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Tenacious Rebels: Scotland's Jacobites


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Park, Hye Ree
Term Paper, AP European History Class, October 2008



Table of Contents


I. Introduction : Jacobites
II. The Turning Point : The Glorious Revolution (1688)
III. Causes of the Jacobite Rising
III.1 Religious Belief
III.2 Political Struggle
III.3 Scottish Highlanders' Loyalty
IV. Reasons for Failure in a Leader's View
IV.1 Reliance on the French Forces : James Francis Edward Stuart
IV.2 Lack of Leadership as a Pretender : Charles Edward Stuart
V Comparative Analysis : Scottish Jacobites vs. English Jacobites
V.1 Scottish Jacobites
V.1.1 Lowlanders and Episcopalians
V.1.2 Scottish Highland clans
V.2 English Jacobites
VI. Conclusion
Notes
Bbliography



I. Introduction : Jacobites
            This paper focuses on the Jacobite Risings in 18th century, mainly in Scotland and some parts of England. Jacobites are the supporters of the restoration of exiled James II and his Stuart descendants, after the Revolution in 1688. (1) The series of uprisings and wars takes its name from Jacobus, the Latin form of James.
            Although the Jacobites believed in the same cause, the degree of dedicated support differed by the countries. The majority of Scottish Jacobites could be divided into largely two groups; the lowland Catholics and the Highland clans. The gentry endured the persecution of the state, rallied the Jacobite armies and even contributed financial support to the court in exile.(2) The latterĄŻs support, however, originated from the inter-clan politics rather than from the religious issue. Scottish Episcopalians, a minority, also sided with the cause because they disagreed with the established Church of England. They provided over half of the Jacobite forces in Britain in earlier period of the rebellion.
            In England, there was a diverse array of Jacobites who were united with 'Jacobitism' as a political movement. The Catholics were already a minority (1% of the whole population in 1689), so they couldn't offer much help. The perceived heirs of Cavaliers (as well as Covenanters in Scotland) who supported Charles I during the English Civil War remained as symbolic supporters. Other mild Jacobites included the clergy of Church of England who refused on principle to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary while James still lived. This congregation later developed into an Episcopalian schism of the Church.

II. The Turning Point : The Glorious Revolution (1688)
            The end of Commonwealth in 1660 brought the Restoration of Charles II and the re-establishment of the Church of England. (3) Charles II was succeeded by his brother James II and VII, a devout Roman Catholic, in 1685. JamesĄŻ intolerance of Protestants resulted in the antagonization among Anglican establishment, a foreshadowing of the upcoming rebellion.
            In 1688, James had a son from his second wife Mary, also Roman Catholic. The birth of a prince had the full prospect of a birth of Catholic dynasty. However, the "Immortal Seven" invited JamesĄŻ daughter, Mary II and her husband, William of Orange to jointly rule in James' place. On the fifth of November, 1688, the day after his daughter and son-in-law had landed in England, James fled to France where his cousin Louis XIV would accept him. February 1689 marked the "Glorious Revolution," a peaceful change of monarch, but there were many dissenters: Roman Catholics, some Tories, and Scottish Highland clans were among them.

III. Causes of the Jacobite Rising

III.1 Religious Belief
            Catholicism was the religion of England's traditional enemies, France and Spain, and therefore regarded as unpatriotic in England. England had its own religion which had as its head the English monarch leading the Anglican Church. James VII, as a Roman Catholic, was therefore in a contradictory position. His policy of religious toleration won favors of both Catholics and protestant dissenters. After his deposition, the Act of Toleration in 1689 didnĄŻt favor the Catholics who were already a minority. The Catholics hoped the Stuarts would end discriminatory laws and supported Jacobitism.
            In Scotland, which had had close links with France in the past, the abhorrence of Catholicism was, at least in theory, of a more spiritual nature. The Episcopalians, as mentioned above, supported dedicated support for the restoration.

III.2 Political Struggle
            Since Scotland and England were separate countries with a common monarch, the political tensions were not resolved until decades after the political union of the two countries in 1707. (4)
            The political feud between Tories and Whigs begin as early as from the Exclusion Bill crisis of 1678-1681. The Whigs supported the exclusion of James, the Duke of York from the succession to thrones of Scotland, England and Ireland. The first Tory faction was founded during 1678, and insisted upon the inheritance the heir to the throne. Although the parliament later defended the Anglican Church's belief, some Tories still believed parliamentary interference with monarchical succession to be illegitimate, and supported the Rebellion of 1715. (5)

III.3 Scottish Highlanders' Loyalty
            The support from Scottish Highland clans started from the friendship with James II and VII, when he was a Duke of York. In 1682, he instituted the Commission for Pacifying the Highlands, and during the process, he worked together with the clan chiefs. After he became the King James VII, he was still popular among many Highlander clans
            There were other factors which made Highlands the center for the Jacobite Risings. The organization of a clan was very efficient for recruiting troops. The ready mobilization of the clan hosts, which resulted from the innate order of the clan society, greatly reduced time in moving compared to other regions.(6) Since the Scottish Highland was the only place with private armies, it became a hub for the future Jacobite rebellions.

