After Sun's death in 1925, a power vacuum within the Kuomintang ensued. Chiang, who was on the right wing of the party, contested with Wan Jingwei, who leaned toward the left. Though Wang succeeded Sun as chairman, Chiang eventually became the commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army, the military division of the Kuomintang. (1) On July 27th, 1926, Chiang would launch what is known as the Northern Expedition to defeat the warlords controlling northern China and unify the country under the Kuomintang.
            Chiang found success in his military campaign, but halted it and prepared to break away from the leftist elements of the party which he thought threatened his hold of the Kuomintang. Until then, Chiang was known in the international society as the "Red General" because of the Soviet backing of the Kuomintang. (2) As if trying to directly rebuke such title, throughout April, 1927, more than 12,000 people suspected of Communism and dissention were killed in Shanghai. (3) Chiang's expulsion of Communists eventually led to the Chinese Civil War.
            Until 1945, Chiang Kai-shek had to weave through a complex set of issues. Not only did he have to take care of the remaining warlords, but Communists also contested the Kuomintang rule over China and the Second Sino-Japanese War led to Japanese involvement in the Chinese political landscape. In that period, the Kuomintang and the Communists would even cooperate from time to time in order to fight off Japanese invasion. It was after Japan's surrender that the Chinese Civil War really began to take full shape. Despite American aid and support, Chiang could not overcome the Communist resistance. A lot of his failure had to do with corruption and inflation. In a diary excerpt on June, 1948, Chiang even wrote that his government failed not because of external reasons, but because of rot from within. (4) By 1949, the Kuomintang was completely overwhelmed by Communists, and Chiang had no other choice except retreating to present day Taiwan. There, Chiang continued to look for ways to retake mainland China. Yet, no success was found, and he would simply rule over the island until his death in 1975.

II.2 Madame Chiang Kai-shek
            In examining how Chiang Kai-shek was dealt by the American press, we cannot neglect the involvement of his wife, Madam Chiang Kai-shek. Named Soong May-ling, she was the younger sister of Soong Ching-ling, Sun Yat-sen's widow. She attended Wellesley College and grew up in a very western environment. It was due to her that Chiang Kai-shek converted to Christianity. Chiang relied heavily on his wife, and she was able to exert great political influence. Madame Chiang Kai-shek would often interpret for her husband, who could only speak Japanese and Chinese, in meetings with English-speaking people. Soong May-ling also was active in the international society in garnering support for her husband. On February 13th, 1943, she became the first Chinese national and second woman to address both houses of the U.S. Congress. Being a person of such political influence and having been exposed to the western world since young age, the American press paid close attention to her, the examples of which will be touched upon later in the paper.

III Selection of Articles
            The paper originally aimed to cover the period from 1927 to 1949, from Chiang's purging of communists in Shanghai to his retreat to present day Taiwan. However, when searching for articles from that particular period, more than 11,000 articles came up. The workload was obviously too much. Thus, the time period was lessened to five years, from 1945 to 1949. The particular time period was selected because it was after World War II, and the media's attention would strictly be focused on the Chinese Civil War, not the Japanese invasion. This would also help us see better how the New York Times perceived Chiang Kai-shek since it was in this period his image as an anti-communist leader was most emphasized. Articles with headlines including the word "Chiang" was searched at the New York Times website. A total of 266 articles, whose titles and publication dates are stated in the appendix, were found and used for this paper. Since this paper focuses on Chiang Kai-shek, certain events in the general Chinese political situation may have been left out.

IV. Content Analysis
            In examining the contents of articles, the different character aspects of Chiang Kai-shek the articles cover were observed. The articles that were used as examples were chosen based on how well they represent each category.

IV.1 Chiang Kai-shek as an Able Leader
            One aspect of Chiang shown in the New York Times is his talents. Chiang's initial efforts to unite the country and how the Communists are following his orders are shown in 'Chiang Calls Red to Chungking Talk' (Aug. 16, 1945), 'Chinese Red Chief Accepts Chiang's Third Bid to Parley' (Aug. 27, 1945), 'Chiang, Yenan Held Near Accord' (Sep. 19, 1945), and 'China Pact Near, Moscow Reports' (Sep. 28, 1945) deal with Chiang's efforts to unify the country under the two parties. They also reflect on Communist response to such efforts and the eventual political victory Chiang scores over them. The New York Times also gives coverage on Chiang's early military success, too. 'Chiang Beats Reds to Big Cities' Rule' (Sep. 10, 1945), 'Peril for Marines Seen in China War' (Oct. 10, 1945), 'Chiang Said to Get Manchuria Permit' (Nov. 11, 1945), 'Chiang's Men Win Passes in North' (Nov. 22, 1945), 'Chiang Captures Hulutao Outpost' (Nov. 22, 1945), 'Chiang's Men Ring Reds' Vital Center' (Nov. 24, 1945), 'Chiang¡¯s Men Press Drive at Mukden' (Dec. 04, 1945), and 'Chiang Said to Get 3 Manchuria Cities' (Dec. 09, 1945) are all examples in that category. In this stage, the focus is mainly on Manchuria and the northern region of China. 'China's Reds Agree on Chiang as Chief' (Jan. 16, 1946) reports Communists' acceptance of Chiang as a leader. 'Rally Here Hails Chinese Republic' (Oct. 11, 1945) and 'Chiang Decorated by France' (Nov. 19, 1947) are articles that deal with international recognition of Chiang Kai-shek. For articles in this category, leaders of different nations would declare their support of Chiang or Chiang would receive medals or similar kind of honor for his work. Chiang also expresses his desire to make progress toward democracy through the New York Times. 'Chiang Pledges Democracy' (Sep. 04, 1945) is an article in which Chiang emphasizes the importance of civil rights and promises freedom once the conflict between the Nationalists and the Communists is settled. Another article of interest is 'Chiang Holds Up Russians As Models for Chinese' (Oct. 10, 1945). Although Russia was a communist nation, Chiang focused on its five-year plans and encouraged his people to take on such initiatives. Other articles such as 'Chiang Talks of His Hopes for China' (Oct. 14, 1945), 'Marines to Leave Soon, Chiang Says' (Oct. 16, 1945), 'Curb on China Reds Pledged by Chiang' (Nov. 27, 1945), and 'Chiang Proclaims Truce and Reform as Council Begins' (Jan. 11, 1946) also depict Chiang's dedication to democracy and stability within China. Chiang's fight against corruption, which had always been a problem in Chiang's government, is also dealt by the New York Times, as in the case in 'Chiang in Peiping' (Dec. 14, 1945), in which Chiang Kai-shek makes a speech on how he will punish those who have been rumored to misuse government funds for their own benefit. 'Chiang Indicates He Will Not Seek Office in Elections' (Feb, 6, 1946) 'Chiang Bars Plans for Another Term as China President' (Apr. 05, 1948) are articles that stress Chiang's lack of personal ambition and his sincerity for the good of China. Once the early talks fail and military conflict begin in the Chinese Civil War, Chiang meets success in its early stages, which are reported in 'Reds Lose Ground as Chiang is Firm' (Sep. 12, 1946) and 'Chinese Reds Seek Early Truce Because of Peril in Chiang Push' (Sep. 13, 1946) point to Chiang's early military success. Chiang's strong leadership within his own party is emphasized as he joins conflicting factions within the Kuomintang together to cooperate in 'Chiang Mends Rift at Party Meeting' (Mar. 17, 1946). However, it should be noted that 'Chiang Re-elected China's President' (Oct. 11, 1946) is an article that also depicts Chiang's authority within the Chinese government, but it doesn't mention at all the hypocrisy that Chiang actually spoke before against his re-election. In early 1947, when inflation hit China, Chiang made efforts to ameliorate the situation. This is shown in 'China Seeks Cure for Economic Ills' (Mar. 9, 1947) and 'China Puts Money on Gold Basis' (Aug. 20, 1948). 'China Still Holds Offices for Reds' (Apr. 19, 1947) and 'Chiang Launches Social Reforms' (Sep. 16, 1948) stress Chiang's openness to change by incorporating Communists in the government. Chiang Kai-shek's efforts to gain international cooperation are reported in 'Chiang, Quirino Ask for Pacific Union' (Jul. 12, 1949), in which he joins with the Philippines and calls for South Asian nations to come together to fight communism. In the later stages of the war, when Chiang faced defeat, he showed resilience in articles such as 'Chiang and Aides Rally Followers' (Jul. 7, 1949) and 'Chiang to Continue Fight on Mainland' (Dec. 5, 1949). Lastly, Chiang's character is also emphasized through articles such as 'Chiang, 59, Returns Gifts' (Oct. 21, 1945), in which the reporter states that Chiang returned birthday gifts "to set an example of frugality and simplicity to the nation". In total there were 79 articles in this category.

