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Cities of the Russian Empire

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Park, Jae Young
Term Paper, AP European History Class, September 2008

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Overall Growth of Cities in the Russian Empire
III. Capital Cities
III.1 Moskva
III.1.1 Moscow in the 18th Century
III.1.2 Napoleonic Invasion and Rebirth in the 19th Century
III.2 St. Petersburg
III.2.1 The Foundation of the City
III.2.2 The Development of the City
III.2.3 St. Petersburg in the Late 19th Century
III.2.4 The Russian evolution in 1905
IV. Industry and Trade Cities
IV.1 Railroad-Centered Cities
IV.1.1 Kyiv
IV.1.2 Ivanovo-Voznesensk
IV.1.3 Yekaterinburg
IV.1.4 Perm
IV.1.5 Nizhny Novgorod
IV.2 Port Cities
IV.2.1 Odessa
IV.3 Cities with Natural Resources
IV.3.1 Baku
IV.3.2 Kryvyy Rih (Kryvoy Rog)
V. Conclusion

I. Introduction
            The Russian Empire was the second largest land-based empire in history, surpassed only by the Mongol empire. Prior to the outbreak of WWI, it was one of the five major Great Powers of Europe with an army of over 5 million men, larger than any army at that time (1). The Russian Empire could enjoy her great international power because of the modernization and industrial development in cities of the 18-19th century
            In this paper, I scrutinize the development, and in some cases the foundation, of selected Russian cities in the 18th century in terms of geography, industry, governmental policy, and historical events.

II. Overall Growth of Cities in the Russian Empire
            Peter I's time witnessed the dramatic growth in the Russian cities. Growth of cities was a phenomenon achieved by a combination of an international credit economy with a servile domestic economy. Old industries were expanded, new ones created, and a substantial manufacturing sector developed while foreign commerce and trade grew. Although the state built factories, Peter also drafted in individuals to set them up and manage them. Many foreign specialists were recruited. (2) Peter constructed the city of St. Petersburg to serve as a future capital: "window on Europe." (3)
            The reign of Catherine II was a period of active town planning and building. The number and size of the urban centers grew slowly but steadily. Along with new cities in the south, many old towns were rebuilt and developed. The renaissance of the old provincial centers was in part due to the administrative reforms of 1775 and 1785, which brought an influx of officials and nobles. Along with them came craftsmen, artisans and merchants (4). She also rejected monopolies, lowered internal tariffs and customs duties, and openly expressed preference for hired labor in industry. These were all measures compatible with liberal economics. (5)
            Still, Russia¡¯s economic growth in the eighteenth century was no less firmly rooted in serfdom (6). The Crimean War in the 19th century had revealed the relative backwardness of the Russian economy and highlighted the connection between economic progress, military advance and international political power. Ideas of economic progress were beginning to infiltrate the ruling elite during the early 19th century, especially among those high-ranking officials particularly concerned with economic policy. The emancipation of serfs in 1861 was the focus of the reforms. (7)
            Expansion in the first half of the 19th century occurred in trade, both at home and abroad. Although traditional fairs still predominated at home, more permanent urban markets were becoming established, and the home market was increasing for textiles and other goods. The European market was simultaneously increasing for Russian wheat. Many of the later large industrial enterprises had their origins in 1820-60 and these were highly concentrated, mechanized and utilized modern technology. Trade also benefited from extensions to the infrastructure which occurred in this period: the major canal systems of European Russia being built from the reign of Paul I(1796-1801) to that of Alexander II(1855-1881). These combined enormous feats of engineering with large amounts of labor and capital, much of it from abroad. (8)
            A rapid growth of railways came in the 1870s, and in the same decade the exploitation of petroleum began at Baku in Azerbaijan. There was also progress in the textile and sugar industries. Only in the 1890s did the demand for iron and steel begin to be satisfied on a large scale within Russia. By the end of the century there was a massive metallurgical industry in Ukraine, based on the iron ore of Krivoy Rog and the coal of the Donets Basin. (9)
            In sharp contrast to the social stagnation of the 1880s and 1890s by the emancipation of the serfs, there were the huge modernizing leaps in industrialization. The rich became richer, while the poor became poorer as cheap labor was exploited. With the Russians¡¯ dissatisfaction about the Russo-Japanese War, these phenomena lead road to the revolution in 1905. (10)

