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A World History of Communication (1800-1914)

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Yi, Ha Young
Term Paper, AP World History Class, December 2010

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Definition
II.1 Terminology
II.2 Setting
II.3 Objective
III. Development of Technology
III.1 Overview
III.2 Western Europe
III.2.1 Dominant Communication
III.2.2 Personal Communication
III.2.3 Mass Communication
III.2.4 Societal Effect
III.3 North America
III.3.1 Dominant Communication
III.3.2 Personal Communication
III.3.3 Mass Communication
III.3.4 Societal Effect
IV. Spread of Technology
IV.1 Overview
IV.2 North Asia
IV.2.1 Preexisting Communication
IV.2.2 Personal Communication
IV.2.3 Mass Communication
IV.2.4 Societal Effect
IV.3 East Asia
IV.3.1 Preexisting Communication
IV.3.2 Personal Communication
IV.3.3 Mass Communication
IV.3.4 Societal Effect
IV.4 Oceania
IV.4.1 Preexisting Communication
IV.4.2 Personal Communication
IV.4.3 Mass Communication
IV.4.4 Societal Effect
V. Conclusion

I. Introduction
            Communication has been one of the major driving forces of world history. It influenced history by recording the information, which overcame the restraints of time, transmitting the record, which overcame the restraints of place, and controlling the content, which interpreted the events. Recording, sending, and decoding information led to the development of the society as a whole and had a significant impact on human relationship. Thus, in understanding the flow of world history and the causes for sudden changes in or certain systems of the society, exploration of communicative methods is an essential method.
            These changes have been seen several times in history. Fang (1997) distinguished six information revolutions in which the first was of writing. Ancient societies such as the Greeks in eighth century B.C. were able to store knowledge and overcome the restriction of memory, reaching out to sciences, philosophy, and religion. The second information revolution was of printing. Although the technology itself started long ago in China, the proliferation began in Europe in fifteenth century, spreading information to diverse layers of the society and marking the start of modern world. Latter information revolutions include mass media, entertainment, the toolshed home, and the highway. (1)
            The 19th century and the early 20th century, being home to the third information revolution, mass media, saw dramatic development of technology and change in lifestyle. This paper will discuss how the different communication technologies were introduced in different societies and what societal changes they brought about.

II. Definition

II.1 Terminology
            Communication, generally, means a method of transferring information from a sender to a receiver. Because this definition is such a large concept that includes many ideas, there have been several ways to divide the different types of communication. This paper will follow by the categorization of Vivian (2008), which specifies three types of communication: intrapersonal communication, interpersonal communication, and mass communication. Since intrapersonal communication involves not separate beings sharing ideas but one being talking to oneself, this paper will exclude such methods in the scope of discussion. The term 'communication' in this paper, thus, can be divided into two categories; interpersonal communication and mass communication. Interpersonal communication is in which separate beings, usually two, communicate particular message. (2) Interpersonal communication includes communication devices that linked person to person, such as postal service, telegraph, and telephone. Mass communication is in which a mass communicator sends a mass message to a mass audience through mass media. (3) Mass communication methods include communication devices that widely targeted to the society as a whole, such as printing, radio, and photography and film.

II.2 Setting
            This paper will deal with five different regions around the world. The five regions include : Western Europe, North Asia, North America, East Asia, and Oceania. Western Europe, which was a leading region in both the societal changes and the technological developments, includes the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (the United Kingdom, in short, from now on), France, Germany, and Italy. North America, next active region to and a very engaging one with Western Europe, includes the United States and Canada. North Asia only includes Russia in its boundaries. East Asia, although very late in adopting cutting-edge technologies, will include discussions of Japan and Korea, two countries with a relationship created out of imperialism. Lastly, Oceania, a long isolated region in international society due to the physical distance will include Australia. The focus of discussion with Western Europe and Eastern Europe will be the development of technology while with North Asia, East Asia and Oceania will be the spread of technology.

II.3 Objective
            The core reason for this definition and the paper is to provide deeper information and discussion of each technology and its effect in each region. This paper will not simply state the mere existence of some communicative methods in the time period. Rather, it will describe one or two of the most representative communicative methods which fall into the category of dominant technology, development of technology, or spread of technology. Thus, one important thing to note before the discussion is that there is much more beyond the scope of this paper. From the beginning, there are many other ways to categorize communication and many other communication devices than the six aforementioned ones, just as there are many other regions than the five aforementioned ones that had communicative methods. The same applies for the main discussion of this paper. Although it is true that the regions focusing on development of technology do have some technologies that they did not invent and instead accepted from other regions, it will not be thoroughly discussed since the focus should be the 'development.' However, whenever possible, such information will be included in the introductory paragraph of each region.

III Development of Technology

III.1 Overview
            During the 18th and the 19th century, Industrial Revolution was a dominant movement in Europe. The abrupt changes in technology and industry brought about the changes in the society. According to Wikipedia, the Industrial Revolution was "a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe, North America." (4) The work that people have been obliged to perform manually for a long time was replaced by machine-based, mass-production manufacturing. Obviously, "incremental advances increased productivity," increasing the need for more efficiency. (5) This need led to the obsession of speed, which increased the need for communication technology that could send messages to longer distances in faster time.
            The second facet of Industrial Revolution is that it brought the production in mass quantity. According to Wikipedia, "the invention of new machines ... allowed mass manufacture," and "steel is often cited as the first of several new areas for industrial mass-production, which are said to characterize a 'Second Industrial Revolution', beginning around 1850." (6) This initiation of mass production was conducted under several processes. Mass quantities of raw materials were imported into the country with the development of transportation such as ship and railroad. The factories then started mass production with these materials into marketable goods using machines. These goods would be advertised by mass media to the mass consumers. Lastly, these consumers would buy the products in mass quantities. This social phenomenon increased mass dependency of products, which increased the need for mass communication techniques that could reach as many people as possible.
            This social background especially influenced the societies of countries that dealt with the development of technology. Especially Western Europe and North America, most of which were active participants in the Industrial Revolution, emphasized the importance of productivity and mass society, and developed the new technologies for communicative methods. Thus, the social background led to the inundation of new inventions that were not only the results of the social changes but also the catalysts of more changes.
            In this section, communication in the specific regions will be explained by both the dominant mediums used and the new inventions made in the time period. Due to some problems with distribution or insufficient development, not all cutting-edge technologies were widely used by common people. This paper will explore the dominant medium used during the time period and the reason why the old could win the new. Also, the new technologies introduced in the time period and their societal effects will be discussed.

