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CAUSES and CONDITIONS of IMPOVERISHMENT and DESTITUTION IN 19TH C BRITAIN


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Song, Jeeun
Term Paper, AP European History Class, November 2008



Table of Contents


I. Introduction
II. Factors that Contributed to Impoverishment
II.1 The Population Boom
II.1.1 Changes in Family Structure and Marriage Patterns
II.1.2 Decline in Mortality Rate
II.1.3 Immigration
II.2 Urbanization and Overcrowding
II.3 Contemporary Views of Society
II.3.1 Laissez-faire
II.3.2 Social Darwinism
II.4 Social Policy and Legislation
II.5 The Industrial Revolution in Britain
III. Conditions of the Urban Poor
III.1 Housing and Living Conditions
III.2 Clothing
III.3 Food and Nutrition
III.4 Livelihood
III.4.1 Employment in the factories
III.4.2 Street-folk
III.5 Family Life
IV. The Conditions of the Rural Poor
IV.1 The Consequences of Enclosure in the 19th C
IV.2 The Conditions in Rural Areas
V. Social Institutions : The Workhouse
VI. The Issue of Poverty and Destitution as Reflected in Contemporary Writing
VII. Conclusion
Notes
Bbliography



I. Introduction
            Britain in the 19th century was at the very heart of ongoing social and economic change. The Industrial Revolution, which began in the mid-1700s and reached its peak around 1860, was the main force behind it. It profoundly altered the concept of labor, transfigured the social class structure, and elevated general standards of living in the long run by means of rapid industrial development and the consequent elevation of total income.
            However, the socio-economic benefits of the Industrial Revolution did not appear immediately for the majority of the British population. On the contrary, the 19th century ironically saw unprecedented degrees of poverty and destitution amongst the working classes despite the significant increases in overall national income.
            This paper will concentrate on dissecting the various historical and social factors that caused impoverishment of such a degree. It will also discuss the conditions and circumstances were spawned from the combination of those factors and which the destitute of 19th century Britain had to endure.

II. Factors that Contributed to Impoverishment

II.1 The Population Boom
            Between the late 1700s and the mid-1800s, the British population increased nearly threefold, from less than 9 million in 1780 to more than 21 million in 1851. (1) This gigantic leap in numbers in merely 70 years can be attributed to several causes. The first was a changing trend in family structure and patterns of marriage; the next, an improvement in European diets and health; and lastly, large rates of foreign immigration.

II.1.1 Changes in Family Structure and Marriage Patterns
            Since the mid-eighteenth century to the years leading up to the Industrial Revolution, the prevalent family structure changed accordingly with the changes in industry. In agrarian preindustrial Europe, marrying late in life was the norm because couples could start families only after they inherited farmland and became capable of supporting themselves. However, the development of proto-industries in the 18th century and later industrialization opened new jobs and new opportunities for economic independence earlier in life. Thus began a trend of earlier marriages and as a natural result, more child births. In fact, during the early 19th century, when factory workers were employed as family units, it was more advantageous to have more family members to work as they could bring in more income. This new trend of early marriages and large families, together with an ¡°explosion¡± of illegitimate births between 1750-1850 (2), contributed largely to the growth in British population.

II.1.2 Decline in Mortality Rate
            One reason why the British population increased is simply that fewer people were dying than before. Statistics of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries show that people were dying less often and living longer lives (and having more children in that process). (3) The deadly bubonic plague diminished and disappeared after the final epidemic in 1721~1722; there was also no significant warfare on British soil in the 18th century, resulting in fewer deaths. Improved diets and better nutrition also contributed to longer lives. The potato from the Americas, in particular, was widely cultivated as a famine crop and as a chief staple of the poor diet. Agricultural developments that had been undertaken since the 18th century also brought about better crops and larger livestock and thus more nourishment.