III. Capital Cities

III.1 Moskva

III.1 Moscow in the 18th Century
            In 1703 Peter I began constructing St. Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland, and in 1712 he transferred the capital to his new, ¡°westernized,¡± and outward-looking city. Members of the nobility were compelled to move to St. Petersburg, and many merchants and artisans followed the movement. Peter¡¯s city growth policy resulted in a decrease in population growth and new buildings in Moskva (11). Only a decade after the zenith of Moscow baroque, Moscow had descended into desuetude (12).
            But even during Peter's reign the city began to recover from the loss of capital status, as Peter himself stimulated economic growth by establishing new industries, with private entrepreneurs following him. By 1725 there were some 32 new factories employing 5,500 workers; more than 20 of the factories were textile mills, including a crown enterprise making sailcloth. At the same period there were about 8,500 craft workers.
            During the 18th century Moskva retained its major role in the cultural life of Russia. In 1755, Moskva University (now Moskva M.V. Lomonosov State University was founded, the first university in Russia; a medical and surgical college was opened in 1786. Although serious fires did much damage in 1737, 1748, and 1752, many splendid new buildings appeared, designed by such architects as Giacomo Quarenghi, Vasily Bazhenov, Matvey Kazakov, and Vasily Stasov. In 1741 Moskva was surrounded by a barricade 25 miles long, the Kmaer-Kollezhsky barrier, at whose 16 gates customs tolls were collected; its line is traced today by a number of streets called val ("rampart") and by place-names such as Kaluga Zastava ("Customs Gate"). Industry flourished, and by the end of the 18th century there were about 300 factories in Moskva, more than half of them being textile mills. The population had grown to 275,000 by 1811.

III.1.2 Napoleonic Invasion and Rebirth in the 19th Century
            In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia. After a bitter 15-hour battle on September 7 at Borodino, the Russian commander evacuated troops and civilians from the city before Napoleon came. A fire broke out and spread rapidly, eventually destroying more than two-thirds of all the buildings. The French occupied Moskva a week later, but the lack of supplies and shelter and continual harassment by Russian skirmishing forces made it impossible for Napoleon to winter in Moskva. And on October 19 the French troops started to retreat.
            In 1813 a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moskva was established. It launched a great program of rebuilding, which included a partial re-planning of the city center. The Kremlin Great and Armory palaces, the university, the Manezh (Riding School), and the Bolshoi Theatre were included in the construction/reconstruction plan.
            Industry also recovered rapidly and continued to develop through the 19th century. In 1837 the Moskva stock exchange was established. The emancipation of the serfs in 1861 and the beginning of the railway era with the opening of the line to St. Petersburg in 1851 greatly increased labor mobility. Therefore, the peasants¡¯ migration into Moskva increased, and the population, which had reached 336,000 in 1835, had almost doubled to 602,000 in 1871 and by 1897 had reached 978,000.
            Moskva became the hub of Russia¡¯s railways, with trunk lines to all parts of European Russia. A ring of main line termini was built, mostly on or near the Kamer-Kollezhsky barrier at the limits of the built-up area. Outside the barrier many new textile-related factories began operation. In the 1890s heavy engineering and metalworking industries also developed. Between 1897 and 1915 Moskva again doubled in size, to a population of 1,983,700.
            The later 19th century was a period of ostentatious building by public bodies and wealthy private persons, in various imitative ¡°Old Russian¡± styles and the so-called modern style. From this period date the old Town Hall (meeting place of the Gorodskaya Duma, now the Central Lenin Museum), the Stat Historical Museum, and the Upper Trading Rows (now GUM). (13)