III.2 Western Europe
            Western Europe was the leading region in communication during the 19th century. Continuing on the massive usage of printing as the dominant communication technique, Western Europe also introduced several new technologies. Many talented scientists in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Italy competitively invented technologies that would advance the communication. From this effort, interpersonal communication such as telegraph and postal service, and mass communication such as radio and photography and film developed hugely. But of course, Western Europe did not invent every technology existing. Also some new technologies were introduced from other regions, such as telephone from North America, building transcontinental phone line in 1914. (7)

III.2.1 Dominant Communication
            Printing was the most dominant medium of communication in Western Europe during the 19th century. By the early 19th century, most of the large cities in Western Europe had newspaper-like publishing developed, and it served as the major communication tool. New technologies regarding printing such as pressing press, new types of papers, and printing on both sides of paper were introduced in Western Europe which even expanded the circulation of newspaper. (8) In France, Emile de Girardin started La Presse on June 16th, 1836 which introduced cheap, advertisement-supported daily news. Soon, many countries started following this method. (9) While a greater readership was being exposed to the publications, many of the novels in this period were printed in serials and advertisements were shown in the newspapers also. This increased the accessibility of information through printed materials to common people.

III.2.2 Interpersonal Communication
            The POSTAL SERVICE was another focus area of Western Europe. In April of 1801, the Act of Parliament (UK) had increased all postage rates. This was firstly due to numerous wars the United Kingdom was involved in either with France or the United States from 1775 to 1815, in order to fund the wars and stabilize the economy. (10) It was also due to the system in which the burden of payment lied on the recipients of a letter. Since intended recipients often declined to pay, in order to compensate for such risks, the payment of each recipient had to increase. Rowland Hill, opposing to this phenomenon as many others did, formulated proposals known as "Post Office Reform : Its Importance and Practicability" in 1837, which is regarded as the milestone of modern postage system's development by convincing the Parliament to implement certain necessary reforms in postal service system. In this proposal, Hill argued that carrying charges and complex series of rates based on distance were needless to be counted in the total cost of postal service. He asserted the need for a uniform rate of price and prepayment of postage by the senders and not the recipients, based on the weight. (11) In response to this proposal, on January 10th, 1839, Uniform Penny Post started, and on May 1st, 1840, first postage stamp was sold, marking the start of active postal service usage. Following this, France also introduced its first postage stamp on January 1st, 1849, and Spain in 1850. On January 1st, 1858, London was divided into postal districts, which initiated the UK Postcode system. (12) Though at first postal service was too expensive for common people to use, the constant reformation brought light to its usage.
            The very beginning of the TELEGRAPH is marked with the invention of Voltaic cell by Alessandro Volta, an Italian inventor, in 1800. This new technology could power electric devices with lower voltages and high currents. (13) Actual telegraph appeared by a German inventor, Samuel Thomas von Sömmering, inventing the electro-chemical telegraph in 1809. This could send a message over a distance of several kilometers by having a single wire correspond to each letter of the alphabet. (14) This spread to other nations in the region. In the United Kingdom, William Fothergill Cooke patented the electric telegraph in May 1837. This telegraph, when sent a current, could point to a certain alphabet or number to communicate the message being sent. (15) By August 1850 the English Channel Cable was laid between Dover, the United Kingdom and Calais, France connecting the two nations over the sea as submarine cable. This was celebrated only to last a day because of a fisherman who mistook it for seaweed and cut it, so an improved one was laid again on September 25th, 1851, and put to regular usage on November 13th of the same year. (16) By 1866 the Transatlantic Cable was built between Europe and America. In 1871, a French Jean-Maurice-Emile Baudot introduced a new concept of multiplexing. This is a technique of switching a line among multiple users to reduce time consumption. (17) This continuous development of technologies reaches its peak in 1894 with an Italian inventor, Guglielmo Marconi, who brought wireless telegraph to light using the electromagnetic spectrum. (18)

III.2.3 Mass Communication
            For the invention of RADIO, there are many scientists to attribute to. To address one with the oldest history of radio devise, one should mention Sir Oliver Lodge from the United Kingdom. He was the first of the human kind to send signal through coherer, a radio devise that he created. On August 14th, 1894, at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford University, Lodge transmitted radio signals to demonstrate their potentials, which proved to people that the electric waves could be used as the medium of communication. (19) To address one with the most regard, one should mention an Italian inventor, Guglielmo Marconi. He demonstrated the technology several times in London during 1890s and even went across the Atlantic Ocean to spread such technology to the United States. He made the first radio signal across the Atlantic Ocean on December 17th, 1902, even winning the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contribution. (20) To address one with the most significant and basic discovery, one should mention a German scientist, Heinrich Hertz. Though he did not create a radio devise himself, he influenced all the scientists mentioned above and many more with his discovery of "electromagnetic radiation" in 1887. He proved the existence of radio waves, making it possible for later scientists to build systems to transmit and receive signals through radio. Thus, the unit of measuring radio frequency is named after him. (21) These scientists that contributed to the invention of radio are all from Western Europe.
            France being called " the country of art" is not a meaningless compliment. PHOTOGRAPHY and FILM have their base in Western Europe also, especially in France, starting with Niepce's camera in 1826. He found chemicals to capture and preserve an image on a light-sensitive metal. Starting from 1829, Niepce collaborated with Daguerre to create better photography. With Niepce's technology, and Daguerre's cut exposure time in 1837, 'Daguerre-Niepce photography craze' began in Western Europe. (22) This 'photography craze' was followed by the development of photographic journalism which provided better insight for the readers and by film technology. On December 28th, 1895, Lumiere brothers introduced a portable movie camera, and projected a movie in Paris for its citizens to watch. During the year 1895 and 1896, they recorded more than 40 films, and later brought about the inception of newsreels and documentaries. (23) The neighbor of France, the United Kingdom, also contributed much to the development of photography and film. On June 21st, 1838, Wheatstone's stereoscope showed picture in 3D. On January 25th, 1839, Talbot displayed calotype, by coating paper sheets with silver chloride, deriving photographs from negative. This technique was widely used to reproduce positive photographs. (24)