IV. Reasons for Failure in a Leader's View

IV.1 Reliance on French Forces : James Francis Edward Stuart
            James Francis Edward Stuart, the son of James II, relied heavily upon the French king for the support for his restoration. Louis XIV originally understood the Jacobite cause as a close relative of James and was a generous patron, until he lost the war with England and was forced to sign the Treaty of Utrecht. (7) This shows that the connection between royal families couldnĄŻt prevent the international society's order as a monarch. French involvement is mediocre in the second rising of Charles; they show their interest only by sending out backup armies, only to be lost in storm. French later regarded Jacobitism as the causes of the alienated and the dispossessed.

IV.2 The Lack of Leadership: Charles Edward Stuart
            After Charles received the title Prince Regent from his father in December 1743, and the authority to act in his name consequently, he prepared for a rising to restore his father to his thrones. He did raise funds and acquired some troops in 1745, but the lack of French support due to the storm left him to raise his own army in Scotland. Although the Jacobite cause was supported by many highland clans, the mobilization of troops was much slower than 30 years ago. The hard-earned armies came into no use when Charles found out the lack of support from English Jacobites, so the cooperative plan turned into the Battle of Culloden with government armies.(8)
            The evident lack of arms and chaotic order among soldiers were the reasons for the defeat in 1746; after the battle, disappointed Charles believed he was betrayed and abandoned the Jacobite cause.
V Comparative Analysis : Scottish Jacobites vs. English Jacobites

V.1 Scottish Jacobites

V.1.1 Lowlanders and Episcopalians
            As lowlanders endured the discrimination and economic hardship in Scotland, they not only generated political cause for the military campaign but also the forces for the Jacobite Rising. Episcopalians, although they were a minority, united with the common cause in England and provided a link between the two countries

V.1.2 Scottish Highland clans
            The Highland clans were the common major source for troops for two rebellions in 1715 and 1745. As mentioned before, the fast unification and easy access among clan chiefs were effective qualities of clan armies. Many Highland clans supported the Jacobite cause for a long time; they supported Charles' recruit later on.

V.2 English Jacobites
            Right after the Glorious Revolution, Catholics, Episcopalians and some Tories were all for the restoration of the Stuart dynasty. However, the vague belief of the existence of Jacobite support had disturbed the plans for Scotland armies; Scottish Jacobites felt they were betrayed by the false information. We can infer from this fact that the Jacobites in England were poor in uniting and fast mobilization, which was a crucial factor in major battles. This also resulted from the fact that general English Jacobites were loosely connected by mere beliefs and stories; the pictures of Cavaliers and Jacobites were the icons of the cause, which were too weak to bring up the large forces

VI. Conclusion
            The Jacobite Rising was not a sole pursuit of restoring Stuart dynasty in England, Scotland and Ireland; rather, it was a complex and international cause. From the comparative analysis of Scottish Jacobites and English Jacobites, we can observe that the cause not only lied upon the fate of the future monarch, but also treaties and wars with other countries; especially France.
            The Jacobite cause is important in the British history not only because it was a possibility of a big change in history, but also it served as the lesson for future rebellions. If enough forces were not gathered or there was a misunderstanding of the cause, the revolt would fail no matter how many people supported it.


Notes

(1)      Article :Jacobite, from Encyclopaedia Britannica
(2)      Wikipedia : Jacobitism
(3)      Wikipedia : Jacobite Rising
(4)      Scottish History: The Jacobites, by Len Nicholson
(5)      Wikipedia : Tories (political faction)
(6)      Wikipedia : Scottish clan
(7)      Wikipedia : James Francis Edward Stuart
(8)      Wikipedia : Charles Edward Stuart


Bibliography

Note : websites quoted below were visited in October 2008.
1.      Article : Jacobite, in Encyclopaedia Britannica, Micropedia, 15th ed. 1998
2.      Article : Jacobite rising, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobite_rising
3.      Article : James Francis Edward Stuart, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Francis_Edward_Stuart
4.      Article : Charles Edward Stuart, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Edward_Stuart
5.      Article : Scottish clan, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_clan#The_Highland_clan_system
6.      Article : House of Hanover, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Hanover
7.      Article: Jacobitism, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobitism
8.      Len Nicholson, "Scottish History : The Jacobites," http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/lennich/jacobite.htm
9.      Lord Macaulay, The History of England: Penguin Classics, 1986 (Macaulay: Whig politician)
10.      List of popes, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes
11.      Article: Tories(political faction), from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tories_(political_faction)


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