III.2 St. Petersburg

III.2.1 The Foundation of the City
            From the start, the city was designed as a capital although the first dwellings were single-storied and made of wood. Soon, a series of stone buildings were being established. The first stone palace, still preserved, was completed in 1714 for Prince Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, first governor of the city. The city had developed as an imposing capital on a regular street pattern, with spacious squares and broad avenues radiating out from the Admiralty. Architects, craftsmen, and artisans from all over Russia and from many foreign countries participated in the construction and embellishment of the new town. (
14) By 1721 the St Petersburg Construction Chancellery was spending almost 5 per cent of total state revenue. (15) In 1712 the capital of Russia was transferred there from Moskva, although it was not until 1721 that Sweden, in the Peace of Nystad, formally ceded sovereignty of the area to Russia. Members of the nobility and merchant class were compelled by Peter I of Russia to move to the new capital and to build houses for themselves. (16)
            A harbor was constructed, and Peter took measures to curtail traffic through Arkhangelsk on the White Sea, which was previously Russia's major port. "Whereas c. 1650 roughly three-quarters of Russian overseas trade passed through Arkhangelsk, the old port suffered rapid decline when challenged by warm-water ports on the Baltic, such as St. Petersburg." Riga and Reval (now Tallinn) were in turn also eclipsed by St Petersburg. This is a point which supports the argument that capital cities which were also ports were economically the period's most successful urban centers. As early as 1726 St. Petersburg was handling 90 percent of Russia¡¯s foreign trade. (17)
            In 1703, the work to give the capital a direct water route to central Russia and all of the Volga basin started on the Vyshnevolotsky Canal in the Valdai Hills. The work was finished in 1709, and industry soon began to develop. The original and flourishing Admiralty shipyard was joined by enterprises. The growing fleet Merchantmen as well as warships were built. A cannon foundry, a gunpowder factory, and a tar works were established. Other industries in Saint Petersburg before the end of the 18th century include papermaking, printing, and food, clothing, footwear, and china industries. Population growth was significant; by 1765 the population numbered 150,300, and by the end of the century it had reached 220,200. (18)

III.2.2 The Development of the City (19)
            The city of St. Petersburg gradually became more and more majestic in the 19th century. After the death of Catherine the Great in 1796, a new age in Russian history started: Alexander I introduced a series of political reforms. The government was restructured, and bureaucracy began to flourish in Russia. Ministries with ministers had to report directly to the monarch from 1802, and a State Council was form in 1810. St. Petersburg was also rapidly becoming an ordered and bureaucratic city.
            Russia was a country of which the economy was still based on serfdom. The defeat in the Crimean War (1853-56) was caused by this economic backwardness. Yet, Russia was gradually moving down the road of technical progress. In 1837 the first Russian railroad was opened, connecting St. Petersburg with the royal residence at Tsarskoye Selo, and in 1851 a second one was constructed to connect St. Petersburg with Moscow. In 1850 the first permanent bridge across the Neva River was opened, replacing the temporary pontoon bridges that had been used previously.
            St. Petesburg was a mirror image of the country¡¯s complex religious and linguistic structure. In the eye of a Russian patriot of German descent, 'From the time of its foundation St Petersburg, the most important link of a Russia attaching itself to Europe, displayed a terrible mixture of languages, manners, and customs.' (20) The capital was one of the most modernized cities in Russia: female infanticide decreased significantly between 1780 and 1820 as textile industry required unskilled female labor. (21) Russia needed to develop its natural resources in order to compete with the West and there was no more important resource than people. Populationism was at its zenith in 1764 St Petersburg, and quantitative methods were fully endorsed in demographics. (22)

III.2.3 St. Petersburg in the Late 19th Century (23)
            After the Crimean war, Emperor Alexander II (1855-1881) undertook a series of reforms, which included the emancipation of the serfs 1861. Still, the peasants were still compelled to pay for the land they worked. He also pushed military, legal, and administrative reforms forward. St. Petersburg was allowed with a much higher degree of self-government. Despite the scale of these reforms some revolutionaries still considered Alexander to be too conservative in outlook. After a series of assassination attempts, on March 1 1881 Alexander II was fatally wounded and died on the same day. Many of his reforms, including a constitution that was ready to be signed, were repealed or curtailed by his enraged son Alexander III and a period of conservatism and repression followed.
            Meanwhile, St. Petersburg was becoming a capitalist city. Both Russian and foreign factories were widely established and banks and company offices filled the city's major streets such as Nevsky Prospekt. By the 1890s construction was booming and new multi-storey apartment buildings were springing up all over the city. During this period the famous Mariinsky theater (formerly the Kirov Theater), the Grand Dukes' palaces, Liteiny bridge and monuments to Catherine the Great, Nicholas I and the poet Alexander Pushkin was constructed.

