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History of Food and Nutrition in West Asia

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Kim, Sun Hoo
Term Paper, AP World History Class, December 2009

Table of Contents

I. Introduction: Overview of West Asia
II. Development of Dietary Culture
II.1 Environment
II.1.1 Climate
II.1.2 Sources of Food: Flora and Fauna
II.2 Trade, War, and Conquest
II.3 Immigration
II.4 Religion
II.4.1 General Dietary Laws
II.4.2 Feast and Fast
III. Food and Social Class
IV. History of Famine
V. Periods in the History of Nutrition in West Asia
V.1 Neolithic Revolution
V.2 Establishment and Expansion of Islam
V.3 Muslim Agricultural Revolution
V.4 Ottoman Empire
V.5 Industrialization and Globalization
VI. Conclusion

I. Introduction: Overview of West Asia
            West Asia is full of diversity, and this diversity makes West Asia such a peculiar region. One of the four earliest civilizations began around Mesopotamia, and two of the three biggest religions, Christianity and Islam, were established in West Asia.
            The border of West Asia is not determinate. Two most controversial countries are Iran and Turkey. Even on Wikipedia, which is today considered as a reliable encyclopedic source, there is a contradiction regarding the border of West Asia within different articles; the article on Western Asia classifies Iran as a South Asian country (1), whereas the article on Iran says Iran is a West Asian country (2). Turkey had immense interaction with Europe, and Ottoman Empire, which preceded the current republic, even ruled part of Eastern Europe. However, both Iran and Turkey have been Islamic countries for long period of time, and Islamic laws and traditions influence their everyday life. Also, it is geographically closer to West Asia than Europe. Therefore, it is more reasonable to include these countries as parts of West Asia.
            Egypt is sometimes contended to be a part of West Asia since the majority of its population it Arab-speaking Muslims (3). Though Egypt is a part of Middle East culturally, it is indisputably part of Africa, geographically. Thus, despite the similarity in nutrition history and dietary culture, Egypt is excluded from the area of research.

II. Development of Dietary Culture
            Food is one of the most basic and most important factors of life. Food is a necessity for survival and, at the same time, a reflection of the culture of the society. The dietary culture of the society shows how its culture changed over time. The basic ingredients of the recipes are first determined by the environment of the area, for people can only use what they can raise or collect, and numerous trades, wars, conquests, immigrations, religions, and other factors shaped the dietary culture. The process of shaping was especially active in West Asia, whose location enabled it to interact with variety of regions of the world.

II.1 Environment

II.1.1 Climate
            The climate of West Asia varies in great degree according to the region; parts of Turkey has continental and Mediterranean climate divided by mountains (4), Syria and Jordan has Mediterranean climate, and there are some grasslands which has semi-arid climate, too (5). However, the most prominent of all is arid climate and desert areas.
            Lack of fresh, unpolluted water has been great problem in West Asia, and its cuisine has developed in a way that would prevent waste of water and ensure enough consumption of water. One example is the fruit juice (6). Fruit has high portion of water, so it could substitute the fresh water as the liquid needed while eating.
            Though the reason behind taboo against pork is still unexplained, lack of water also provides one possible reason. The pigs do not have sweat gland (7), and thus use cool water or mud to cool themselves. It is obviously a problem if they use up the cool water, but use of mud is not so preferable either. They will pollute the environment in which they live faster than other animals such as sheep or goats.
            Climate also explains common use of yoghurt in the region. Wide grasslands at the edge of deserts are suitable for raising sheep and goats. However, the milk they produce cannot be kept drinkable for long time due to high temperature. Fermentation is a natural process in this weather, and people started utilize fermentation so that they could keep it fresh for more days and make it taste better (8). This led to use of yoghurt with a variety of different ingredients in numerous dishes.