III.2.4 Societal Effect
            France has been in war with the United Kingdom from 1793 to 1802. They signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 25th, 1802, to end the war. However, neither side were satisfied and abided by the conditions of the treaty. Thus, the hostility started again on May 18th, 1803. This serves as a general mark of the transition to the Napoleonic Wars which lasted from 1803 to 1815. British army also played a key role in the defeat of Napoleon's army in Waterloo on June 18th, 1815, with the combined army of Seventh Coalition. (25) With their fear of frequent revolutions and wars, European powers felt the need to pacify the European continent. Concert of Europe, or "the Congress System after the Congress of Vienna, was the balance of power that existed in Europe from 1815 to 1914." (26) The United Kingdom, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agreed to discuss measures that "will be judged most salutary for the repose and prosperity of the peoples, and for the maintenance of peace in Europe." They even withdrew their army of occupation from France and let France join the alliance in the first congress held in Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818. (27) Though some discordance appeared in time, showing that it was not able to support absolute peace for a long time, the very effort supported Europe¡¯s recovery from the disputes. This was due to not only the political efforts, but also the scientific efforts, or, development of communicative methods. Joint efforts such as English Channel Cable helped linking the countries and preventing them from being in absolute adversity.
            Apart from the international relationship, a domestic effect was caused. With the development of communicative methods such as printing, the importance of EDUCATION grew in Western European nations. According to Fang (1997), "as the presses disgorged new printed matter, the yearning for education spread like a fever; millions of Europeans led their children to classrooms and remained to learn themselves." (28) France started the ecoles primaires superieures in which students who did not go to universities would receive higher education than elementary schools. (29) The dispersed request for educative system in the United Kingdom was finally proven with the first Education Act of 1870. This required the establishment of elementary schools nationwide, which added on to the already existing private schools, providing more chances of education. They guaranteed the attendance of children from age of 5 to 13. With the 1891 Education Act, elementary schools became free. (30) Increased literacy rate and willingness to education in European nations helped political and religious ideologies to be spread to wider audience and easily lead to more participation in such movements. Fang also said that "printing and literacy were engines that helped to fuel the religious reformation, the secular Renaissance, a spirit of nationalism, and the growth of mercantilism" dominant in the 19th century Europe. (31)

III.3 North America
            North America, including the United States and Canada, also contributed a lot to the communication development of nineteenth century. With the dominant communicative medium, postal service, North America also made several inventions and played a leading role in linking the countries far away from each other by collaborating with European and Asian nations. Interpersonal communication in this region includes telephone and telegraph, and mass communication includes radio and printing. At the same time, some inventions were introduced to North America from other regions, such as photography from Western Europe, especially during the Civil War from 1861 to 1865. (32)

III.3.1 Dominant Communication
            The most dominant communicative medium in North America was postal service. An extreme support for this claim is the United States Postmaster General. Executive head of the postal services, Postmaster General, for most of its existence, from March 9th, 1829 to June 30th, 1971, was part of the president's cabinet. Postal Service during this period not only delivered mail but also print news. Postmasters could control the news by impeding the delivery of publications that went against the party belief and increasing the circulation of their party¡¯s newspapers. (33) In order to expand the areas covered quickly, Pony Express was introduced in April 1860. Business correspondence and news dispatches filled these overland mails to many settlements. Although postal service in North America was dominant for most of the time period, development of telegraph hindered its popularity towards the end.

III.3.2 Interpersonal Communication
            Though invention of TELEPHONE did not occur overnight and there were several efforts and similar technologies created decades before the official introduction, the first one to gain patent for telephone appeared in North America. His family living in Canada, Graham Bell worked in his office in Boston for the experiments on telephone. In spite of the famous story of race to attaining patent between Elisha Gray and Graham Bell, the winner of the race and the most recognized inventor of telephone is Bell, who received U.S. patent on March 7th, 1876. Three days later, Graham Bell made the first call through telephone, saying "Come here Watson, I want you" to his assistant in the adjacent room. After that, Bell traveled around North America explaining the technology behind telephone, and created the Bell Telephone Company on July 9th, 1877. Later, the telephone line would extend to Ontario. (34) The first rotary dial telephone patent was given on September 10th, 1879, and since 1890, the year that Bell's patent ended, new inventions started to appear in the market. In 1892, the first commercial installation of 99 line automatic telephone exchange was conducted in Indiana. (35)
            The most significant invention in TELEGRAPH's history appeared in the United States. Though Cooke and Wheatstone made great discoveries in telegraph, Samuel Morse, a professor in New York University, devised a medium that would overthrow the past inventions. He demonstrated a method to relay signals by wire on January 6th, 1838, allowing message to be sent through a ten miles long wire. However, people did not take much interest in this technology until five years later. On February 23rd, 1843, the Congress approved funding for Morse's telegraphic line of 38 miles from Washington to Baltimore, and after six years, messages were transmitted over the line. The first message conducted through Washington-Baltimore telegraph was "What hath God wrought ?" from the book of Numbers, transmitted on May 24th, 1844. Soon the line expanded to New York and Philadelphia, and Transatlantic Cable was built to connect the United States and Europe, as explained in the previous section. (36) Originally, telegraph used the Morse code in which the marker draws dashes and dots on the paper to convey message. On April 18th, 1846, the printing telegraph was invented by Royal Earl House of the United States. It was called "the Magnetic Letter Printing Telegraph" at that time. With 28-key keyboards in which each of the keys represents one letter in alphabet, the user could directly input the message he wanted to print and transmit. (37)