III.2.4 The Russian Revolution in 1905
            The capital city was the background of the 1905 Revolution. In December 1904, a strike occurred at the Putilov plant in Saint Petersburg. Sympathy strikes in other parts of the city raised the number of strikers above 80,000. On Sunday, January 22 1905, a "workers' procession" was organized to deliver a loyal petition to the Tsar at the Winter Palace. The petition asked for reforms such as an end to the Russo-Japanese war, expanded suffrage, an 8-hour work day, higher pay and the end to forced overtime in factories. However, the military ended the procession with violence. That day was later called the Bloody Sunday. (

IV. Industry & Trade Cities

IV.1 Railroad-Centered Cities

IV.1.1 Kyiv (25)
            In 1793 the second Partition of Poland, under Catherine the great, brought right-bank Ukraine into the Russian Empire, and Kyiv, assisted by the abolition in 1754 of the tariff barriers between Russia and the Ukrainian lands, began to grow in commercial importance. Catherine¡¯s reign was marked by the abolition of the old administrative system and of the post of Cossack hetman and the division of Ukraine into new administrative provinces, for one of which Kyiv became the center. Subsequently it became the center of a governor-generalship covering three provinces.
            During the Russian industrial revolution in the late 19th century, Kyiv became an important trade and transportation center of the Russian Empire, specializing in sugar and grain export by railroad and on the Dnieper river. As of 1900, the city also became a significant industrial center, having a population of 250,000. Modern factory industry appeared; to the Arsenal, which had been set up as early as the 18th century, were added lumber milling and the building of rivercraft. The town developed significant industries processing agricultural products-leather, tobacco, distilling, brewing, and textiles. Landmarks of that period include the railway infrastructure. In the late 1860s Kyiv was connected by rail to Moskva and the Black Sea port of Odessa, further enhancing its role as a center industry, commerce, and administration. By the outbreak of World War I, the city had a population of some 350,000.

IV.1.2 Ivanovo-Voznesensk
            Peasants who were released from the fields engaged in industrial and proto-industrial activities. In a few spectacular cases, whole villages were transformed into business run by serf entrepreneurs. Such example was Ivanovo-Voznesensk (26). Ivanovo-Voznesensk was a town of middle Russia in the government of Vladimir. It consisted of what were originally two villages - Ivanovo and Voznesensk. They united into a town in 1861. Linen-weaving was introduced in 1751, and in 1776 the manufacture of chintzes was brought from Schliüsselburg. The town had cotton factories, calico print-works, iron-works and chemical works (27). Ivanovo was one of the major textile cities of Russia, and produced cotton, worsted, silk goods and clothing. In the 1720s, one third of the household economy in the Ivanovo region was somehow related to linen. Even before the emancipation, the relative ease of entry allowed many serfs to become important figures in the cotton textile industry. Many of Ivanovo's serfs became wealthy serf-owners themselves (28). A large number of weaving mills and textile-printing factories were subsequently opened there. After all, by the middle of the 19th century the town was known as "the Russian Manchester." (29) Some other industries include "machinery and dyes" for the textile industry, peat-working machines, cranes, leather goods, umber, and foodstuffs. A number of satellite towns produce cotton and linen. Rail and road links run to Moskva, Yaroslavl, and Vladimir (30). By the early 20th century, Ivanovo competed with ¨©?d? (also a part of the Russian Empire at that time) for the title of the primary textile production center in Europe. (31)

IV.1.3 Yekaterinburg
            "Near the village of Shartash, which was founded in 1672 by members of the Russian sect of Old Believers, an ironworks was established in 1721 and a fortress in 1722. In 1723 the new settlement was named Yekaterinburg in honor of Catherine I, the wife of Peter I the Great. The town grew as the administrative center for all the ironworks of the Urals region, and its importance increased after 1783, when the Great Siberian Highway was built through it. After 1878 the Trans-Siberian Railroad linked the city [and European Russia] with Siberia." (32)