IV.2 Chiang Kai-shek as an Anti-communist Figure
            Chiang is also portrayed as a representative figure in the fight against communism. The New York Times does so mainly through articles that report conflicts between Chiang and the Communists. 'Chiang Is Displaced as Armistice Signer Because of Grave Tension With Communists' (Aug. 15, 1945) depicts how Chiang was unable to represent China in post-war settlements with Japan because of his bad relations with the Communists. 'China Communists Defy Chiang Order' (Aug. 15, 1945), 'Reds Warn Chiang to Avert Civil War' (Aug. 20, 1945), 'Communists Accuse Chiang' (Aug. 22, 1945), 'China's Internal Crisis is Viewed Seriously Here' (Aug. 20, 1945), 'China Reds Charge Chiang Offensive with Enemy's Aid' (Oct.7, 1945) are articles that deal with dissatisfaction from the Chinese Communists and their refusal to follow orders from the Chinese government. The above articles also report Communists issuing warnings toward Chiang. Military conflicts with the Communists after the talks failed and war broke out are reported in 'Civil War Spreads, Chinese Reds Say' (Oct. 29, 1945). Chiang was portrayed not only as an individual against Chinese Communists, but also against the Soviet Union as seen in 'Chungking Makes Deal with Russia' (Aug. 19, 1945). Chiang's criticism against the Communists for trying to take in Manchuria under their influence can be seen in 'Chiang Chides Reds for Manchuria Bid' (Apr. 2, 1946). 'Chiang in Nanking to Shift Capital' (May 4, 1946), 'Reds Warn Chiang They¡¯ll Cut Lines' (Jul. 31, 1946) are all articles that highlight tension between Chiang Kai-shek and the Communists. In 'Chiang Says Reds Must be Crushed for Unity of China' (Mar. 16, 1947), Chiang blames Communists for a rebellion on the island of Formosa, or present day Taiwan. The article points out that Chiang used "the strong words yet employed publicly by any government official". Chiang calls "for a stronger stand against Soviet Union and Chinese Communists" in 'New Chiang Move Expected' (Jun. 27, 1947). The significance of Chiang in the fight against communism is also seen in the New York Times. 'Wedemeyer Urges Aid for Chiang As an Action Against Communism' (Dec. 18, 1947) puts Chiang as a leader in the fight against communism and reports on the need for full U.S. support. In addition, fear of Soviet influence can be seen in 'Chiang Issues Appeal' (Sep. 21, 1949). Here, Chiang asks for a final struggle against the Chinese Communists to prevent China from falling into "Soviet vassalage". A similar article is 'Chiang Urges West to Check Russians' (Oct. 10, 1949), in which Chiang throws strong criticisms against Russia, arguing that World War III has begun due to Soviet interference in Chinese affairs. In total, there were 37 articles matching this category.