II.1.3 Immigration
            Many foreigners immigrated to Britain in the 19th century. With the onset of the Great Potato Famine, which struck hardest in Ireland, thousands of Irish poured into England¡¯s harbors and slums in 1846-49, where they became some of the poorest parts of society. (4) Other peoples who sought a new life in Britain were Jews and political refugees, who often formed their own communities within the slums, especially in London. (5)

II.2 Urbanization and Overcrowding
            The 19th century was also an era of massive migration to the cities. The cities were not only traditional centers of trade and commerce, but with the development of faster, large-scale means of transportation such as the railroad, they became readily accessible to both raw material and human resources for labor. As a result, most factories in 19th century Britain were built in cities such as Manchester, Leeds, and London. Prospects of employment in those factories attracted countless rural laborers so that the urban population of Britain positively engorged throughout the 19th century: while in 1801 less than one-fifth of the British population were urban residents, in 1861 the proportion had grown to half (6). The problems were worsened by the fact that there was no means of public transportation, as workers were desperate to find living quarters that were as close to their workplace as possible. (7) The resultant overcrowding in the cities overwhelmed the already much-lacking public sanitary facilities, elevated the price of lodging, and increased the rate of unemployment and vagrancy within the cities.

II.3 Contemporary Views of Society

II.3.1 Laissez-faire
            Liberalism in the economy was embraced enthusiastically in early 19th century Britain by the government, entrepreneurs, and especially the rising middle class. The prevalent socio-economic policy of the Industrial Revolution was laissez-faire, or simply to let things be. It was generally accepted in the government that a labor contract was a mutual agreement between free employers and free workers and that the state had neither the right nor the obligation to interfere. (8) In fact, many employers blamed the poverty and deplorable living conditions of the working class to market forces, the drinking habits of the workers, and large family size, and instead thought of themselves as benefactors to their workers. (9) In actuality, however, laissez-faire had the effect of allowing the living conditions of the working class to deteriorate further, while encouraging the notion that poverty and destitution were immoral or criminal. The general atmosphere in early 19th century Britain was hostile against poverty and blamed the poor for their own conditions. Friedrich Engels described such attitudes of the bourgeois towards the poor as :

            "We have seen how Malthus characterises poverty, or rather the want of employment, as a crime under the title "superfluity," and recommends for it punishment by starvation.?[¡¦] "Good," said they, ¡°we grant you poor a right to exist, but only to exist; the right to multiply you have not, nor the right to exist as befits human beings.? You are a pest, and if we cannot get rid of you as we do of other pests, you shall feel, at least, that you are a pest and you shall at least be held in check, kept from bringing into the world others......" (10)

II.3.2 Social Darwinism
            Supporters of Social Darwinism applied the concept of natural selection to human society. The brutal economic struggle was supposed to determine the "survival of the fittest"; the people who ended up in destitution were inherently weak and simply ill-fated, while the prosperous were destined to succeed. (11) This philosophy was especially popular amongst the upper middle class, which used it to justify the drastic disparity between the still-poor and their ascension in social standing.

II.4 Social Policy and Legislation
            Britain in the early years of the 19th century implemented some legislation that protected the interests of the wealthier aristocracy and middle-class at the expense of the poor. The most infamous of these was the Revision of the Corn Laws in 1815, which was intended purely to maintain the high price of grain (which directly affected the income of the landowning rich) by prohibiting cheap, foreign exports from Eastern Europe after the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Inflation continued, and it was only after the disastrous aftermaths of the Potato Famine of 1846-49, when the unnaturally high price of food inhibited effective relief policies, that Corn Laws were finally repealed. Other legislation that accelerated impoverishment included the ineffective and repellent measures included in the New Poor Law in 1834.

II.5 The Industrial Revolution in Britain
            The Industrial Revolution began in the British textile industry, and continued to develop in Britain at the fastest rate. During the early years of the 19th century, most of continental Europe was still caught up in the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars and other movements; meanwhile, Britain was able to get a head start in industrialization. While other European governments tried to imitate British development, it was difficult because Britain already had more advanced, more efficient, and more expensive technology as well as social institutions such as the railway network.
            Thus Britain was not only the first nation to become industrialized, it was virtually the only nation to do so until around the 1850s. Naturally the social consequences and side-effects of the Industrial Revolution were the harshest and the most evident in Britain; unregulated competition, market forces, urbanization and other new social phenomena had to be dealt with experimental, often ineffective measures that intensified poverty further. On the other hand, in other European nations, sufficient industrialization was only achieved after the 1850s, when the general European economy and working class conditions had already started to improve. (12)