IV.1.4 Perm
            In 1723 a copper-smelting works was founded at the village of Yegoshikha (founded 1568), at the junction of the Yegoshikha and Kama rivers. In 1780 the settlement of Yegoshikha became the town of Perm, although another town, Perm Velikaya (perm the great; now Cherdyn), had existed 150 miles (240km) up-stream since the 14th century. Perm became the administrative center of Perm oblast (province) in western Russia. The city stands on both banks of the Kama River below its confluence with the Chusovaya.
            Perm¡¯s position on the navigable Kama River, landing to the Volga, and on the Great Siberian Highway across the Ural Mountains helped it become an important trade and manufacturing center. It also lay along the Trans-Siberian Railroad, which was completed to Yekaterinburg in 1878. (33)

IV.1.5 Nizhny Novgorod
            The trade of Nizhny Novgorod started to increase after the Russian conquest of the Volga in the mid-16th century. In 1817, the Makaryev Fair, one of the liveliest fairs in the world, was transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, and attracted millions of visitors from Europe and Asia every year. (34) By the mid-19th century, the city on the Volga was firmly established as the trade capital of the Russian Empire. In 1896, the Industrial and Art Exhibition was held in Nizhny Novgorod. It had demonstrated the world's first radio receiver of engineer Alexander Popov and the world's first hyperboloid tower and lattice shells-coverings of engineer Vladimir Shukhov. The largest industrial enterprise was the Sormovo Iron Works. The company's own railway connected the ironworks to Moskva station in upper part of Nizhny Novgorod. The private company named Moskva - Kazan Railway Company served the lower part of the town. (35)
            The manufactures include steam flour-mills, iron and machinery works, manufactories of ropes and candles, distilleries and potteries. (36) Nizhny Novgorod also controlled alcohol production by a monopoly until 1817. (37) Shipbuilding, especially for the transport of petroleum on the Caspian Sea, and steamboat building, had advanced considerably. Nizhny was also the chief station of the Volga steamboat traffic. (38)

IV.2 Port Cities

IV.2.1 Odessa
            Odessa is a seaport and administrative center of Odessa oblast (province) in southwestern Ukraine. It is located on a shallow indentation of the Black Sea coast at a point approximately 19 miles (31km) north of the Dniester River estuary and about 275 miles (443km) south of Kyiv. Due to its favorable geography, a settlement existed on the region even from the ancient times. The history of the modern city actually began in the 14th century when the Tatar fortress of Khadzhibey was established there. It was later passed to Lithuania-Poland and then to Turkey in 1764. The Russians attacked the fortress in 1789 and owned it in 1791. A new fortress was built in 1792-93, and in 1794 a naval base and commercial quay were added. In 1795 the new port was named Odessa for the ancient Greek colony of Odessos, which was thought to be located near the region.
            During the 19th century Odessa¡¯s growth was rapid, especially after the coming of railways in 1866. Odessa became the third city of Russia and the country¡¯s second most important port, after St. Petersburg. (39)
            Odessa's growth was interrupted by the Crimean War of 1853?1856, during which it was bombarded by British and French naval forces. It soon recovered and the growth in trade made Odessa Russia's largest grain-exporting port. In 1866 the city was linked by rail with Kyiv and Kharkiv as well as Iasi, Romania (40)
            The city remains a major port, the largest in Ukraine, with well-equipped docks and ship-repair yards. After 1857 a new outport was built at Ilichevsk, 12miles (20km) to the south Odessa is the base of a fishing fleet. The city¡¯s rail communications are good to all parts of Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania. Odessa is also a large industrial center, with a wide range of engineering industries, including the production of machine tools, cranes, and plows. The chemical industry makes fertilizers, paints, dyes, and other materials. Odessa also has an oil refinery, a large jute mill, and a number of consumer goods and food-processing factories. Most factories lie north of the port along the waterfront, with newer plants on the western outskirts (41).
            The city was a city of cultural diversity. From 1819 to 1859 the city was a free port. It became home to people of extremely diverse nationalities of Russians, Ukrainians, Jews, Romanians, Greeks, Bulgarians, Albanians, Armenians, Italians, Frenchmen, Germans, and etc. Numerous 'ethnic' names were on the city's map, such as Frantsuszkiy (French) and Italianskiy (Italian) Boulevards, or Grecheskaya (Greek), Evreyskaya (Jewish), Arnautskaya (Albanian) Streets. While Alexander Pushkin lived in internal exile in Odessa between 1823 and 1824, he documented this cosmopolitan nature. He wrote in his letters that Odessa was a city where "you can smell Europe. French is spoken and there are European papers and magazines to read". (42)