III.3.3 Mass Communication
            Major development of radio technology started with maritime navigation. RADIO made it possible for ships to communicate with each other during sailing and notify at the time of disaster which saves thousands of lives. One of the most tragic ship sinking disasters occurred on April 15th, 1912. Titanic which sank in the northern Atlantic Ocean was equipped with radio technology. This was largely helpful when Carpathia, having the same radio technology of the sort, came for the rescue of passengers, when shore stations along the Canadian and the United States¡¯ coastline tried to lead Carpathia and the rescued passengers safely back to inland, and when many inland stations tried to gain information about the incident. The importance of such technology became obvious. So, after this terrible accident, the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) that was held in 1913 concluded that shipboard radio stations should be manned 24 hours a day to ensure the safety of the ships. People also considered to put restrictions upon the private stations, for too many users crowding to radio stations during the Titanic incident caused great interruption in receiving the signal. (38) Radio was used for purposes other than safety. In April 1909, Charles David Herrold constructed a broadcasting station. He designed the omnidirectional antennas and transmitted human voice and later music. (39)
            On September 3rd, 1833, Benjamin Day created the New York Sun as combination news and advertising vehicle. With the slogan "it shines for all," The Sun was published as a morning newspaper. (40) This NEWSPAPER is famous for "the Great Moon Hoax" in 1835. "The Great Moon Hoax" is a series of six articles that argued the fictitious discoveries of living beings on moon by the best known astronomer of the time, Sir John Herschel. This boosted the circulation of the Sun, granting it the position of one of the most important newspapers, and influenced the readers very much. Sir John Herschel claimed that he was annoyed by the people who actually believed the story to be true and asked him about it. (41) This event is meaningful in that it showed the impact of media on the mass, which will increase even more as time passes and communicative methods develop. Edgar Allen Poe, getting inspiration from this story, published "The Balloon-Hoax" in the same newspaper in 1844, one of the first examples of science fiction. (42) Christopher Latham Sholes invented the first functional TYPEWRITER in November 13th, 1866. The first document to be produced with this typewriter was Sholes' contract in his capacity for the Comptroller for Milwaukee. In 1873, Sholes improved his typewriter by inventing QWERTY keyboard. (43)

III.3.4 Societal Effect
            The 19th century in North America is represented as the period of the expansion of land under 'manifest destiny.' Manifest Destiny "refers to the idea that it was America's God-given right and duty to expand its borders across the North American continent, and, in the process, bring Christianity and democracy to more people." (44) On April 30th, 1803, Louisiana Purchase opened up wide Western land to the United States. The War of 1812 against Britain that broke the alliance between the British and the Indians in the Old Northwest, Treaty of 1818 that established the United States-Canada border, Transcontinental Treaty in 1819 that settled border dispute between the United States and Spanish Mexico, and Monroe Doctrine in 1823 that warned European nations of America's sovereignty and unwillingness to tolerate outside interference all contributed to continentalism. With the numbers of immigrants ever increasing and the demand for land for settlement on the frontier rising, the so-called 'Indian Removal' achieved consent among Americans. (45) In the 1830s, the Federal government forcibly deported the Southeastern tribes to reservations in the west which is now Oklahoma. "It was not yet over. The Monroe Doctrine would be in place until the United States' entrance into World War I. ... The country continued to move west, now into the Pacific Ocean" including Hawaii and Philippines. (46) In the past, it was difficult to send messages all across the continent and thus, communication was scarce. However, now that there are so many advanced technologies, people could communicate with others on the opposite side of the continent, and even on different continent.
            Education was another impact of communication in North America. The 19th Century education in North America is referred to as 'the Common School Period.' In the United States, acknowledging the numerous benefits literacy bring to social changes that occurred beforehand, public schools were made and attendance was required. (47) Interestingly, not only did communication increase the will of people to learn more, but it also allowed education promoters to communicate with each other and pursue the same goal internationally. Egerton Ryerson in Ontario, Jean-Baptiste Meilleur in Quebec, John Jessop in British Columbia all joined together for education operations. (48) The importance of education on economic development and social improvement was recognized by many people, who were eager to send their children to schools. Parents decided to produce fewer children and give better care and education to each one of them. Thus, when several Canadian provinces passed compulsory attendance legislation, for example, Ontario in 1891, many were already attending the schools on regular basis. (49) People recognized the important influence of printed material and education upon people¡¯s minds; in 1833 a school textbook was published. This book included 55 lessons, including a connotation that the best model of man is White, Anglo-Saxon, and Protestant. (50)

IV. Spread of Technology

IV.1 Overview
            Although the term 'globalization' was coined in 1930, it is not the abrupt phenomenon that started to appear just recently; people often track back to 15th century for its origin. According to Wikipedia, Globalization refers to "the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of communication, transportation, and trade." (51) The 19th century saw many nations collaborating with each other and forming intimate relationships, obviously to be viewed as globalization. European imperialism also contributed much to this phenomenon, for it opened up the barriers of other countries and spread the technologies and ideas. "Global integration continued with the European colonization of the Americas initiating the Columbian Exchange the enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and culture between the Eastern and Western hemispheres." (52)
            During this process, the sensed distance between different nations, which is a time it took for information to spread between different nations, started to decrease. Communication devices that linked people in far distance also started to link the countries in far distance. A country in another continent could easily be reached, and at the end of the time period, very quickly. Communication development and globalization had mutual relationship that benefited each other. This not always led to a positive result; being too close to each other brought conflict of interest which resulted in several disputes. However, there is no doubt that globalization led to active cultural exchange and economic boost that gave the underdeveloped nations chance to have a stand in the international society. Globalization has "joined different cultures and made it into something different" and "[increased] economic prosperity as well as opportunity, especially among developing nations, [enhanced] civil liberties and [led] to a more efficient allocation of resources." (53)
            This social background especially influenced the societies of countries that dealt with the spread of technology. Although North Asia, East Asia and Oceania did not have much of the will or the power to develop new cutting-edge technology at the beginning of the century, the globalized society allowed them to receive the inventions from other societies such as Western Europe and North America. Thus, the social background was responsible for the inflow of new inventions that were also spread in second-hand, eventually resulting in the world combined as one big body having mutual relationship.
            In this section, communication in the specific regions will be explained by both the preexisting mediums used and the new inventions accepted in the time period. Since these countries were not developing new communicative methods on their own, they had to be using older methods of communication, and many common people did even until the end of this time period. This paper will explore the usage of preexisting medium during the time period. Also, the new technologies introduced in the time period from other regions and their societal effects will be discussed.

IV.2 North Asia
            North Asia, or Russia, is restricted in terms of development of technology and spread of technology. It did have one scientist who made a great discovery, but was not very active in inventions as a whole and most of the times it received the technologies made in other regions. Thus, it is categorized under the spread of technology, taking into account that it was rather active in everyday life usage of such communicative methods not in devising something new. Before the new technologies were introduced, Russia used postal service, especially by sleigh. The discussion of its interpersonal communication includes telegraph, and mass communication includes printing.

