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Words of the Wise (13th Waves, October 2008)

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Q1 : Compare and Contrast the Catholic and Protestant (choose Lutheran or Calvinist) view of Renaissance art.

(A) Both Catholics and Protestants (Calvinists) were skeptical of Renaissance art because of nudity and less sanctity. However, the Catholics were more tolerant as long as Renaissance artists drew with Christian motif. But Calvinists thought drawing such things are against their moral code.
(B) Catholics didn't dislike Renaissance art. They hired Renaissance artists in the construction of the most important buildings. Calvinists, though, would have abhorred those kind of things. Those were engraven images of naked men and women.
(C) Lutheran wanted to reform some immoral behaviours inside the Catholic church such as letters of indulgence. However as catholic wanted to protect itself from splitting, Lutheran also don't want Catholic to break apart.
(D) Since the Calvinists favored abstinence, they viewed Renaissance art with not so good point of view.

Q2 : Discuss how the Reformation affected (choose one country) a) Spain b) Germany c) the Netherlands

(A) Reformation through vernacular bible awakened peasants in Germany to see the contradiction of the catholic war, such as nothing mentioned about hierarchy. Therefore in 1525-1526 there was a German Peasants War.
(B) The Protestant Reformation didn't have many followers in Spain, since the Catholic Reformation had happened before, but the crucial issue was the ban on importing books, which led Spain from fall from the ormer prestige.
(C) a) it became more drastic Catholic country and tried to keep Catholic church unchanged. b) after conflicts, Catholics and Protestants stopped fighting and rulers chose one of the two. c) it allowed every religions. Therefore it became refuge for religiously persecuted people.
(D) During the reformation, German bible translated by Luther was spread in Germany causing German peasants revolt against the church and the nobility. Also provoking Catholic iconoclasts.

Q3 : How did the Discovery of previously unknown Continents affect the European Economy

(A) Since Spanish collected a lot of silver and gold from the New continent, it caused fierce dramatic inflation of European economy. This triggered the development of banking and commerce, i.e. Dutch cities, bourses
(B) First, intercontinental trade were created. Second, new vegetables and silver from new world could lead Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution.

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