IV.3 Chiang Kai-shek as America's Ally
            As stated before, Chiang Kai-shek was an individual supported by the United States. The image of being a friend of the United States could also be seen in New York Times articles. Chiang recognizes the significance of America's independence from Great Britain in the history of democracy and praises its dedication to democracy in freeing the Philippines in 'China's Tribute by Chiang' (Jul. 5, 1946). In 'U.N. Urged to Back Free Press Pacts' (Sep. 14, 1946) Chiang joins the United States in supporting a universal freedom of press. Chiang also pays tribute to American individuals who have helped China. 'Chiang, U.S. Army Praise Stilwell' (Oct.14, 1946) is an article in which Chiang express regret at the death of General Joseph W. Stillwell who helped China acquire independence from Japan. General George C. Marshall also receives praise for his efforts to prevent a civil war in China in 'Chiang Approves Marshall Report' (Jan. 13, 1947). 'Anti-U.S. News is Barred' (Oct. 22, 1946) describes Chinese efforts to establish a favorable attitude within the public toward U.S. aid. Chiang give credit to the United States in some of his achievements, too. 'Chiang Won Over to 'Liberal' Course' (Dec. 30, 1946) has Chiang defining the new Chinese Constitution as a victory for America. 'China Pays Tribute to U.S. Industries" (Jan. 28 1947) thanks U.S. for economic aid. 'Chiang Sees Religion as the Hope of China' (Dec. 22, 1947) emphasizes Christianity. 'Chiang Pledges U.N. Aid' (Oct. 25, 1948) shows dedication to world peace. 'Chiang Ready to Talk Peace, But Sets His Own Conditions' (Jan. 01, 1949) has U.S. still backing Chiang. 'U.S. Aid to Chiang Seen Road to War' (Feb. 20, 1949) still categorizes Chiang as a friend.

IV.4 Chiang Kai-shek as a Failed Leader
            Another image of Chiang shown in the New York Times is his disappointments as a leader. 'Stilwell Shift Laid to Rift with Chiang' (Aug. 24, 1945) describes how General Stilwell was transferred from his position in China after protesting about Chiang using American weapons to fight Chinese instead of the Japanese. 'Fall of Changchun to Reds Conceded' (Apr. 20, 1946) and 'Nanking Concedes Fall of Rail Hub' (Nov. 14, 2947) are examples of Chiang's military defeat throughout different stages of the war. In 'China Reds Assert Aim to Take Harbin When Russians Go' (Apr. 21, 1946) reports Chiang's inability to keep things under control, which leads him to the point of being unable to put up any resistance to attacks from the Communists.
            Corruption was a major issue with Chiang's government, and several articles deliver events related to it. 'La Guardia Gave Chiang a Warning' (Jul. 11, 1946) points out suspicions on Chiang using United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration aid for political purposes. Opposition against Chiang in the U.S. military is reported in 'Marines Condemn Our Aid to Chiang' (Aug. 20, 1946). Here, certain military officials are quoted as believing that helping Chiang would be a waste of resources and that the United States should let the Chinese settle things among themselves. 'Chiang is Premier in Nanking Crisis' (Mar. 2 1947) questions corruption within government as Chiang takes over spot of China's Premier. 'Chiang Castigates Some U.S. Reports on China as Unfair' (Jul. 28, 1947) reports speculation of corruption and inefficiency within the Chinese gGovernment. Chiang's relatives were also accused of corruption and misappropriation of government funds, and this is dealt in 'Chiang's Relatives Accused' (Jul. 30, 1947). 'Wedemeyer Spur to Chiang is Seen' (Aug. 25, 1947) is an article that highlights corruption, pointing out "lack of inspirational leadership" that could lead the Nationalists to victory if it existed. 'Gen. Li's Reforms Blocked in China' (Jun. 18, 1948) shows Chiang reluctance to reform within the government and his desire to stay in power for long. Chiang get personally involved in a financial corruption scandal in 'Chiang Linked to Fund Squabble' (Mar. 26, 1949). Lastly, 'Chiang Regime Blamed In Li's Letter to Truman' (Aug. 06, 1949) sees Chiang blamed for not using U.S. support and aid properly by his Acting President Li Tsung-jen.
            Another problem Chiang had to deal with was criticism against his dictatorship and suppression of democracy. 'Chinese Minority Suspects Chiang' (Nov. 3, 1946) reports minority parties in the Chinese Congress fearing Chiang's dictatorship. In 'Nanking Decrees Curb on Student' (May. 19, 1947), Chiang bans public gathering in order to ease the rampant student demonstrations at the time. Chiang also begins to suppress freedom of press in '5 Chiang Stories Banned' (Oct. 23, 1947) Near the end of his stay in mainland China, suppression of democracy became worse. Increased censorship of anti-government contents is reported in 'Nanking Launches Search for Red Agents, Acts to Impose Censorship' (Dec. 11, 1948)
            There were many other issues Chiang had to go through also. Chiang had to endure severe inflation while in office. 'Chiang Combating Perilous Inflation' (Feb, 12, 1947) was the first indication of Chiang's failure in economic policy. Additionally, Chiang started to lose control of his own people. In 'Chiang is Assailed by Gen. Feng Here' (Oct. 11, 1947), General Feng Yuxiang, who used to work under Chiang, blames Chiang for the situation in China. Feng also questions misuse of government funds by Chiang in 'Scrutiny of China Suggested by Feng' (Dec. 14, 1947). An interesting event occurs in '700 Told to Quit China¡¯s Assembly' (Mar. 28, 1948). Here, Chiang had supposedly promised minority parties a certain number of seats in the Chinese Congress, and told some of Kuomintang incumbents to not to run for election. Instead, the incumbents campaigned as an independent candidate. As a result, Chiang had to order about 700 people to give up their position in the Congress to keep his promise. Along with 'Chiang Setback in China Is Seen In Li Election as Vice President' (Apr. 30, 1948), in which rivalry within the Kuomintang is revealed, this is a clear example of how Chiang is losing authority within his own government. As the war progresses towards its end, articles giving up on Chiang started to get published. 'The Dangerous Choice We Face in China' (Jan. 25, 1948) is one of the early articles that accept defeat, saying Chiang "has lost the war". A similar article is 'Chiang's Mission Fails' (Sep. 15, 1949). 'Wallace Sees End of Chiang Regime' (May 22, 1948) reports an atmosphere of defeat within the American government. Chiang asks for more U.S. aid in desperation, but the United States declines, thinking that there isn't much hope in 'Quick Aid by U.S. Sought by Chiang' (Nov. 19, 1948). Also, New York Times express the complete loss of trust within the American government in Chiang, in 'U.S. Will Review Policy if Chiang Loses Mainland' (Dec. 06, 1949). Other than the U.S., Chiang loses support from other countries, too. 'High British Favor Coalition in China' (Dec. 16, 1946) is an article dealing with Great Britain scaling down its support of Chiang. As the Communists start taking over China, Chiang faces pressure to step down. 'Chiang Ouster Talk Gains' (Dec. 16, 1948) is the first reference to such situation. Chiang sees that there is no point in fighting anymore and resorts to negotiation and compromise in 'Chiang Ready to Talk Peace, But Sets His Own Conditions' (Jan. 1, 1949). Eventually, He steps down from his position in 'Chiang Relinquishes Post to Speed Peace with Reds' (Jan. 22, 1949). Later, Chiang does make a return to politics, but he is unable to make things better. He starts thinking of retreat to present day Taiwan in 'Chiang Held Ready to Go to Formosa' (Dec. 05, 1948). He makes his final retreat on December 11th of 1949, which is described in 'Chiang Kai-shek in Formosa' (Dec. 11, 1949). In total, there were 67 articles in this category.