IV.2.1 Preexisting Communication
            Russia's postal service began as early as 10th century. At first, it was delivered through messenger system. However, later on, sleigh was used for faster mail delivery. Russia¡¯s sleigh, troika, was developed during the 17th century. It was at first "used for speedy delivering of mail and then [became] common by the late 18th century," (54) which continued throughout the 19th century. Since Russia covers vast territory which is often covered with ice or snow, sleigh was deemed as an effective tool of both communication and transportation. This dominance did not deter even after the development of telecommunication, for postal service was still in common usage, and even flourished. In 1845, post stationery started to appear, which extended throughout Russia by December 1st, 1848. First postage stamps were in sale on December 10th, 1857, which were valid in usage starting from January 1st, 1858. (55) Eventually in 1909 to 1910, Igor Sikorsky built the first propeller-powered snowmobile called aerosani. This was used not only for communication and mail delivery but also medical aid and border patrolling, proving that it was a popular method in use. This meant a more organized and faster communicative method in the future, including the Winter War and the World War I. (56)

IV.2.2 Interpersonal Communication
            Although Russia did not have as many inventors as Western Europe or North America, its one discovery made significant impact in telegraph's history. On October 21st, 1832, Shilling constructed the world's first electromagnetic telegraph apparatus. After that, many scientists around the world started inventing telegraph, which Russia was eager to accept in to their nation. In 1852, the first Moscow telegraph was founded. Few years later, "Moscow telegraph was moved from the original station building to one of the Moscow Kremlin buildings, where governmental communication and reception and transfer of private dispatches took place. It was not able to manage the growing flow of telegraphic exchange." So, on November 6th, 1859, the Central City Telegraph Station was founded for private persons. (57) A project called Russian-American telegraph, or the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, was conducted from 1865 to 1867. It tried to link California and Moscow with electric telegraph line, passing through Oregon and Colony of British Columbia to Alaska. However, this effort failed. Due to the climate, terrain, and shortage of supply, the construction had to be delayed many times. Because the workers were not familiar with working under cold weather, construction operated in winter was especially hard. Not having much accomplished, the news of first transatlantic message in July 1866 was sent to Russia about a year later, and this was the case for many other news from other regions. Despite all the efforts of the workers, this project was officially ceased in July, 1867, because it was deemed obsolete. (58)

IV.2.3 Mass Communication
            Although Russia in itself did not invent new technology, a German inventor Moritz von Jacobi, while staying in Russia, created electrotyping in 1839. Electrotyping allowed for a better medium of duplicating print. It eventually substituted stereotyping which was invented prior to electrotyping and lasted shorter in time than the new technology. (59) This new invention brought the prosperity of Russian printing industry. It initiated the 'Golden Age' of Russian literature with famous writers such as Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, and Pushkin. Printing also became the major tool for propaganda. One example is Narodnaya Volya, a terrorist organization that later assassinated Tsar Alexander II. With its newspaper Narodnaya Volya or The People's Gazette, it popularized its belief to the diverse strata of population regarding the struggle to topple autocracy. (60) However, this period saw both the encouragement and suppression of growth at the same time. The continuous rebellious attempts made through publication began censorship in the 19th century Russia. The total number of banned books, magazines, and newspapers from 1803 to 1916 add up to a number of approximately 20000. (61) Russian government regulated not only the printed materials produced by Russian within Russia¡¯s boundary, but also the ones published abroad and written in other languages. This censorship would continue, or even exacerbate, until the 20th century Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Thus, the printed communicative methods such as newspapers and magazines could not evolve largely.

IV.2.4 Societal Effect
            Russian literary works were not merely means of entertainment in the society; they served to penetrate certain ideologies upon the readers, and they did influence people to participate in political movements. Though Russia, having defeated Napoleon's army in 1812, became the major military power that could not be overcome, there were endless inner conflicts. During this time period, nihilism, a belief that puts no value upon life, was of popular idea among people. Nihilistic publications were banned from the government, but Alexander Herzen founded Free Russian Press that allowed them to be printed in London and brought by emigres. (62) Several literatures such as "Fathers and Sons" (1862) by Ivan Turgenev also helped the spread of Nihilism. Others ignited people's emotional reply which eventually led to revolutions. "What is to be done ?" (1863) by Chernyshevsky was called 'the handbook of radicalism.' "Radical thinkers Lenin, Georgi Plekhanov, Kropotkin, Kollontay, and Luxemburg were all highly impressed with the book, and it became an official Soviet classic. ... Lenin is said to have read the book five times in one summer, and according to Professor Emeritus of Slavic and Comparative Literature at Stanford, Joseph Frank, "Chernyshevsky's novel, far more than Marx's Kapital, supplied the emotional dynamic that eventually went to make the Russian Revolution."" By "undoubtedly [persuading] the younger generation of the intelligentsia of the possibility as well as the nobility of acting to overcome Russia's great social and economic problems - thus providing declasse intellectuals with a social role that gave them considerable self-esteem." (63) This led to an explosion of the 1905 Russian Revolution.

IV.3 East Asia
            Among the countries of East Asia, Qing China in 1860, Meiji Japan in 1868 and Joseon Korea in 1876 entered a period of modernization by introducing western technologies and western-style institutions. Among these countries, Japan did so with the greatest vigor and speed in accepting the new technologies from Western countries. Starting with Meiji restoration in 1868, western military advisors restructured the industry and technology in Japan. Along with the influences on economy, Japan gained its need to expand territory, and learned imperialism as the solution. Through Japanese imperialism which started in 1910, Korea also received a lot of communication technologies that significantly changed the lifestyle in rather short amount of time. The discussion of interpersonal communication in East Asia includes telephone and telegraph, and mass communication includes printing.