II.1.2 Flora and Fauna
            The main ingredients of the West Asian dishes constitute of the plants and animals that originated there and those that originated from somewhere else but prospered in West Asia.
            Most of the Arabic countries use herbs in one way or another, but none like Iran. In Iran, a bowl of fresh herbs including tarkhun, shahi, marzeh, tarreh, and torobcheh is served every meal (9). This is because various herbs grow well within the climate of Caspian region compared to other regions of West Asia. Use of herbs in other parts of West Asia can be seen as the influence of Iran.
            West Asian food often uses different parts of mutton or lamb to cook. The tender parts are used for stews and Kebabs, while parts of lower quality are used for different purposes (10). The milk of the sheep is used for various dairy products such as cheese and yoghurt. The reason sheep is so popular above all other animals is that fat-tailed sheep, a breed of sheep, originates from West Asia (11). The fat concentrated in its tail has lower melting point, making this breed especially suitable for cooking. (12)
            Another key ingredient in West Asia is olive and the oil made out of it. (13) There are many dishes that actually use olives, while others simply use olive oil in lieu of any other oil. Olive is indigenous area around Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, and northern Iran (14), and grows well in Mediterranean climate along the coasts of Turkey and Syria. Availability of olive made it a key ingredient in West Asian cuisine.

II.2 Trade, War, and Conquest
            There were some occasions when Europeans invaded West Asia, for political or religious reasons, and each time they brought European food culture with them. In some other periods of time, an empire located in West Asia expanded and conquered other regions, absorbing the dietary culture of the regions. There were also wars and conquest within West Asia, which increased unity of West Asian dietary culture.
            Present day Syria and Lebanon has been target of invasion for long time. Phoenicians, the original settlers, were invaded by Egyptians, Persian, Greeks, Romans, Crusaders, Ottomans, and French. Especially, the invasions of Crusaders and Ottomans. Each of the invasions left some influence on the dietary culture of the area, but the records of specific dishes or style are limited. (15)
            Expansion of Persian Empire also brought a lot of changes to West Asia. Persia conquered India, and active traded with China. (16) During Persian Empire, lemons, oranges, aubergines (eggplants), and rice were brought to Iran from East Asia. (17) Introduction of the aubergine is especially meaningful because it taste and sponginess attracted West Asians, and it became one of the most popularly used vegetable.
            Two World Wars in 20th century also influenced cuisine of West Asia. When one country was suffering from lack of food, another allied country would give support for the country, often with the food of its own culture. Even when this was not the case, war led to more interactions, and food culture spread that way, too. An example is Wiener Schnitzel, a traditional Austrian dish. This European food has been introduced in Iran during World Wars, and now it is popular among Iranians (18). Iranians use chicken breast in lieu of pork for Islamic dietary law forbids pork. (19)

II.3 Immigration
            In some cases, immigration from various parts of the world also contributed to import of food culture from other regions. An example is Uyghurs, which came from Xinjiang, China. They brought from china manti, which is a type of dumpling that resembles mantou of China. Use of ingredient such as intestines and vegetables exemplifies the strong influence of Chinese cuisine that came with the Uyghurs. (20 Though majority of the Uyghurs still live in Central Asia, more specifically Xinjiang in People's Republic of China, a small population of Uyghurs live in Turkey and continue to practice their culture. (21)

            Circassians immigrated to Transjordan around 1870s (22). Today, more than 3 million Circassians are living in various West Asian nations, mostly in Turkey (23). They keep their independent culture in many communities. Circassian dishes often involve lamb, especially tail fat of fat-tailed sheep which originated from West Asia (24). One of the peculiarities of the cuisine is that the soup is served at the end of the meal. (25)
            The cuisine of what is today Israel was affected by active immigration of Jews from various places during 20th century, too (26). During the first half of 20th century, Jews came to Israel from different parts of Europe. Jews from Central Europe brought Austrian food such as Schnitzel and Strudels. Jews from Russian came with Ashkenazi dishes, including chicken soup, chopped liver, and kugel. After 1948, another wave of immigration came from Turkey, Iraq, Yemen, and North Africa. Different dishes were absorbed into Israeli cuisine, such as taramosalata and yoghurt from Turkey, amba and hamutzim from Iraq, jachun and malawach from Yemen, and Mizrahi cuisine from North Africa. Grilled meat, stuffed vegetables, and different types of dishes using rice and bread came with Mizrahi cuisine. (27)