IV.5. Madame Chiang Kai-shek
            Madame Chiang Kai-shek also plays a significant part in New York Times' depiction of events in China. Being a fluent speaker of English, she was more accessible for American journalists and served as an individual who could represent the views of her husband. 'Mme. Chiang Opens Peace Campaign' (Aug. 15, 1945) contains an interview with Madame Chiang Kai-shek regarding the political situation in China and future plans of her husband. One thing to take note in this article is that she stresses "formulating a truly Christian peace", a comment perhaps used to draw support from the United States. In 'Wife Backs Chiang in Communist Crisis' (Aug. 17, 1945) Madame Chiang Kai-shek's support of her husband's policies can be seen. Madame Chiang's good relationship with the United States government is reported in 'Mme. Chiang Kai-shek at The White House' (Aug. 30, 1945), in which she spends time with many high-ranking government officials. Yet, there were instances when the New York Times displayed articles critical of Madame Chiang. In one instance, former U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt's first lady commented that Madame Chiang could "talk beautifully about democracy," but didn't "know how to live democracy". The event was reported in 'Mme. Chiang Chided by Mrs. Roosevelt' (Dec. 05, 1945). 'China's Critics Scored' (Sep. 23, 1947) is an article that shows Madame Chiang's determination to achieve success and her belief in her husband's abilities. Madame Chiang was also very active in practical matters. She would handle tasks that her husband would usually be responsible for in order to provide help. This was more so when the Chinese Communists were beginning to gain an advantage in the war. Desperate for more support, Madame Chiang flew to the United States to speak with President Harry Truman and other government officials. Articles such as 'Mme. Chiang Cites U.S. Stake in Clash' (Nov. 22, 1948) depicts the events she went through in her journey to the U.S. and also provides her words of encouragement toward America for more support. Eventually in that trip, Madame Chiang fails to gain sufficient amount of help. This is reported in 'Mme. Chiang's Trip Held to be Failing' (Dec. 10, 1948). Madame Chiang's Christian faith is highlighted in 'Mme Chiang is Hailed' (Dec. 13, 1948), in which she is praised by an American pastor for her faith and devotion. All in all, in the New York Times, Madame Chiang Kai-shek was portrayed as more than simply a wife of a political leader. Being open to western influences, she was a more accessible subject for reporters and was often depicted as a representative figure for Chiang Kai-shek himself. In fact, she was very much involved in politics, too, interacting with foreigners and making comments about the situation in China. One could say that the portrayal of Chiang Kai-shek would be incomplete without any mention of his wife. Though they were two different individuals, the depiction of Madame Chiang by the press would undoubtedly have had an impact on the readers in their evaluation of Chiang Kai-shek. There were a total of 18 articles in this category.

IV.6. Analytic Articles
            Although this section does not deal with any of the images of Chiang Kai-shek shown in the New York Times, there are certain characteristics to be noted in the articles that will be mentioned here. These articles are all written by New York Times special reporters and provide a general overview of the situation in China. Often accompanied with maps for better understanding, they include views of both the Nationalists and the Communists and make use of diverse sources including the Chinese government, U.S. military, Communist press, etc. Examples include 'Chinese See a Chance to Avoid Civil Strife' (Sep. 02, 1945) and 'Economy is Crumbling' (Feb. 12, 1947). 'Chinese See a Chance to Avoid Civil Strife' (Sep. 02, 1945) provides an extensive analysis of the Chinese political situation. Using both Nationalist and Communist sources, the article observes the issues that are at stake and gives possible solutions to avoid a civil war in China. 'Economy is Crumbling' (Feb. 12, 1947) deals with inflation in China. It gives a general overview of the situation through a detailed description of price changes. It also takes a look at several different factors that led to the crisis to help readers understand the big picture. Such articles try to examine the Chinese political situation from a third person¡¯s point of view and can be seen as New York Times' attempt to maintain objectivity in its coverage of Chiang Kai-shek. There were 8 articles in this section.

IV.7. Overall Analysis
            The following is a table and a chart organizing how Chiang Kai-shek was portrayed in the New York Times.

Table 1: Classification of NY Times Articles on Chiang Kai-shek by Content
Total 226
Able Leader 79 Failed Leader 67
Anti-communist Figure 37 Madame Chiang Kai-shek 18
America¡¯s Ally 17 Analytic Articles 8




            Simply looking at the above table and chart, the New York Times seems to provide a very positive image of Chiang, providing positive articles as twice as much as the ones that depict him as a failed leader. However, for a better perspective, I have tried to examine it from a different point of view.



            The above chart allows us to come to a different conclusion. The chart shows a significant decrease in positive articles about Chiang as time passes and an increase for articles critical of him. It is possible that there is still a certain amount of bias toward Chiang. The overwhelming number of positive articles testifies to this. However, readers can still clearly see from the articles that Chiang faced many military and political defeats toward the end of the given time period. In fact, in 1948, articles that show Chiang as a Failed Leader surpass in number all the articles in the three categories favorable to Chiang combined. The large proportion of positive articles in the early phases of the given time period can be attributed to censorship imposed during World War II. The U.S. Office of Censorship issued a Voluntary Censorship Code during the war. After the war ended, United States faced a new enemy in communism. This unstable situation could have possibly caused the New York Times to impose a self censorship on its articles dealing with China and Chiang Kai-shek for the benefit of the United States.