IV.3.1 Preexisting Communication
            Until the late nineteenth century - in case of Japan, until the Meiji Restoration and in Korea, until the Gabo Reform of 1894 - when Japan and Korea started to move away from traditional methods and encourage new technologies to become widely accepted, the most organized and widely used communicative method were beacon and station. Beacons were fire signals with five levels that used to send information about each region to the central government. During the day, the smoke from fire, and during the night, the fire itself signaled the status of regions. This information was sent across the nation until the king held a briefing with the general who interpret those signals. (64) This allowed the central government to look over regions of far distance and prepare for possible dangers of intrusion. Station was first introduced in China. It was established after every significant distance and messengers placed in the station would send message by a method similar to relay marathon, either on foot or on horse. This allowed important messages to be delivered quickly. In Korea, the station route was mainly divided into West route, North route, and South route. West route stretched from Seoul to Pyeong-An, North from Seoul to Ham-Kyeong, and South from Seoul to Kyeong-Sang. (65)

IV.3.2 Interpersonal Communication
            The first telegraph line between Tokyo and Yokohama became operational in 1869, which was 37 years after Morse invented telegraph in the United States. Though the start was late compared to Western nations, the spread of technology being implemented in the nation was rapid. In 1871, Japan started sharing telegraph with international countries such as Qing and Russia, linking Nagasaki and Shanghai, and Nagasaki and Vladivostok. In 1872, the first submarine cable in Kanmon Strait was laid. In 1878, almost every region throughout Japan was covered by telegraph line, and Central Telegraph Office was opened on March 25th, promoting more usage of telegraph over the country. By August 1st, 1906 the undersea cable between Japan and the United States was laid for international communication. (66) For Korea, sixteen years more had to be waited. In 1885, Seoul and Incheon, Incheon and Euiju were linked by telegraph line, which will eventually evolve to be the connection with Qing and Japan. (67)
            On December 16th, 1890 Japan started the usage of Gower-Bell telephone and telephone communication between Tokyo and Yokohama, which was 14 years after Bell invented the telephone technology. In 1899, Japan¡¯s first long-distance telephone service was put into use between Tokyo and Osaka. In October 1900, the first automatic telephone, or public telephone, was installed in Shinbashi and Ueno Stations which will later appear in other places. (68) For Korea, it took eight more years to accept telephone technology. Telephone was first introduced inside the Gyeongbok Palace in 1898, only for the usage of the royal family. Common people had to wait four more years to experience telephone in the cities in 1902. (69)

IV.3.3 Mass Communication
            The first communicative method introduced in Japan was newspaper. Nagasaki Shipping List & Advertiser was founded on June 22nd, 1861. It was a bi-weekly newspaper published by an Englishman, Hansard. In 1862, Tokugawa shogunate started publishing Kampan Batabiya Shimbun which was a translated version of a Dutch government newspaper. These were, although made in Japan, for foreigners and had not directly influenced the citizens of Japan. In 1871, the first newspaper that addressed both domestic and international news named the Daily Yokohama Mainichi Shimbun was published. During this period, newspapers in Japan were divided into two categories. One, Oshimbun, served as political forum that dealt with Popular Rights Movement, such as Yokohama Mainichi Shimbun and Chugai Shimbun. Another, Koshimbun, included local news, human stories, and fictions, such as Tokyo Nichinichi Shimbun from 1872, Yomiuri Shimbun from 1874, and Asahi Shimbun from 1879. (70)
            22 years later, in October 1883, first newspaper appeared in Korea. Young-hyo Park, who brought in the printing technology and established Bakmunguk, started to publish Hansungsunbo, which was a newspaper published every ten days. This newspaper explained domestic and international events and the purpose of Korea¡¯s diplomatic policies. In 1884, the first civil publishing company, Gwang-in, was established, and it published books on modern technology. Soon after, many newspapers competitively began. Dongnip Shinmun (Independence Newspaper) started on April 7th, 1896, being the first newspaper targeting the citizens, with the purpose of educating them. Hwangseong Shinmun started on September 5th, 1898, Jeguk Shinmun (Empire Newspaper) on August 10th, 1898, and finally, Daehan Maeil Shinbo started on July 18th, 1904 which gained the most diverse and the largest number of readers. (71)

IV.3.4 Societal Effect
            The spread of communicative technologies influenced the relationship between Japan and Korea and the surrounding nations, affecting their diplomatic policies. Japan, originally, was following a seclusion policy, Sakoku, continuing from the Edo period that started in 1615. However, this did not last long under the international ambience of globalization, and Meiji restoration began. During this restoration, Japan sent several expeditions abroad, simultaneously bringing foreign scholars in to assist Japan¡¯s modernization. (72) With these changes, Japan emphasized the importance of industrialization and education of the people, which can be seen in the Charter Oath of Meiji Restoration.
            1. An assembly shall be widely convoked, and all measures shall be decided by open discussion.
            2. High and low shall be of one mind, and the national economy and finances shall be greatly strengthened.
            3. All civil and military officials together, and the common people as well, shall all achieve their aspirations, and thus the people's minds shall not be made weary.
            4. Evil practices of the past shall be abandoned, and actions shall be based on international usage.
            5. Knowledge shall be sought all over the world, and the foundations of Imperial rule shall be strengthened.
            With these mottos, Japan eagerly started the development of communication, absorbing the new technologies of Western countries. On July 29th, 1858, Harris Treaty signed between the United States and Japan opened up eight ports to American merchants with extraterritoriality rights. In the 1860s, several Japanese Embassies were sent to the United States and Europe. (74)
            At the same time, Korea was still enforcing a seclusion policy, Shoi-guk. During the 1860s King Kojong was the main proponent of isolationism and persecuted foreign Catholics. However, this did not last long because of Japan¡¯s gunboat diplomacy that pressured Korea to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in February 27th, 1876, which unfairly opened up Korea¡¯s trade. On November 17th, 1905 the two countries signed Eulsa Treaty which made Korea the protectorate of Japan, and on August 29th, 1910 Korea was made the official territory of Japan. (75) During these years, the culture and technology of Japan were introduced into Korean society which brought about great shock among the people who were living with virtually no technology. This justified the stance of Japan that it was culturally superior to Korea and that it had its responsibility to teach and lead Korea to modernized world. Also, since the technologies were properties of Japan, Korea was largely dependent and had to spend a lot of money which served as Japan¡¯s economic benefit. However, Korea also showed some efforts to break down its walls by the end of this time period though changes of system such as the Gabo Reform of 1894, which was revolutionary in accepting other civilizations in all fields including new technologies, which would later lead to a significant change of lifestyle in Korea.

IV.4 Oceania
            Since it is located very far away from other continents, Australia has been more or less isolated from international affairs. Thus, the development of communication technologies that linked many countries around the world was important to Australia's diplomatic relationship. Common people of Australia have been using postal service. Australia mainly attained its technology from the United Kingdom, and the discussion of its interpersonal communication includes telegraph, and mass communication includes radio.