III. Conditions of the Urban Poor

III.1 Housing and Sanitation
            Even before the coming of industrialization, European cities had always been notorious for their filthiness and congestion. (13) However, the British urban environment in the 19th century became more deplorable than ever before, especially for the poor, who had no choice but to live in slums. The extreme overcrowding caused constant shortages in housing and facilities. Where new houses could be built, buildings were squeezed into the smallest possible lots in order to accommodate as much people as possible; most of the urban poor lived in rows of narrow, wall-to-wall houses that were barely separated by a tiny courtyard or an alley. In the cities, large, often deteriorating houses were partitioned into makeshift tenements. (14) Families lucky enough to have a room of their own often shared space with three or four tenants and single relatives, and it was not uncommon to have sixteen to twenty people living in one room. (15) In fact, many people had to resort to living in small, damp garrets and cellars and even in the streets.
            Even in outwardly affluent neighborhoods there existed ¡°rookeries¡± or small slum corners crammed with working-class people. Friedrich Engels described in 1844 the slum of St. Giles, which was located near the heart of prosperous London, near Trafalgar Square.

            "It is a disorderly collection of tall, three or four-storied houses, with narrow, crooked, filthy streets, in which there is quite as much life as in the great thoroughfares of the town, except that, here, people of the working-class only are to be seen. [¡¦] arises a horrible smell.? The houses are occupied from cellar to garret, filthy within and without, and their appearance is such that no human being could possibly wish to live in them.? But all this is nothing in comparison with the dwellings in the narrow courts and alleys between the streets, entered by covered passages between the houses, in which the filth and tottering ruin surpass all description.? Scarcely a whole window-pane can be found, the walls are crumbling, door-posts and window-frames loose and broken, doors of old boards nailed together [¡¦] Heaps of garbage and ashes lie in all directions, and the foul liquids emptied before the doors gather in stinking pools.?" (16)

            Many slums were situated near open sewers, where inhabitants simultaneously dumped human refuse and drew up water for drinking. (17) Elsewhere, piles of offal and dungheaps were frequent sights on the streets. Few people had access to clean water in the slums because landlords often neglected the facilities. As a result of this utter lack of sanitation, which was widely criticized by intellectuals and the press (18), diseases such as typhoid and cholera were common. They spread from one house to the next, sometimes decimating entire streets. The constant presence of smog and noxious fumes caused by both the nearby factories and the sewage also caused symptoms of chronic poisoning and respiratory problems amongst the inhabitants. (19)

III.2 Clothing
            The chief material that the working-class and the poor used for clothing was cotton, which was virtually the only textile that they could afford. Clothes made from cotton, however, failed to provide sufficient protection against the damp, chilly English climate. While the harsh weather caused the middle class to dress in flannel underwear and woolen coats, the lower classes had to make do with thick cotton goods that while heavier, stiffer and liable to remain damp, provided less warmth. (20) The only woolen products that were available to the poor were either secondhand and threadbare items or those made of poor-quality "Devil¡¯s Dust" cloth that was cynically described to be "manufactured for sale and not for use." (21)
            Much of the clothing that the poor did wear deteriorated very rapidly. Most the clothes were patched over and over until the "original color could no longer be detected"; the rest were mended until they fell apart in tatters. The pitiful state of the clothing of the poor evaded improvement, as many families pawned what better clothes they had in their possession to purchase food. The poor also lacked proper shoes, and multitudes of people went barefoot. (22)