V. Sources of the New York Times
            The sources used by articles were divided into seven different categories. The first category was 'Fact'. Articles in this category simply dealt with events in a way that could not include any bias or opinion. For example, 'Mme. Chiang Kai-shek at the With House' (Aug. 30, 1945) simply states that Madame Chiang is at the White House. The second category was 'Chinese Government'. Articles that dealt with government policies and statements from government officials including Chiang Kai-shek and also his wife were included. 'Chiang Urges Vigilance' (Feb, 15, 1946), in which Chiang encourages the Chinese people to fight for democracy, is an example of such articles. The third category was 'New York Times Reporters'. Most of the reporters wrote their articles in China and used various sources to write their articles. 'The Dangerous Choice We Face in China' (Jan. 25, 1948) is an article written by Henry R. Lieberman that reports on the status of both Nationalists and Communists to provide a general picture of the Chinese political situation. The fourth category was 'U.S. government'. Articles here use government or military officials as a source. For instance, 'Stilwell Shift Laid to Rift with Chiang' (Aug. 24, 1945) reports on U.S. military's explanation for General Joseph Stilwell's transfer. The fifth category was 'Chinese Communists'. Articles that used Communist officials or newspapers as a source were included here. For example, 'China Communists Defy Chiang Order' (Aug. 15, 1945) refers to a telegram sent by the Communists. The sixth category was 'Combined'. Articles using more than one source were grouped together. 'Mme. Chiang Aids Charity' (Dec. 9, 1948) uses both Madame Chiang and U.S. government as a source for its story. The last category was 'Others'. This category includes articles that either do not clearly state their source or use sources that are insignificant in the total number of articles that use the same source. In 'Chiang Won't Quit, Dean Pound Holds' (Jan.18, 1949), the Dean of Harvard Law School gives comments on the Chinese Civil War, but no other article uses him as a source. The following is a table and a chart that shows the distribution of the sources.

Table 2: Classification of New York Times Articles on Chiang Kai-shek by Source
Total 226 NYT Reporters 94
Fact 17 Chinese Government 64
Chinese Communists 11 Combined 14
U.S. Government 11 Others 15




            Nearly half of the articles use New York Times reporters as a source, and this deserves attention. The New York Times reporters that wrote an article on Chiang were Tillman Durdin, Nancy MacLennan, Brooks Atkinson, Sidney Shalett, Henry R. Lieberman, Benjamin Welles, Bess Furman, Robert S. Allen, Harold B. Hinton, William S. White, Lawrence R. Davies, James Reston, C. L. Sulzberger, Walter Sullivan, Anthony Leviero, and W.H. Lawrence. Out of them, Henry R. Lieberman and Tillman Durdin wrote several articles related to Chiang, all written while they were in China. Articles in this category are characterized by their use of diverse sources and provide different perspectives on the topic at hand. While other sources such as the Chinese government can contain a certain amount of bias favorable to their side, New York Times reporters can give a more independent voice in their coverage. This allows the New York Times to write on both the positive side as in Tillman Durdin's 'Chiang Urges Reds to Work for Unity in New Government' (Aug. 14, 1946) and the negative side of Chiang Kai-shek as in Henry R. Lieberman's 'Gen. Li's Reforms Blocked in China' (Jun. 18, 1948). Hence, it can be seen as the New York Times' effort to maintain objectivity and keep to the principles of journalism.

VI Conclusion
            The coverage of Chiang Kai-shek can be divided into mainly three periods. From 1945 to 1946 is a period in which the New York Times gives a positive coverage of Chiang. 1946 to 1947 is a time of transition, and lastly, 1947 to 1949 is a phase where the New York Times gives up on Chiang. In the first stage of its coverage on Chiang, there is an overwhelmingly large proportion of articles that have a favorable attitude toward Chiang. It wasn't that Chiang was a perfect leader. During World War II, the U.S. government's Office of Censorship passed the Voluntary Censorship Code, which encouraged the media to voluntarily select materials that were to be published. Though the articles that are used as reference in this paper are published after the end of World War II, the global political structure was still an unstable one as the United States found itself fighting against communism. Thus, it is very likely that the principle of self-censorship was carried on by the New York Times in portraying Chiang Kai-shek. Even though Chiang had his flaws, New York Times probably didn't mention them extensively for America's benefit. The period of transition came after, from 1946 to 1947. During this period, headed by General Marshall, the United Stated makes efforts to set up a coalition regime in China, but because of Chiang's refusal to yield to the Chinese Communists' demands, civil war eventually begins. From this point on, it can be assumed that Chiang loses the trust of the United States. As a result, as seen in earlier chapters of this paper, the number of articles that are critical of Chiang starts to increase in this stage. The last phase, from 1947 to 1949, has the most number of articles that depict a negative image of Chiang. Not only has Chiang lost the trust of the United States, but his problems with corruption and his failure to obtain a decisive military victory over the Communists have become all too clear by this time. It becomes inevitable for the New York Times to publish articles that are unfavorable toward him.
            Regarding the use of sources, there is also a possibility of bias involved in the New York Times. While half of the articles on Chiang Kai-shek are written by New York Times reporters who mostly use different sources in their articles, there is still a significant portion of articles that cite the Chinese Nationalist government as a source. Moreover, even for the articles that are written by New York Times reporters, the Chiang's government is often mentioned as one of the sources cited. This can be used to explain the large number of articles that are favorable toward Chiang, especially in the early stage of the time period dealt in this paper.
            Overall, the New York Times does leave some space for bias in its coverage of Chiang Kai-shek. In its contents, it shows possible influence of censorship imposed during World War II. In its later coverage of Chiang, the New York Times does give a more balanced depiction. Meanwhile, the New York Times relies heavily on the Chinese gGovernment as a source of its articles. Though many articles are written by New York Times reporters, the reporters often cite the Chinese government in its articles, and there is a limited amount of objectivity. Despite its flaws, the New York Times articles contain a huge amount of information regarding Chiang Kai-shek and events in China. If read along with other books on Chiang Kai-shek such as the ones used as reference in this paper, it can be a valuable primary source in further research on Chiang Kai-shek.