IV.3 Cities with Natural Resources

IV.3.1 Baku
            In 1723 Peter I the Great captured Baku, but it was returned to Persia in 1735; Russia captured the town finally in 1806. (43) Its affluence was based on oil industry. Though dry and bare of vegetation, the Apsheron peninsula has the famous petroleum wells of Baku beneath her surface. The oil-fields lie around the town of Baku: the largest is Balakhany-Sabunchi-Romany with 82 m in diameter. The wells are 700 to 1700 ft deep, and yield crude naphtha, from which the petroleum or kerosene is distilled. Whereas in 1863 the output was only 550 tons of crude naphtha, in 1904 it increased to 9,833,600 tons. The lighter oil is conveyed to Batum on the Black Sea in pipes, and is there shipped for export. The heavier oils reach Batum, Novorossiysk and Poti, all on the Black Sea, in tank railway-cars. (44)

IV.3.2 Kryvyy Rih (Kryvoy Rog)
            Kryvyy Rih is a town of south Russia on the Ingulets River near the station of the same name on the Ekaterinoslav railway in the government of Kherson. It was the center of a district very rich in minerals, obtained from a narrow stretch of crystalline schist underlying the Tertiary deposits (45). Kryvyy Rih, with its suburbs, stretched for more than 18 mile (29 km) in a long, narrow belt along the iron-ore deposits (46). Nearly 2,000,000 tons of iron ores (60 to 70% of iron) were obtained annually. Other minerals list: copper ores, brown coal, graphite, slate, and lithographic (47). In 1881 a French company began to work the local iron-ore deposits, and a railway was constructed to the Donets Basin coalfield in 1884. After that date Kryvyy Rih became a significant iron-mining city. In and around the city several ore-enriching and pelletizing plants were established to support the expanding ironworks and steelworks. (48)

V. Conclusion
            Cities in the Russian empire flourished when geographical merits met with transportation and industrial advances in the region. First, Perm¡¯s geographical position on the navigable Kama River, landing to the Volga, and on the Great Siberian Highway across the Ural Mountains helped it to become an important trade and manufacturing center. Also, Yekaterinburg grew as the administrative center for all the ironworks of the Urals region, and its importance increased when the Great Siberian Highway was built through it after 1783. Ivanovo would not have been called the "Russian Manchester" if it had not been for the network of railroads. It is noteworthy that important cities like Moskva and Yekaterinburg based their development on the railroads. Kiev could enhance its trade both by the railroad and the Dnieper River, specializing in sugar and grain exports. Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Empire¡¯s trade center, was pretty much of the Kiev¡¯s situation; Nizhniy was a railroad center and also the chief station of the Volga steamboat traffic.
            In addition, natural resources made some cities prosperous. For instance, the region around Baku was barren and hard to hold agricultural practices, but the city was affluent with petroleum. Kryvyy Rih supplied the necessary metals for Russia's economic development. Moreover, port cities contributed largely to the empire's economic growth. Odessa became the third city of Russia and the country¡¯s second most important port, after St. Petersburg.
            Not many cities were completely designed by the government. However, St. Petersburg was an exception. Peter the Great designed the city as a capital from the start, and a harbor was constructed to be the greatest in Russia. Government management also had enhanced balance among major cities. Moskva was outrun by St. Petersburg as a capital in the beginning of the Empire. Peter himself stimulated economic growth by establishing new industries, and private entrepreneurs followed the policy. In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia, and devastated Moskva. But a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moskva was established next year, and it launched a great program of rebuilding, which included a partial re-planning of the city center. Located at the center of European Russia, Moskva was connected by railroads and truck lines with most major cities in the Russian Empire by train. Moskva eventually regained its original status as an industrial and cultural power in the empire.
            The overall growth of the cities in the Russian empire was possible because of the cheap peasant workforce. However, factory owners exploited human resources to excess, and modernization begot severe inequality between social classes. Later on, revolution led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, and the success of Russian cities under the empire soon became history.