II.4 Religion
            For many West Asian people, religion is a crucial part of life, and it touches every little aspect of life including food. The survey in Turkey, which is a secular state, in 2002 shows that 65 percent of the people thought "religion is very important." (28) Obviously, the role of religion in countries that have official religion, such as Iran or Jordan, would not be less.
            Islam has been the most influential religion that shaped the cuisine West Asia. It was found in early 7th century AD (29), and by 661, Patriarchal Caliphate ruled all of modern day West Asia, except for part of Turkey. (30) Though the Muslim empires usually tolerated other religions (31), influence of Muslim culture was strong.
            Influence of Judaism was limited to present day Israel, for the kingdoms did not expand much farther. Though the religion itself and the study of it was done in some other parts of West Asia, Islamic dominance has made the influence indistinct. The influence in present day Israel region, too, became weaker since Persia conquered the Babylonians in 500s BC (32), and it was never independent again, except for brief period of Roman rule (33), until after World War II. Thus, Jewish influence on dietary culture can be found in modern day Israel only.
            There are other religions, too, such as Druze and Christian. Though their population is not so significant, they often live in small communities preserving their culture.

II.4.1 General Dietary Laws
            Torah, Jewish holy book, has regulation on birds, fish, and insects they may eat, though it has less influence on West Asian dietary culture. Even the permitted species of birds, fish, and insects are not widely used as an ingredient.

      This is what you may eat of all that is in the water:
      You may eat any creature that lives in the water, whether in?seas or rivers, as long as it has fins and scales.?(34)
      These are the flying animals that you must avoid. Since they are to be avoided, do not eat any ... (35)

            The list of the prohibited birds follows this verse, but they are not commonly conceived to be edible birds, anyway.

      Every?flying insect?that uses four legs for walking?shall be avoided by you.
      The only flying insects with four walking legs that you may eat are those which have?knees extending above their feet, [using these longer legs] to hop on the ground.?(36)
      All other flying insects with four feet [for walking] must be avoided by you.?(37)

            The same dietary law is repeatedly mentioned in Deuteronomy 14 of Torah.
            Torah also has regulation on birds, fish, and insects they may eat, though it has less influence on West Asian dietary culture. Even the permitted species of birds, fish, and insects are not widely used as an ingredient.

      This is what you may eat of all that is in the water:
      You may eat any creature that lives in the water, whether in?seas or rivers, as long as it has fins and scales.?(38)

      These are the flying animals that you must avoid. Since they are to be avoided, do not eat any ... (39)

            The list of the prohibited birds follows this verse, but they are not commonly conceived to be edible birds, anyway.

      Every?flying insect?that uses four legs for walking?shall be avoided by you.
      The only flying insects with four walking legs that you may eat are those which have?knees extending above their feet, [using these longer legs] to hop on the ground.? (40)

      All other flying insects with four feet [for walking] must be avoided by you.?(41)

            The same dietary law is repeatedly mentioned in Deuteronomy 14 of Torah.

            Christianity, after early centuries AD, has not had any additional prohibition on eating habits (42). It has minimal influence for it does not have special taboos.
            Qur'an directly and quite clearly mentions which food may be eaten and which may be not. QurĄŻan says,

      He only prohibits for you the eating of animals that die of themselves (without human interference), blood, the meat of pigs, and animals dedicated to other than GOD. If one is forced (to eat these), without being malicious or deliberate, he incurs no sin. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful. (43)

            The rules are clear; a person may eat any meat beside pork as long as it is purposely killed by human beings. QurĄŻan once again emphasizes that what it clearly prohibited in QurĄŻan is the only prohibition and bans arbitrary prohibitions by human beings by saying,

      Regarding the two kinds of camels, and the two kinds of cattle, say, "Is it the two males that He prohibited, or the two females, or the contents of the wombs of the two females ? Were you witnesses when GOD decreed such prohibitions for you ? Who is more evil than those who invent such lies and attribute them to GOD ? They thus mislead the people without knowledge. GOD does not guide such evil people. (44)

            Drinking is taken to be the same type of sin as gambling or idol worship, and thus banned.