Notes

1.      Taylor, p.57
2.      Pakula, p.346
3.      Mayhew, p.51
4.      Bethell


References

Note : websites quoted below were visited in June 2010.
Primary Sources
1.      Gunther, John. Inside Asia. New York and London: Harper & Brothers. 1942
2.      Tuchman, Barbara W., Stilwell and the American Experience in China 1911-1945. New York: Macmillian. 1971
3.      Clifford, Nicholas R., Spoilt Children of the Empire. Hanover, New Hamphsire: Middlebury College Press. 1991
4.      Thomson Jr., James C., While China Faced West. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 1969
5.      Sheridan, James E., China in Disintegration. New York: Macmillan, 1975
6.      Tung, Chi-Ming. An Outline History of China. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. 1959
7.      Pakula, Hannah. The Last Empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the Birth of Modern China. New York: Simon and Schuster. 2009.
8.      Mayhew, Bradley. Shanghai (2nd Edition). Melbourne: Lonely Planet. 2004
9.      Taylor, John. The Generalissimo's son: Chiang Ching-kuo and the revolutions in China and Taiwan. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 2009
10.      Bethell, Tom. Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for China. 2007 Posted on Hoover Institution Website. http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/5835.
11.      Hanyok, Robert J... Secrets of Victory: The Office of Censorship and The American Press and Radio in World War II. Posted on Central Intelligence Agency Website. 2002, https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol46no3/article10.html


Appendix: List of Relevant New York Times Articles on Chiang Kai-shek, 1945-1949

1945
Article No. Headline Date
1 Chiang is Displaced as Armistice Signer Because of Grave Tension With Communists (08.15)
2 MME. CHIANG OPENS PEACE CAMPAIGN (08.15)
3 CHINA COMMUNISTS DEFY CHIANG ORDER (08.15)
4 CHIANG CALLS RED TO CHUNGKING TALK (08.16)
5 WIFE BACKS CHIANG IN COMMUNIST CRISIS (08.17)
6 CHUNGKING MAKES DEAL WITH RUSSIA (08.19)
7 REDS WARN CHIANG TO AVERT CIVIL WAR (08.20)
8 Communists Accuse Chiang (08.22)
9 STILWELL SHIFT LAID TO RIFT WITH CHIANG (08.24)
10 CHIANG WINS RACE TO 2 MAJOR CITIES (08.26)
11 CHINA'S INTERNAL CRISIS IS VIEWED SERIOUSLY HERE (08.26)
12 Chinese Red Chief Accepts Chiang's Third Bid to Parley (08.27)
13 GIFT TO CHIANG GRANDSON (08.27)
14 MME. CHIANG KAI-SHEK AT THE WHITE HOUSE (08.30)
15 CHINESE SEE A CHANCE TO AVOID CIVIL STRIFE (09.02)
16 Chiang Pledges Democracy (09.04)
17 CHIANG BEATS REDS TO BIG CITIES' RULE (09.10)
18 Chiang, Yenan Held Near Accord (09.19)
19 CHINA PACT NEAR, MOSCOW REPORTS (09.28)
20 ALL-PARTY COUNCIL IS PLANNED IN CHINA TO AVERT STRIFE (10.01)
21 CHINA REDS CHARGE CHIANG OFFENSIVE WITH ENEMY'S AID (10.07)
22 Chiang Holds Up Russians As Models for Chinese (10.10)
23 RALLY HERE HAILS CHINESE REPUBLIC (10.11)
24 Chiang Talks of His Hopes for China (10.14)
25 MARINES TO LEAVE SOON, CHIANG SAYS (10.16)
26 Chiang, 59, Returns Gifts (10.21)
27 CIVIL WAR SPREADS, CHINESE REDS SAY (10.29)
28 PERIL FOR MARINES SEEN IN CHINA WAR (10.31)
29 UNDECLARED CIVIL WAR IS SPREADING IN CHINA (11.04)
30 CHIANG SAID TO GET MANCHURIA PERMIT (11.14)
31 CHIANG'S MEN WIN PASSES IN NORTH (11.22)
32 CHIANG CAPTURES HULUTAO OUTPOST (11.22)
33 CHIANG'S MEN RING REDS' VITAL CENTER (11.24)
34 CURB ON CHINA REDS PLEDGED BY CHIANG (11.27)
35 CHIANG'S MEN PRESS DRIVE AT MUKDEN (12.04)
36 MME. CHIANG CHIDED BY MRS. ROOSEVELT (12.05)
37 CHIANG SAID TO GET 3 MANCHURIA CITIES (12.09)
38 CHIANG IN PEIPING (12.14)