III.3 Food and Nutrition
            The majority of the working-class ate a diet that consisted mainly of potatoes. Families that at least had a source of consistent income could sometimes afford small amounts of bacon, cheese, or bread, but the more destitute the family, the higher the proportion of potatoes. (23) These were usually accompanied with weak tea and little else. Sometimes poor families in the cities chose to spend their earnings at "cookshops," where people could eat ready-cooked, low quality meats at a reasonable price. (24) However, when employment could not be found, many of the British poor resorted to eating potato peels and rotten vegetable refuse. Others begged on the streets or stole
            Some of the poor relied on the rations provided by social institutions such as the workhouse or relief from the Poor Law. When a man was admitted for the night at the workhouse, he was given 6 ounces of bread and one ounce of cheese for his meal, which he was obligated to pay for in work the following morning. (25)
            When the poor did manage to buy foodstuffs from the markets, however, the quality of their purchase was beyond low. Due to long working hours, much of the working-class came to the market stalls late in the evenings, when goods of better quality had already been taken. The good-quality foods that were available were not affordable to the poor; instead, the poor took the wilted and shriveled remnants that were sold at lower prices due to their poor condition. In many cases, the poor were deceived by the merchants and bought adulterated products, such as meat from diseased livestock, already rotting and putrid, or cocoa mixed with brown earth, or even port wine manufactured from alcohol and dyes. (26)
            The high level of dependency on potatoes was due to the high price of grain. The inflation caused by the Napoleonic Wars and the Continental Blockade (which prevented the import of cheap wheat from Ukraine and Russia) first caused bread to become a luxury amongst the poor; the Revision of the Corn Law (total restriction of foreign wheat imports until the price of wheat rose over 8 shillings) artificially maintained high prices solely for the profit of the large landowning classes. (27) This ultimately resulted in a general dependence on the potato harvest all over the British Isles, and maximized the disastrous consequences of the Great Potato Famine in the 1840s.

III.4 Livelihood

III.4.1 Employment in the factories
            Working environments in the early 19th century were lamentable, and with the laissez-faire policy in place, failed to improve. There were almost no restrictions or regulations as to the conditions in factories. Due to the intense competition for employment, workers had to accept low wages for long hours of exhausting and often dangerous labor in unfavorable environments. Work hours ranged from over 19 hours to 14 hours at best; even child laborers under age 12 customarily worked 12-hour-shifts before the practice was banned in 1819. (28) Inside the factories, the workers were constantly surrounded by the earsplitting din of the machinery and warm, damp, and stale air. Temperatures within averaged 27-29¡¯C, and there seldom was any ventilation; the air was also often contaminated with miniscule particles or fibers, especially in textile factories, and often resulted in breathing difficulties for many workers. (29) The grueling work in the factories, often from a young age, often resulted in stunted growth and deformities such as flattened feet and hunched spines. (30) The work itself was also dangerous, as the machines were liable to cause accidents that could horribly mutilate kill the workers. Nevertheless, the poor working-class clung to their jobs, which could be taken away at the employer¡¯s whim.

III.4.2 Street-folk
            Those people who could not find employment in factories had to turn to working in the streets for their subsistence. Such desperate "means to pick up a crust" or as the people called it, "costermongering" included street-sellers, street-buyers, street-finders, street performers, artists and showmen, and street-laborers. (31) The street-sellers were vendors that sold an infinite variety of wares, ranging from fish and vegetables to stationery and secondhand merchandise to "Mineral Productions and Curiosities." The street-finders literally "picked up" their living from the streets by collecting animal refuse, coal, bones, sewer refuse, or cigarette butts that, when dried, could be sold to the extremely poor. There were also various kinds of artisans and peddlers as well as entertainers in the streets. Others were street-laborers, which comprised the street-servants, the street-advertisers, the "cleansers, the waterers, and the lighters," who maintained the street environment. In 1849-50, extensive studies undertaken by Henry Mayhew, an investigative journalist, concluded that as many as 12,000 "costermongers" made a living in the streets and markets of London, and that more than 30,000 depended on "street-life" for their survival. (32)