      And from the fruits of date palms and grapes you produce intoxicants ... (45)
      O you who believe, intoxicants, and gambling, and the altars of idols, and the games of chance are abominations of the devil; you shall avoid them, that you may succeed (46)

            Jewish holy book, Torah, also specifically classifies the types of animals that may be eaten and that may not be.

      Among mammals, you may eat [any one] that has?true hooves?that are cloven?and that brings up its cud.
      However, among the cud-chewing, hoofed animals, these are the ones that you may not eat:
      The camel shall be unclean to you although it brings up its cud, since it?does not have a true hoof.?
      The?hyrax?shall be unclean to you although it brings up its cud, since it does not have a true hoof.
      The?hare?shall be unclean to you although it brings up its cud, since it does not have a true hoof
      The pig shall be unclean to you although it has a true hoof which is cloven, since it does not chew its cud.
      Do not eat the flesh of any of these animals. [At this time] do not touch their carcasses, since they are unclean to you. (47)

            The general rule is that humans may eat any animal that has completely split hooves, and pigs do not meet the requirement because it does not chew its cud. Since both Judaism and Islam, the major religion of the area, ban pigs, pork is not the main type of meat in any of West Asian countries.
            The Druzes do not have any written rules regarding eating, but they mostly avoid pork, for they also claim to be a sect of Islam (48). They prefer vegetarian diet, which they often farm themselves, and meat, usually lamb, is eaten in special occasions. (49)

II.4.2 Feast and Fast
            Religious holidays often bring changes to the ordinary food. One of the most significant holidays of Islam is Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar during which people fast. Since completely fasting is not realistic, meals are given before the sunrise, which is called suhur, and after the sunset, which is called futuur. (50) During the day, people abstain from food, drink, tobacco, and sexual activity. Different countries used to have different traditional food for Suhur, but it is eaten like normal breakfast in cities these days. Futuur is served with pounded meat and various cereals (51). Sweets, which are often based on dates, are often eaten during Ramadan (52). ĄźAtaif is a stuffed pancake eaten in Turkey during Ramadan (53), and sharbat, or sherbet, is served more frequently during Ramadan meals. (54)
            One of the major Jewish holidays is Passover. Passover is the day Jews celebrate the HebrewĄŻs escape, led by Moses, from the Egyptians (55). They eat special food during this period. Hebrews had to leave quickly, and they could not wait for the bread to rise. Thus, they took flat bread, and Jews eat bread without leaven to commemorate this incident. (56) They first remove all the charmetz, leavened bread (57), before eating matzos, the flat bread. (58)
            Arab Christians has been celebrating Christian holidays just like others, and they continue to do so; especially in Jordan, all Christian ceremonies are celebrated in public (59). One of the holidays specially celebrated by Syriac Christians, which is the major sect in the region, is St. MarounĄŻs feast day on 9th of February.
            The most significant Druze holiday is Eid Al-Adha, which is also celebrated by Muslims (61). This is the day when people sacrifice the best of their livestock, as Ibrahim sacrificed his son Ismael. People feast for several days and often share the meat with the poor. (61)

III Food and Social Class
            The relationship between food and social class is mostly about how much money a person in the class can afford to use for food. For grain and vegetable are more basic and cheaper, both poor and the wealthy were able to eat it. However, meat was more accessible to the richer people. The evidence can be found in Muslim practices and tradition. Eid Al-Adha, one of Muslim holiday, is the day when people sacrifice the best of their livestock and share it with the poor. (62) This tradition continues today, and since people living in the cities do not have meat, they donate to charities. (63) The practice of sharing meat shows that meat has been too expensive for poor people to have in enough quantity.