1946
1 CHIANG PROCLAIMS TRUCE AND REFORM AS COUNCIL BEGINS (01.11)
2 CHINA'S REDS AGREE ON CHIANG AS CHIEF (01.16)
3 CHINESE APPROVE COALITION SET-UP; VOTE IS UNANIMOUS (02.01)
4 CHIANG INDICATES HE WILL NOT SEEK OFFICE IN ELECTIONS (02.06)
5 CHIANG IMPLEMENTS VOW (02.13)
6 CHIANG URGES VIGILANCE (02.15)
7 CHIANG SAYS PARTY HAS ENDED ITS RULE (03.02)
8 CHIANG MENDS RIFT AT PARTY MEETING (03.17)
9 CHIANG CHIDES REDS FOR MANCHURIA BID (04.02)
10 FALL OF CHANGCHUN TO REDS CONCEDED (04.20)
11 CHINA REDS ASSERT AIM TO TAKE HARBIN WHEN RUSSIANS GO (04.21)
12 CHIANG POSTPONES CHINESE ASSEMBLY (04.25)
13 Reds Taking Harbin Unopposed (04.26)
14 MANCHU PARLEYS COLLAPSE IN CHINA (04.30)
15 CHINA GOVERNMENT MOVES TO NANKING (05.02)
16 CHIANG IN NANKING TO SHIFT CAPITAL (05.04)
17 Chiang Tells Aides to Obey Pacts Calling for Unification of China (05.07)
18 CHIANG IN MUKDEN TO WIN MANCHURIA (05.25)
19 CHIANG IN NANKING FO`R PEACE PARLEY (06.04)
20 CHIANG SAID TO BAR REDS IN SHANTUNG (06.19)
21 MANCHURIAN TRUCE IS EXTENDED 8 DAYS (06.22)
22 REDS' PEACE OFFER IS SENT TO CHIANG (06.30)
23 CHINA'S TRIBUTE BY CHIANG (07.05)
24 CHINA MARKS START OF WAR WITH JAPAN (07.08)
25 LA GUARDIA GAVE CHIANG A WARNING (07.11)
26 MARSHALL'S PLEAS FOR PEACE IN CHINA SAID TO BE FUTILE (07.21)
27 REDS WARN CHIANG THEY'LL CUT LINES (07.30)
28 CHIANG PEACE PLAN REPORTED DRAFTED (08.04)
29 CHINA REDS CHARGE NEW CHIANG DRIVE (08.07)
30 CHIANG URGES REDS TO WORK FOR UNITY IN NEW GOVERNMENT (08.14)
31 CHINA REDS SPURN CHIANG'S PROPOSAL (08.15)
32 CHINESE REDS CALL FOR ALL-OUT WAR (08.19)
33 MARINES CONDEMN OUR AID TO CHIANG (08.20)
34 YENAN MOBILIZES 10,000,000 IN WAR ON NANKING REGIME (08.20)
35 CHINESE RED CHIEF REJECTS CHIANG BID (08.21)
36 REDS LOSE GROUND AS CHIANG IS FIRM (09.12)
37 Chinese Reds Seek Early Truce Because of Peril in Chiang Push (09.13)
38 U.N. URGED TO BACK FREE PRESS PACTS (09.13)
39 Chiang is Said to Seek Victory On China's Railroads by Oct. 10 (09.14)
40 Plea for World Freedom of Press is Supported by 41 Governors (09.15)
41 CHINESE REDS' BASE AT HUAYIN IS SEIZED (09.18)
42 CHIANG INCREASES DRIVE FOR KALGAN (09.20)
43 CHIANG LAYS DOWN TRUCE CONDITIONS (10.03)
44 TRUCE AT KALGAN OFFERED BY CHIANG (10.08)
45 Chiang Said to Accept Plan (10.08)
46 CHIANG AGAIN ASKS REDS TO ASSEMBLY (10.10)
47 CHIANG RE-ELECTED CHINA'S PRESIDENT (10.11)
48 KALGAN, RED BASE, SEIZED BY CHIANG (10.12)
49 CHIANG, U.S. ARMY PRAISE STILWELL (10.14)
50 CHIANG GIVES REDS 8-POINT PEACE BID (10.17)
51 CHIANG WELCOMES CHOU TO NANKING (10.22)
52 ANTI-U.S. NEWS IS BARRED (10.22)
53 CHIANG MAPS PUSH TO CAPTURE HARBIN (11.01)
54 CHINESE MINORITY SUSPECTS CHIANG (11.03)
55 CEASE FIRE ORDER ISSUED BY CHIANG (11.09)
56 CHINA REDS DEFIED (11.15)
57 NEW PEACE TALKS STUDIED BY CHIANG (12.10)
58 CONSTITUTION PLAN UPHELD BY CHIANG (12.10)
59 CHINESE REACTION TO TRUMAN MIXED (12.20)
60 CHINA CONSTITUTION WINS FINAL VOTE (12.26)
61 CHIANG PLANS PUSH TO CUT REDS' LINES (12.27)
62 CHIANG WON OVER TO 'LIBERAL' COURSE (12.30)

1947
1 CHIANG RENEWS BID TO REDS FOR PEACE (01.10)
2 CHIANG APPROVES MARSHALL REPORT (01.13)
3 PEACE BID TO REDS STUDIED BY CHIANG (01.16)
4 CHINA PAYS TRIBUTE TO U.S. INDUSTRIES (01.28)
5 Chiang Honors Oil Company (02.01)
6 CHIANG COMBATING PERILOUS INFLATION (02.12)
7 Economy Is Crumbling (02.12)
8 CHIANG IS PREMIER IN NANKING CRISIS (03.02)
9 CHINA SEEKS CURE FOR ECONOMIC ILLS (03.09)
10 CHIANG SAYS REDS MUST BE CRUSHED FOR UNITY OF CHINA (03.16)
11 CHINA STILL HOLDS OFFICES FOR REDS (04.19)
12 NANKING DECREES CURB ON STUDENT (05.19)
13 GAIN IN MANCHURIA SHOWN FOR CHIANG (06.26)
14 New Chiang Move Expected (06.27)
15 Chiang Hails U.S. on Celebration (07.04)
16 CHINA'S REDS HELD IMPERIALIST FORCE (07.07)
17 CHIANG NOW LEADS 'NATIONAL CRUSADE' (07.08)
18 CHINESE REDS ASK COALITION REGIME (07.15)
19 CHIANG CASTIGATES SOME U.S. REPORTS ON CHINA AS UNFAIR (07.28)
20 Chiang's Relatives Accused (07.30)
21 CHIANG COMMANDS DRIVE IN SHANTUNG (08.18)
22 WEDEMEYER SPUR TO CHIANG IS SEEN (08.25)
23 Chiang Sees Corruption In Government and Party (09.07)
24 CHINA'S CRITICS SCORED (09.23)
25 PRIVILEGED' GROUP ACCUSED IN CHINA (10.06)
26 CHIANG ASKS UNITY IN COMBATING REDS (10.10)
27 CHIANG IS ASSAILED BY GEN. FEHG HERE (10.11)
28 Chiang Tries to Curb Prices (10.22)
29 5 CHIANG STORIES BANNED (10.23)
30 NANKING CONCEDES FALL OF RAIL HUB (11.14)
31 Chiang Decorated by France (11.19)
32 CHIANG AND AIDES STUDY NEW PERIL (11.29)
33 SCRUTINY OF CHINA SUGGESTED BY FENG (12.14)
34 Wedemeyer Urges Aid for Chiang As an Action Against Communism (12.18)
35 CHIANG SEES RELIGION AS THE HOPE OF CHINA (12.22)
36 Gen. Feng Ignores Recall to China, Calling Chiang Order Dictatorial (12.23)