III.5 Family Life
            In the early years of the 19th century, what existed of family life centered around factory work, as workers were usually employed in family units as per the tradition of cottage industries. (33) However, with the Factory Laws of 1819 and 1831, which prohibited the employment of young children under age 9, this system fell apart. Instead, young children were left at home to care for themselves or under the care of a paid nurse while the mother and father went to work. Without management, households often fell into disarray; without parental care, the number of young children dying from small accidents increased; (34) extra expenses had to be added for the laundry, childcare, and cleaning that the mother could not take care of due to work. Children often lacked even basic education, and very seldom were they sent to school or Sunday school. Some teenagers ran away and joined street gangs, which often engaged in pickpocketing or begging and slept in "casual" workhouse shelters. Many girls in the streets resorted to prostitution from ages 6-12, and a large number of them ended up as unmarried mothers. (35)
            Even in households where the mother could afford to stay in the household, she was worked to exhaustion. Women who did not work in the factories usually spent most of their day either trying to find adequate food supplies in the markets, or making what handicrafts they could to add to the income, all the while minding their many children wherever they went. Sometimes, women in desperate families juggled both the roles of housewife and factory worker.
            In many cases, the role of family members changed drastically due to employment. Seeking to find an even cheaper labor force, factories and manufactures preferred to employ youth and women, and it was often the case that a man could not find work and the mother became the breadwinner of the family. In reverse, the man then had to uptake the role of housekeeper in her absence. One recount of a visit to a working-class household tells of a dejected husband who was obliged to "mend stockings for his working wife." (36)

IV. The Conditions of the Rural Poor

IV.1 The Consequences of Enclosure in the19th C
            While the industrial working class in the cities suffered in poverty, the situation was little different in the rural countryside. Parliamentary enclosure had begun much earlier in the 18th century, but more aggressive further enclosures in the 19th century worsened the situation and ruthlessly re-ordered rural societies to suit the favors of the rich.
            The loss of common pastures produced a swell in the landless rural population. Without land, they could not graze their animals, collect wild plants, nor hunt freely for game: in other words, they could no longer provide for their own subsistence. (37) Now in order to survive, these peasants had to become wage-dependent agricultural laborers. This, in the long term, made rural peasants much more vulnerable to poverty and "pauperism," as it was called then, which came later with the increase in the rural population, repressive government measures, and high market prices. While there was considerable demographic growth in the British countryside in the early 19th century, food prices climbed due to inflation from the Napoleonic Wars and the Revision of the Corn Laws. The situation was worsened by the Game Laws, which forbade peasants from poaching and deprived them of meat, and the Speenhamland policy. (38) The Speenhamland policy was meant to provide poor relief through parishes but instead had the effect of allowing employers to lower wages even further, regardless of the survival of the laborers.

IV.2 The Conditions in Rural Areas
            The conditions of the "rural proletariat" were so deplorable that it was coined the "Bleak Age." Because there was no extent to which the laborers could be exploited and plenty of competition for employment, many wealthy farmers worked them long hours and provided little wages. One report remarked ironically that "the laborers were all the more miserable where agricultural progress was highest." (39) The purchasing power of agricultural wages diminished year by year, and eventually the poor could only afford to live in filthy and feeble huts and wear ragged clothes; most of them lived on the charity granted under the Poor Laws. Thus when the British government reduced Poor Law relief in the 1820s, many rural families were reduced to starvation. An excerpt from an 1830 report illustrates the desperate poverty of the rural peasantry :

            "....look at these hovels, made of mud and straw; bits of glass, or off-cast windows, without frames or hinges frequently, but merely stuck in the mud wall. Enter them and look at the bits of chairs and stools; the wretched boards tacked together to serve as a table; the floor of pebble, broken brick, or bare ground; look at the thing called a bed; and survey the rags on the backs of the wretched inhabitants¡¦¡±
William Cobbett, Rural Rides, 1830, Eastern Tour (40)