IV History of Famine
            Famine is severe lack of food, which results in hunger, malnutrition, and possibly death (64). Throughout the history, including present, famine has existed all around the world for various reasons. Natural reason for the famine is crop failure due to drought, tempest, or other natural disasters. The famine may be caused by war and other types of social turmoil, which means fewer workforce and more food demand.
            One of the most historic incidents of famine is the great famine of 638 AD in Arabia during the rule of Umar the Great. (65) It was caused by crop failure due to drought, and people poured into Madinah for ration. When the food supply started to run out, Umar asked for the help of?Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah of Syria, who sent provisions and saved millions of people. (66)
            The region which is today Iran suffered from a few cases of severe famine. When Mongol invaded during 13th century, Iran was conquered and famine, in addition to massacre, killed thousands of people (67). The Great Persian Famine that lasted from 1870 to 1871 is one of the most catastrophic one in history. From the winter of 1869 to early 1871, extremely small amount of rain, if any, fell on Persia. Drought led to scarcity of food, and estimated two million people died. (68)
            There are several other incidents of famine, such as 1097 famine in Palestine which resulted in death of five hundred thousand people, but historical records on the matter is scanty. There were a few major cases of famine in Asia Minor, which is modern day Turkey. One was right after the conqueror Timur, the emperor of Timurid Empire in Central Asia, left, and others were in 1611 and 1873, respectively (69). There was a famine in Arabia in 1722 due to the climate. (70)
            Famine continues to be a huge problem in modern West Asia. Especially, many nations such as Afghanistan are vulnerable to natural disasters because their political and economic system is unstable and corrupted. (71) International society is trying to provide humanitarian aid to these countries, but they face much difficulty.

V Periods in the History of Nutrition in West Asia

V.1 Neolithic Revolution
            Neolithic Revolution may be considered the first major event that happened to nutrition of West Asia. West Asia was one of the first regions in the world to go through the revolution, which took place around 10,000 BC or earlier (72). As in any other region, Neolithic Revolution meant that the residents become able to farm and raise crop. However, the West Asia was idiosyncratic in the sense that the domestication of animals was active (73). Camels, lambs, goats, and other animals were domesticated, and then domestication was spread to rest of the world.

V.2 Establishment and Expansion of Islam
            As mentioned earlier, Islam Caliphate ruled entire present-day West Asia by 661 AD. Islamic dietary law influenced the cuisine of West Asia so much that the Islamic food culture is reflected in the cuisine of non-Muslims. Obviously, Muslims, who constitute majority of the population in West Asia, do not eat pork and avoid alcoholic beverages. Therefore, establishment and expansion of Islam is significant in history of nutrition of West Asia for numerous traditions, such as avoiding of pork, have begun at this period and are still continuing today.

V.3 Muslim Agricultural Revolution
            From 8th century to 13th century AD was Muslim Agricultural Revolution, during which variety and efficiency of agriculture drastically increased. Muslims started crop rotation in a way that would fit the West Asian environment the best, and more variety of crops enabled them to grow crops that would be best for the season. The crops diffused all over Islamic world includes artichokes, bananas, coconut palms, colocasia, cotton, eggplants, hard wheat, lemons, limes, mangos, plantains, rice, sorghum, sour oranges, spinach, sugar cane, and watermelons. Also, irrigation technique enhanced so that they can supply water to previously infertile regions. Surplus of food eventually led to development of markets and cities.(74)

V.4 Ottoman Empire
            Ottoman Empire was the empire which began around the Balkans and Anatolia regions (75), and expanded to land around it, including many parts of West Asia (though less than fifty percent of the land was not conquered, it was mostly deserts) by 16th and 17th century (76). Ottoman cuisine did not have its own specialty, but rather successfully fused cuisines of West Asia, Central Asia, and Balkan area (77). Its cuisine significantly and influenced cuisine of wide part of West Asia (78), and it especially shaped the cuisine of modern day Turkey. New ingredients and new techniques were brought in by the administration itself; Topkapi Palace had several kitchens and hired skilled cooks (79). Trade was encouraged and thus vigorous, and variety of spices was imported during the period.