1948
1 EXTERNAL THREAT IS CITED BY CHIANG (01.01)
2 CHIANG HONORS GEN. LUCAS (01.02)
3 COMMUNIST BLOWS TAX STRENGTH OF CHIANG (01.04)
4 CHIANG SUFFERING LOSS OF PRESTIGE (03.02)
5 NANKING REGAINING HOLD IN MANCHURIA (03.02)
6 700 TOLD TO QUIT CHINA'S ASSEMBLY (03.28)
7 SENATE GROUP SHIFTS TO PRO-CHIANG VIEW (03.30)
8 CHINA AID IS VOTED IN SENATE AS HOUSE ACTS TO HELP SPAIN (03.31)
9 CHIANG BARS PLANS FOR ANOTHER TERM AS CHINA PRESIDENT (04.05)
10 MOVE TO RE-ELECT CHIANG INITIATED (04.06)
11 NANKING ASSEMBLY CHIDED BY CHIANG (04.18)
12 Chiang Kai-shek Elected China's Charter President (04.19)
13 Chiang Setback in China Is Seen In Li Election as Vice President (04.30)
14 CHIANG MAKES PLEA FOR PARTY SUPPORT (05.04)
15 CHIANG CITES CAMERA MAN (05.16)
16 CHIANG PROMISES TO OUST CORRUPT (05.21)
17 WALLACE SEES END OF CHIANG REGIME (05.22)
18 CHIANG LAUDS SPELLMAN (06.05)
19 GEN. LI'S REFORMS BLOCKED IN CHINA (06.18)
20 CHIANG IS BLAMED IN KAIFENG'S LOSS (06.25)
21 China Puts Money on Gold Basis (08.20)
22 CHIANG THREATENS TREASON CHARGES (08.23)
23 CHIANG LAUNCHES SOCIAL REFORMS (09.16)
24 CHIANG IS BLAMED FOR TSINAN'S FALL (09.26)
25 CHIANG IS IN MUKDEN TO DISCUSS DEFENSE (10.03)
26 CHIANG SEES AIDE ON PEIPING PRICES (10.05)
27 Chiang Apologizes to His Nation For Failure to Drive Out Reds (10.11)
28 Chiang Is Urged to Take 'Vacation' As Communists Win 2 More Cities (10.24)
29 CHIANG PLEDGES U.N. AID (10.25)
30 MANCHURIA IS LOST BY CHIANG REGIME (10.31)
31 CHIANG'S GOVERNMENT IS IN SERIOUS SITUATION (10.31)
32 CHIANG HOLDS WAR MAY GO ON 8 YEARS (11.09)
33 QUICK AID BY U.S. SOUGHT BY CHIANG (11.19)
34 MME. CHIANG CITES U.S. STAKE IN CLASH (11.22)
35 Navy Plane to Fly Mme. Chiang Here (11.28)
36 MME. CHIANG FLYING TO U.S. TO GET HELP (11.29)
37 Connally Cool to China Aid (11.30)
38 Mme. Chiang in Hawaii (11.30)
39 MME. CHIANG IN U.S. (12.01)
40 Mme. Chiang in Washington (12.02)
41 SUCHOW CLAIMED BY CHINESE REDS; AIRFIELD IS FIRED (12.03)
42 MME. CHIANG SEES MARSHALL 4 HOURS (12.04)
43 CHIANG HELD READY TO GO TO FORMOSA (12.05)
44 U.S. AID TO CHIANG SCORED IN TIENTSIN (12.05)
45 MME. CHIANG HOPES FOR A WORLD PEACE (12.07)
46 Mme. Chiang Aids Charity (12.09)
47 MME. CHIANG'S TRIP HELD TO BE FAILING (12.10)
48 Attitude of Administration Remains Cool to Plea After Her Visit (12.11)
49 Nanking Launches Search for Red Agents, Acts to Impose Censorship (12.11)
50 MME. CHIANG IS HAILED (12.13)
51 HIGH BRITISH FAVOR COALITION IN CHINA (12.16)
52 CHIANG OUSTER TALK GAINS (12.16)
53 CHIANG EXIT URGED WITHIN HIS CABINET (12.23)
54 PRESSURE IS KEPT ON CHIANG TO QUIT (12.28)

1949
1 Chiang Ready to Talk Peace, But Sets His Own Conditions (01.01)
2 Mme. Chiang Undismayed (01.01)
3 U. S. STILL BACKING CHIANG (01.01)
4 Formosa Haven for Chiang Seen (01.09)
5 CHIANG WON'T QUIT, DEAN POUND HOLDS (01.18)
6 CHIANG HELD READY TO LEAVE NANKING (01.21)
7 CHIANG RELINQUISHES POST TO SPEED PEACE WITH REDS (01.22)
8 MME. CHIANG IS SILENT (01.22)
9 U.S. AID TO CHIANG SEEN ROAD TO WAR (02.20)
10 Nanking Paper Is Closed For Its Attacks on Chiang (03.07)
11 Chiang Linked to Fund Squabble (03.26)
12 CHIANG ASKS CHINA TO REDOUBLE FIGHT AS REDS PRESS GAIN (04.28)
13 CHIANG AND AIDES RALLY FOLLOWERS (07.07)
14 CHIANG AND QUIRINO IN PHILIPPINE TALK (07.10)
15 ANTI-RED BLOC PLAN OF CHIANG, QUIRINO (07.11)
16 CHIANG, QUIRINO ASK FOR PACIFIC UNION (07.12)
17 Chiang Decides to Make South China Morale Tour (07.14)
18 CHIANG ASKS UNITY IN ANTI-RED FIGHT (07.15)
19 DEFENSE OF CANTON DEMANDED BY CHIANG (07.16)
20 Chiang Heads War Council For Fight on Reds in China (07.17)
21 Chiang Regime Blamed In Li's Letter to Truman (08.06)
22 GUEST OF THE MARSHALLS (08.17)
23 FORMOSANS BITTER AT RULE BY CHIANG (08.23)
24 CHIANG LAYS WOES OF CHINA TO REDS (08.25)
25 YUNNAN REPORTED AS LOST BY CHIANG (09.05)
26 CHIANG 'ABSCONDED,' CONNALLY CHARGES (09.08)
27 Chiang's Mission Fails (09.15)
28 CHIANG ISSUES APPEAL (09.21)
29 FACTIONS IN CHINA HURT NATIONALISTS (10.03)
30 CHIANG URGES WEST TO CHECK RUSSIANS (10.10)
31 Chungking Falls to Reds (12.01)
32 REDS CAME CLOSE TO SEIZING CHIANG (12.03)
33 CHIANG TO CONTINUE FIGHT ON MAINLAND (12.05)
34 U.S. WILL REVIEW POLICY IF CHIANG LOSES MAINLAND (12.06)
35 Chiang Still on Mainland (12.10)
36 Chiang Kai-shek in Formosa (12.11)




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