IV.1 Preexisting Communication
            Australia did not have a legitimate center for communication before the new introductions of technologies. Although Australia Post is the oldest continually operating organization, it still started in 1809. Even more, the postmaster did not even deliver the mails then. The first one to actually deliver the mails appeared in 1828. The delivery was made possible by horse or coach, from Sydney to Penrith, Parramatta, Liverpool, Windsor, Campbelltown, Newcastle, and Bathurst. (76) Since it was the primary communicative method that was widely used, Australia had to develop quicker. This was especially true when the sudden increase of population was brought by the immigration in the mid 19th century. Australia designed the world¡¯s first pictorial postage stamp, 'Sydney Views' in 1849, just nine years after the United Kingdom issued a prepaid postage stamp. In 1900, after the federation was founded, the postmaster took control of both mail and telegraph, increasing in power. (77) Still, postal service in Australia is the oldest and the most widely spread method used by common people.

IV.2 Interpersonal Communication
            In 1853, nine years after the telegraph was introduced in Europe, Australia adopted telegraph as its communication technology. Sponsored by the Victorian government, the telegraphic line was laid between Melbourne and Williamstown. By the mid 1860s all major cities, especially the colonial capitals, in Australia were linked by telegraph cable. (78) Finally, Australia was linked with other continents in 1870s, first with Asia, then with Europe and America. On 22nd August, 1872, the whole Australia was linked by Overland Telegraph with Indonesia through Port Darwin which eventually linked it to the United Kingdom, a job done by South Australians in less than two years. With this development, in the final years of the nineteenth century Australia sent more telegraphs per capita than any other nation. (79) In the beginning of the 20th century, the speed of telegraph was improved. By 1905, 220 words per minute could be transmitted through the telegraph line that linked to Perth. (80) It made telegraph easier and more efficient to use, which contributed to increase the number of users in Australia.

IV.3 Mass Communication
            Mass communication methods were introduced relatively late in Australia. Printing was the earliest out of all. In 1861, the government printer was employing 150 people at the time. By 1871, the register listed 21 printing establishments in Victoria employing steam power. Figures for printing firms rose to 95 by 1881 : 14 used steam, 43 employed gas, and 38 were hand-powered. The printing firms employed 2,378 males and 81 females. There were also 6 stationery manufactories in 1881. In 1891 the register included a table showing the progression of the trade through the past decade : stationery factories had risen from 6 to 11 by 1891; printing, lithography and paper bag factories had risen from 98 in 1882 to 162 in 1891; and one photo-lithography factory was established in 1890. By the end of the century, there were 193 printing firms (149 using gas, 4 using water, 29 being manual and 3 using electricity) employing 3,655 males and 379 females with 108 boys and 4 girls under the age of 15. There were also 14 stationery manufactories employing 481 males and 462 females. The introduction of Melbourne's first Linotype composing machines in the 1890s that were used for the company's journal publishing operations?the offices of the Herald newspaper soon followed. (81)

IV.4 Societal Effect
            Previously, Australia was an isolated island. Although the United Kingdom came to colonize the land and many immigrants flowed in, the long distance with other regions and Yellow Peril did not allow Australia to bond very well in the international society. Thus, many of its provinces started to be granted independence from 1823. However, the communicative methods that have been implemented in Australian society changed the scene. Australia, in need of a larger body that could incorporate separated provinces within, formed a federation and the Commonwealth of Australia on January 1st, 1900. (82) During this effort, it also connected to several countries outside with the communicative methods such as telegraph and telephone. This was as if the ¡°Australian colonies were connected with the grand electric chain which united all the nations of the earth,¡± as the postmaster general said on the day that Overland Telegraph was built. (83) With the development of communicative methods, separate provinces of Australia were able to be combined under the same federation and be connected to the international society.

V Conclusion
            This paper explored the development, spread, and usage of communication techniques in several regions from 1800 to 1914. Communication, having a significant impact on the way people live in a society, is directly linked to the social changes and history. Thus, development of communicative methods and changes in the dominant methods reflect the society as a whole, not just some random new inventions.
            For development, Western Europe and North America were selected as subjects of research, while for expansion, North Asia, East Asia and Oceania were selected. This dichotomy showed the influence of industrialism and globalization during the 19th century on communication. With industrialism, the obsession in time and the dependence in quantity increased the urgency of developing new technology. With globalization, imperialism and expanding international connection resulted in the spread of technology.
            It could be seen that for most of the regions, before the cutting-edge technologies were introduced, human-written and human-carried mail system was the most dominant method of communication used. However, with the development of technology, it changed to methods that are not human-made, such as electric signals sent through electric lines. Interpersonal communication developments included postal service, telegraph, and telephone, and mass communication included printing, radio, and photography and film.


1.      Fang 1997
2.      Vivian 2008
3.      ibid.
4.      Article: Industrial Revolution, Wikipedia
5.      ibid.
6.      ibid.
7.      History: Long Distance Telephone, Cybertelecom
8.      Article: Newspaper, Wikipedia
9.      ibid.
10.      Our History Though Post Key Dates, at The British Postal Museum and Archive
11.      Article: Postal System, The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition
12.      Article: Rowland Hill (postal reformer), Wikipedia
13.      Article: Telegraph, The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition,
14.      Article: Electrical telegraph, Wikipedia
15.      ibid.
16.      Kim 2000
17.      Article: Electrical telegraph, Wikipedia
18.      Article : Radio, Wikipedia
19.      Who Invented It
20.      ibid.
21.      ibid.
22.      Communications Historical Timeline, at Think Quest
23.      Article: History of the Motion Picture, The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition
24.      Article: History of Photography, The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition
25.      Article: Napoleonic Wars, Wikipedia
26.      Article: Concert of Europe, Wikipedia
27.      Spielvogel 2006
28.      Fang 1997
29.      Article: Education, Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition
30.      ibid.
31.      Fang 1997
32.      History of Photography Timeline, at
33.      Henkin 2006
34.      Who Invented It
35.      ibid.
36.      ibid.
37.      Huurdeman 2003
38.      United States Early Radio History
39.      ibid.
40.      Article: The Sun, Wikipedia
41.      Article: Great Moon Hoax, Wikipedia
42.      ibid.
43.      Typewriters - Qwerty - Typing Invention History, at,
44.      Moriarty 2005
45.      Article: Continentalism, Wikipedia
46.      Moriarty 2005
47.      The History of Education in America, at
48.      Article: History of Education, Canadian Encyclopedia
49.      ibid.
50.      The History of Education in America, at
51.      Article: Globalization, Wikipedia
52.      ibid.
53.      ibid.
54.      Article: Troika, Wikipedia
55.      The History and Development of Means of Communications in Russia, at the A. S. Popov Central Museum of Communications
56.      Article: Aerosani, Wikipedia
57.      The History of the Central Telegraph, Central Telegraph
58.      Article : Russian-American telegraph, Wikipedia
59.      'Electrotyping' in Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th Edition
60.      Article: Narodnaya Volya, Wikipedia
61.      A Brief History of the History of Censorship in Russia in 19th and 20th Century
62.      Cha 2007
63.      Article: What Is to Be Done ?, Wikipedia
64.      Article : Bongsoo (beacon), Naver Encyclopedia
65.      Article : Pabal (station), Naver Encyclopedia
66.      A Chronology of Telegraph and Telephony, NTT Digital Museum