V.5 Industrialization and Globalization
            Industrialization and globalization increased the diplomatic relationship among nations. Industrialization has improved technology, increasing the speed of food production and transportation. Globalization has increased bond among people, reducing possible resistance against exotic food culture. Due to such changes, fast food, which saves people time, and food of other cultures are showing up in many regions.
            Fast food is highly popular in West Asia, especially in cities. In Iran, new types of Kebab were introduced as fast food, which includes chelow Kebab, joojeh Kebab, naan o Kebab, and Kebab sandwiches (80). Fast food is spreading in Turkey, too. Not only are foreign fast food chains attracting customers, but fast food versions of traditional dishes are also invented. Some of these traditional dishes are k?fte,?d?ner, b?rek?and?g?zleme. (81)
            Importation of foreign cuisine is also active. In Saudi Arabia, various American Hamburger and Pizza fast food chains are making money throughout the country. American sit-down restaurants such as ChiliĄŻs are also opening in different places (82). In Iran, western food, including steak and fast food, is wide preferred by younger generations. Also, Japanese and Chinese food has become increasingly popular recently, especially in Teheran. Italian and Mediterranean cuisine are present, as well. (83)

VI Conclusion
            Switzerland has had numerous visitors in its history. However Switzerland came to take major role in the world of tourism in 19th century. Food is an essential part of life. Human beings have developed various dietary cultures in order to obtain the necessary nutrition within the given environment and, at the same time, provide pleasure for their tongues.
            Cuisine of a culture is more widely affected by outside influence than other aspects of the culture. As long as the crucial ingredients were available, and even if they are not, with creative substitutions, distinct cuisine from other regions can spread via trade, war, immigration, and other means of interaction. Especially in West Asia, exchange of dietary culture was active because it was the area connecting Europe and Asia, where different climates, religions, and ethnics meet. Studying the change in cuisine of West Asia, therefore, shows how historical events influenced the countries involved in them.
            However, the food history, the area which examines the historical influence on and by food, is not well developed. Even up to 1970s, the scholar on food history was a subject of sneer (84). Because of such circumstances, the accessible information and reference on the area was limited and scattered. Thus, the sources to which this paper referred are works of a few food historians. Though enough information could be collected to find general changes in nutrition of West Asia, such limitation prevented this paper from making deeper research into the topic.