IX. Notes

(1)      Article Russian Empire, Wikipedia
(2)      Channon, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia, 1995, pg. 56-57
(3)      Article Saint Petersburg, English Britannica Macropedia 15th edition, Volume 26, pg. 1042 Right Column Line 55-56
(4)      Channon, 1995, pg. 62-63
(5)      Dixon, The Modernisation of Russia 1676-1825, 1999, pg. 225
(6)      Dixon, 1999, pg.250-251
(7)      Channon, 1995, pg. 62-64
(8)      Channon, 1995, pg. 62-63
(9)      Article Russian Empire, EB Macropedia 15th edition, Volume 26, pg. 989 Left Column Lines 56 -64
(10)      Article Russian Revolution (1905), Wikipedia
(11)      Article Moscow, EB Macropedia 15th edition, 1974, Volume 24, pg. 359 left column Line 67 - right column Line 62
(12)      Channon, 1995, pg. 170, ln 15-16
(13)      Article Moscow, EB Macropedia 15th edition, 1974, Volume 24, pg. 359 left column Line 67 - right column Line 62
(14)      Article Saint Petersburg, EB Macropedia 15th edition, Volume 26, pg. 1042 Right Column Line 60 - pg. 1044 Left Column Line 40
(15)      Channon, 1995, pg. 170, ln 14-15
(16)      Article Saint Petersburg, EB Macropedia 15th edition, Volume 26, pg. 1042 Right Column Line 60 - pg. 1044 Left Column Line 40
(17)      Dixon, 1999, pg. 243-244
(18)      Article Saint Petersburg, EB Macropedia 15th edition, Volume 26, pg. 1042
(20)      Kappeler, 2001, pg. 152
(21)      Dixon, 1999, pg. 104
(22)      Dixon, 1999, pg. 228
(24)      Article Russian Revolution(1905), Wikipedia
(25)      Article History of Kyiv, Wikipedia
(26)      Dixon, 1999, pg.100
(27)      Article Ivanovo-Voznesensk, English Britannica 11th edition, 1911
(28)      Pretty, National overview Russia and the USSR, Textile conference IISH, 2004, pg. 11-13
(29)      Article Ivanovo, Wikipedia
(30)      Article Ivanovo, EB Micropedia 15th edition, Volume 6, pg. 441
(31)      Article Ivanovo, Wikipedia
(32)      Article Yekaterinburg, EB Micropedia, 15th edition, Volume 12, Pg. 831
(33)      Article Perm, EB Micropedia, 15th edition, Volume 9, Pg. 298
(34)      Article Nizhny Novgorod EB Micropaedia 15th edition, Volume 8, pg. 733, Right column, lines 56-59, pg. 734
(35)      Article Nizhny Novgorod, Wikipedia
(36)      Article Nizhny Novgorod, EB 11th edition, 1911
(37)      Dixon, 1999, pg. 65
(38)      Article Nizhny Novgorod, EB 11th edition, 1911
(39)      Article Odessa, EB Micropedia 15th edition, 1974, Volume 8, pg. 873
(40)      Article Odessa, Wikipedia
(41)      Article Odessa, EB Micropedia 15th edition, 1974, Volume 8, pg. 873
(42)      Article Odessa, Wikipedia
(43)      Article Baku, EB Micropedia 15th edition, Volume 1, pg. 816
(44)      Article Baku, EB 11th edition, 1911
(45)      Article Kryvoy Rog, EB 11th edition, 1911
(46)      Article Kryvyy Rih, EB Micropedia 15th edition, Volume 7, pg. 16
(47)      Article Kryvoy Rog, EB 11th edition, 1911
(48)      Article Kryvyy Rih, EB Micropedia 15th edition, Volume 7, pg. 16

X. Bibliography

Note : websites quoted below were visited in September 2008.
1.      Dixon, Simon, The Modernisation of Russia 1676-1825, Cambridge : Cambridge UP, 1999
2.      Kappeler, Andreas, The Russian Empire: A Multiethnic History, Edinburgh Gate, Pearson Education Limited, 2001
3.      Channon, John, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia, New York: Penguin Books, 1995
4.      Pretty, National overview Russia and the USSR, Textile conference IISH, Nov 2004
5.      English Britannica 11th edition, 1911
6.      English Britannica 15th edition, 1974

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