67.      Jung n.d.
68.      A Chronology of Telegraph and Telephony, NTT Digital Museum
69.      Jung n.d.
70.      Article: Japanese Newspaper, Wikipedia
71.      ibid.
72.      Waswo 1996
73.      ibid.
74.      ibid.
75.      Jung n.d.
76.      History of Australia, Australian Government
77.      ibid.
78.      Article: Australian Telegraphic History, Wikipedia
79.      History of Communication in Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics
80.      Article: Australian Telegraphic History, Wikipedia
81.      Barry n.d.
82.      Clark 1993
83.      ibid.


Note : websites quoted below were visited in November-December 2010.
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2.      Clark, M. (1993), A History of Australia, Melbourne University Press, on-line version provided by google books
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4.      Fang, I. (1997), A History of Mass Communication: Six Information Revolutions, Focal Press
5.      Henkin, D.M. (2006), The Postal Age: The Emergence of Modern Communications in Nineteenth-Century America, University of Chicago Press, on-line version provided by google books
6.      Holcombe, C. (2010), A History of East Asia: Form the Origins to the Twenty-first Century, Cambridge Universtiy Press, on-line version provided by google books
7.      Huurdeman, A.A. (2003), The Worldwide History of Telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., on-line version provided by google books
8.      Jung, H., Korean History Aptitude Exam Preparatory Book (Level 2), EBS (in Korean)
9.      Kim, J.T. (2000), Good-bye Gutenberg, Joongang New Millenium (in Korean)
10.      Moriarty, J.T. (2005), Manifest Destiny: A Primary Source History of America's Territorial Expansion in the 19th Century, The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., on-line version provided by google books
11.      Spielvogel, J.J. (2006), Western Civilization: Since 1500, Thomson Wadsworth
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13.      Waswo, A. (1996), Modern Japanese Society 1868-1994, Oxford University Press
14.      Woods, M. & Woods, M. B. (2005), The History of Communication, Twenty-first Century Books
15.      Article : History of Education, Canadian Encyclopedia,
16.      Article : Education, Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Edition,
17.      Article : History of Photography, The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition,
18.      Article : History of the Motion Picture, The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition,
19.      Article : Postal System, The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition,
20.      Article : Printing (publishing), The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition,
21.      Article : Radio, The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition,
22.      Article : Telegraph, The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition,
23.      Article : Telephone, The Encyclopaedia Britannica Online edition,
24.      Article : Bongsoo (beacon), Naver Encyclopedia, in Korean,
25.      Article : Pabal (station), Naver Encyclopedia, In Korean,
26.      Article : Aerosani, Wikipedia,
27.      Article : Australian Telegraphic History, Wikipedia,
28.      Article : Communication, Wikipedia,
29.      Article : Concert of Europe, Wikipedia,
30.      Article : Continentalism, Wikipedia,
31.      Article : Electrical telegraph, Wikipedia,
32.      Article : Globalization, Wikipedia,
33.      Article : Great Moon Hoax, Wikipedia,
34.      Article : Industrial Revolution, Wikipedia,
35.      Article : Japanese Newspaper, Wikipedia,
36.      Article : Napoleonic Wars, Wikipedia,
37.      Article : Narodnaya Volya, Wikipedia,
38.      Article : Newspaper, Wikipedia,
39.      Article : Radio, Wikipedia,
40.      Article : Rowland Hill (postal reformer), Wikipedia,
41.      Article : Russian-American telegraph, Wikipedia,
42.      Article : The Sun, Wikipedia,
43.      Article : Troika, Wikipedia,
44.      Article : What Is to Be Done ?, Wikipedia,
45.      Barry, I., Report for the 'History of Printing in Australia' Project,
46.      Cha, S.W., Nihilism in Russia 1860-1881, WHKMLA 2007,
47.      Article : 1800-1860: Communication: Chronology, at,
48.      A Brief History of the History of Censorship in Russia in 19th and 20th Century, at Beacon for Freedom of Expression,
49.      A Chronology of Telegraph and Telephony, at NTT Digital Museum,
50.      Exploring Japan: Meiji-Enlightened Rule, at Art Gallery of Great Victoria,;jsessionid=B3F80DFA286323F9269933247D58C9A8?method=preview&lang=EN&id=89
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52.      History: Long Distance Telephone, Cybertelecom,
53.      History of Australia, at Australian Government,
54.      History of Australia, at,
55.      History of Canada, at,
56.      History of Communications in Australia, at Australian Bureau of Statistics,
57.      History of Photography Timeline, at,
58.      Japan, 1800-1900 A.D., at the Metropolitan Museum of Art,®ion=eaj#/Key-Events
59.      Our History Though Post Key Dates, at The British Postal Museum and Archive,
60.      Overland Telegraph Line from Adelaide to Darwin, at Flinders Ranges Research,
61.      Some Dates in the History of Cultural Technologies, at,
62.      The History and Development of Means of Communications in Russia, at the A. S. Popov Central Museum of Communications,
63.      The History of Education in America, at,
64.      The History of the Central Telegraph, at Central Telegraph,
65.      United States Early Radio History,
66.      Who Invented It,

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