1.      Article: Western Asia, from Wikipedia
2.      Article: Iran, from Wikipedia
3.      Article: Egyptians, from Wikipedia
4.      Article: Turkey, from Wikipedia
5.      Article: Western Asia, from Wikipedia
6.      Article: Arab Cuisine, from Wikipedia
7.      Article: Pig, from Wikipedia
8.      Davidson. 2006 p.861
9.      ibid. p.404
10.      ibid. p.32
11.      ibid. p.293
12.      ibid. p.294
13.      Article: Iraqi Cuisine, from Wikipedia.
14.      Article: Olive, from Wikipedia.
15.      Davidson. 2006 p.448
16.      Article: Sassanid Empire, from Wikipedia.
17.      Davidson. 2006 p.404
18.      Article: Wiener Schnitzel, from Wikipedia.
19.      ibid.
20.      Davidson. 2006 p.814
21.      Article: Uyghur People, from Wikipedia.
22.      Harris. 1958.p.28
23.      Article: History of Circassians, from CircassianWorld.
24.      Jaimoukha. 2004.
25.      ibid.
26.      Article: Israeli Cuisine, from Wikipedia.
27.      ibid.
28.      Article: Turkey, from Wikipedia
29.      Article: Islam BeginningsĄ±, from Patheos.
30.      Article: Islam, from Wikipedia
31.      Pickthall.
32.      Article: Cyrus the Great, from Wikipedia.
33.      Article: Jewish History, from Wikipedia.
34.      Torah. Leviticus 11.9.
35.      Torah. Leviticus 11.13.
36.      Torah. Leviticus 11.20-11.21.
37.      Torah. Leviticus 11.23.
38.      Torah.. Leviticus 11.9.
39.      Torah. Leviticus 11.13.
40.      Torah. Leviticus 11.20-11.21.
41.      Torah. Leviticus 11.23.
42.      Davidson. 2006 p.183
43.      QurĄŻan 2:173
44.      QurĄŻan 6:144
45.      QurĄŻan 16:67
46.      QurĄŻan 5:90
47.      Torah. Leviticus 11.1-11.8.
48.      Article: Druzes, from Countries and Their Cultures.
49.      ibid.
50.      Article: Ramadan, from Wikipedia.
51.      Davidson. 2006 p.652
52.      Article: Arab Cuisine, from Wikipedia
53.      Davidson. 2006 p.33
54.      ibid. p.717
55.      ibid. p.581
56.      Article: Passover, from Wikipedia.
57.      Article: Chametz, from Wikipedia.
58.      Article: Matzo, from Wikipedia.
59.      Article: Arab Christians, from Wikipedia.
60.      Article: Druze, from Wikipedia.
61.      Article: Eid al-Adha, from Wikipedia.
62.      ibid.
63.      ibid.
64.      Davidson. 2006 p.288
65.      Article: Umar, from Wikipedia.
66.      ibid.
67.      Article: Iran, from Wikipedia
68.      Okazaki. 1986.
69.      Article: List of Famines, from Wikipedia.
70.      Abdulla. 1995.
71.      UN GA Res. 62/6.
72.      Article: Neolithic Revolution, from Wikipedia.
73.      ibid.
74.      Article: Muslim Agricultural Revolution, from Wikipedia.
75.      Article: Rise of Ottoman Empire, from Wikipedia.
76.      Article: Ottoman Empire, from Wikipedia.
77.      Article: Turkish Cuisine, from Wikipedia.
78.      Article: Ottoman Cuisine, from Wikipedia.
79.      ibid.
80.      Article: Iranian Cuisine from Wikipedia.
81.      Article: Turkish Cuisine, from Wikipedia.
82.      Article: Saudi Arabian Cuisine, from Wikipedia.
83.      Article: Iranian Cuisine from Wikipedia.
84.      Davidson. 2006 p.viii


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31.      "Eid al-Adha."? Wikipedia. 2 Dec 2009, 11:02 UTC. .
32.      "List of famines."? Wikipedia 13 Nov 2009, 01:28 UTC. .
33.      "Umar."? Wikipedia 20 Nov 2009, 17:52 UTC. .
34.      "Cyrus the Great."? Wikipedia. 21 Nov 2009, 22:32 UTC. .
35.      "Egyptians."? Wikipedia 24 Nov 2009, 13:09 UTC. .
36.      "Uyghur people."? Wikipedia 28 Nov 2009, 16:26 UTC. .
37.      "Muslim Agricultural Revolution."? Wikipedia 21 Nov 2009, 07:57 UTC. .
38.      "Islam Beginnings" Patheos. 2009.
39.      "Islam Early Development" Patheos. 2009.
40.      "Ottoman cuisine."? Wikipedia 25 Jul 2009, 20:39 UTC. .
41.      "Ottoman Empire."? Wikipedia 30 Nov 2009, 22:06 UTC. .
42.      "Rise of the Ottoman Empire."? Wikipedia 29 Nov 2009, 01:20 UTC. .
43.      "Neolithic Revolution." Wikipedia. 9 Dec 2009, 00:27 UTC.
44.      "Druze." Wikipedia. 9 Dec 2009, 13:04 UTC. .
45.      "Arab Christians." Wikipedia. 10 Dec 2009, 09:29 UTC. .
46.      "Jewish history." Wikipedia. 4 Dec 2009, 00:01 UTC. .
47.      "Islam." Wikipedia. 10 Dec 2009, 04:03 UTC. .

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