V. Social Institutions: The Workhouse
            The workhouse, or the poorhouse, came into being with the notoriously ill-conceived New Poor Law of 1834. In essential, the law abolished all other forms of poor relief, replacing them with an institution comprising parish unions that would systematically house, feed, and clothe the "deserving poor." (41) In order to gain admittance, destitute applicants had to appear before a board of guardians that would judge if they were "sufficiently indigent". If admission was granted, then family members were separated according to health, age, and gender, disinfected and searched; personal belongings were confiscated and replaced with House-issued uniform clothes and utensils. The workhouse closely resembled the penal system in many aspects, and the restrictive, punitive, and often degrading measures as dictated by the Poor Law earned it the name "Poor Law Bastille." (42) The inmates followed rigid regimes that included grueling work and strictly rationed meals, and contact between husbands and wives, parents and children was usually not granted. Moreover, abuses by officials were frequent and led to many scandals especially in the 1840-50s, so that for many, the workhouse became an object of dread and loathing that should be avoided at all costs. Nevertheless, workhouses provided shelter to the destitute, and especially the "casual ward," which offered temporary lodging and food in return for work for vagrants and the poor on the street, was often used despite the filthy and sparse facilities. (43)

VI. The Issue of Poverty and Destitution as Reflected in Contemporary Writing
            The deplorable state of the poor was a major issue in 19th century Britain, and thus many intellectuals and writers depicted them in their works. The most famous portrayals of the English destitute were in popular novels such as Oliver Twist and Our Mutual Friend by Charles Dickens. The Romantic Poets also deplored the severe social side-effects of the Industrial Revolution's "satanic mills". (44) Others who observed the poverty of the working class included Friedrich Engels, who credited it to the selfishness of the bourgeoisie. Investigative journalism also helped to expose the squalid conditions in which the poor lived - Henry Mayhew, who worked for the Morning Chronicle, wrote a series of articles and letters that described slums, workhouses, and the people who lived in them; his detailed writings were later collected and published as London Labour and the London Poor. James Greenwood, who wrote The Seven Curses of London was another such journalist. Reports by government officials such as Edwin Chadwick's Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Poor also contributed. These factual accounts, which contained many statistics and interviews with the poor, (45) helped the more affluent British sympathize with and pity the poor, whom they had previously considered to be immoral and improvident.

VII. Conclusion
            The intense destitution in 19th century Britain was the result of the agglomeration of various social, legal, and historical causes, and it pervaded the darker, lesser known side of Britain in the midst of industrialization. Fortunately, from the later half of the 19th century, social views of poverty came to change and triggered widespread reforms such as the Public Health Acts, the Factory Acts, and others related to poor relief. (46) Measures were also undertaken to improve sanitation and battle diseases, while philanthropy also began on a wider scale and many charity foundations were established to give assistance to the destitute. (47)
            The laborers themselves also struggled to alleviate the conditions they lived with by forming labor unions to enforce the protection of their rights and friendly societies to provide mutual support in the face of poverty. (48) With the beginning of labor movements, minimum wages and maximum working hours were put into place, and working environments were regulated. Gradually, the wages and overall conditions of the working class poor improved, while much of the philosophy formed in this era evolved into socialism and communism.


Notes

1.      McKay 2006 p.733
2.      ibid. pp.665-666
3.      ibid. p.791; Figure 24.1 : The Decline of Death Rates in England and Wales, Germany, France, and Sweden, 1840-1913
4.      Mayhew 1861. Ch.5 : Of the Street-Irish
5.      Cook 1999; Sala 1859
6.      Cook 1999
7.      McKay 2006 p.786
8.      Ganse 2006 WHKMLA: Laissez-Faire in the Factories
9.      ibid.
10.      Engels 1844 p.287
11.      McKay 2006 2006 p.815
12.      ibid. p.742
13.      ibid. p.788
14.      Park 2007
15.      Engels 1844 p.65
16.      ibid. p.27
17.      Mayhew 1849; A Visit to the Cholera District of Bermondsey
18.      Punch 1852. "A Court for King Cholera" : this cartoon depicts a filthy street crowded with people, amongst them women scavenging in dungheaps and children playing with dead rats; Quoted after McKay 2006, p.790
19.      Mayhew 1849; A Visit to the Cholera District of Bermondsey
20.      Engels 1844 p.67
21.      ibid. p.67
22.      ibid. p.68
23.      ibid. pp.68-70
24.      Archer 1865
25.      Greenwood 1866
26.      Engels 1844 p.70
27.      Wild 2004
28.      Mayhew 1850
29.      Gaskell 1833
30.      ibid.
31.      Mayhew 1861. Ch 1: Of the Street-Folk
32.      ibid.
33.      McKay 2006 2006 p.742
34.      ibid. p.747
35.      Archer 1865
36.      Wild 2004
37.      ibid.
38.      ibid.
39.      ibid.
40.      Cobbett, William; Rural Rides, 1830; Quoted after Wild 2004
41.      Spencer "The Victorian Poorhouse"
42.      ibid.
43.      Greenwood 1866
44.      according to McKay 2006 p742. These poets included William Blake and William Wordsworth.
45.      Chadwick 1842
46.      Cook 1999
47.      Daniels 2003
48.      Park 2007


Bibliography

Note : websites quoted below were visited in November 2008.
McKay 2006      McKay, Hill, and Buckler; A History of Western Society, Volume II: From Absolutism to the Present, Eighth Edition; Houghton-Mifflin, 2006
Cook 1999      Cook, Chris; The Longman Companion to Britain in the Nineteenth Century 1815-1914, Pearson Education Ltd, 1999
Wild 2004      Wild, Trevor; Village England: A Social History of the Countryside; I.B.Tauris, 2004
Royle 1997      Royle, Edward; Modern Britain: A Social History 1750-1997, Second Edition; Hodder Arnold, 1997
Engels 1844      Engels, Friedrich; trans. Wischnewetzky, Florence Keller; The Condition of the Working Classes in England in 1844 (with a Preface written in 1982); Project Gutenberg eBook, #17306 http://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Main_Page
WHKMLA      Ganse, Alexander; World History at KMLA;          Early 19th Century--Worker¡¯s Rebellions; http://www.zum.de/whkmla/period/18151849/workersrebellions.html
         Restauration 1815-1849?Laissez-Faire in the Factories?; Apr.17, 2006 http://www.zum.de/whkmla/period/18151849/laisfind.html
         Restauration 1815-1849?Corn Laws http://www.zum.de/whkmla/period/18151849/cornlaws.html
         Restauration?Proletariat http://www.zum.de/whkmla/period/18151849/proletariat.html
DVL      Jackson, Lee; Dictionary of Victorian London; http://www.victorianlondon.org/
         The Pauper, the Thief and the Convict; Thomas Archer, 1865
         Labour and the Poor?Letter V; Henry Mayhew; The Morning Chronicle, 1849
         Labour and the Poor?Letter XXV; Henry Mayhew; The Morning Chronicle,1850
         A Visit to the Cholera District of Bermondsey; Henry Mayhew;
        The Morning Chronicle, Sep.1849;
         The Seven Curses of London; James Greenwood; 1869
         A Night in the Workhouse; James Greenwood; Pall Mall Gazette, 1866
         Gaslight and Daylight; George Augustus Sala; 1859
Mayhew 1861      Mayhew, Henry; London Labour and the London Poor, Vol. I; Griffin, Bohl & Co. 1861 Electronic version: University of Virginia Electronic Text Center http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/MayLond.html
Daniels 2003      Daniels, Barbara; Hidden Lives Revealed; ¡°Poverty and Families in the Victorian Era¡± 2003; http://www.hiddenlives.org.uk/articles/poverty.html
Victorian Web      De Col, Laura; The Victorian Web;          The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England          Chadwick, Edwin; Report on Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Poor in Britain, 1842 http://www.victorianweb.org/history/chadwick2.html          Gaskell,P; ¡°Physical Deterioration of the Textile Workers¡± excerpt from The Manufacturing Population of England; 1833 http://www.usp.nus.edu.sg/victorian/history/workers2.html
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Wikipedia      Wikipedia Articles
         History of English Society http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_English_society#Victorian_era
CEE      Nardinelli, Clark, Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living, The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/IndustrialRevolutionandtheStandardofLiving.html Park 2007      Park, Il Heon; Poverty of Urban Industrial Workers in Britain in the Early 19th Century, Dec. 2007; http://www.zum.de/whkmla/sp/0809/pih/pih1.html

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